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Hydraulics Electrohydraulics Festo worldwide Australia Festo Pty. Ltd. Head Office (Melbourne) 179-187 Browns Road P.O. Box 261 Noble Park Vic. 3174 Tel. +61(0)3 97 95 95 55, Fax +61(0)3 97 95 97 87 E-mail: info_au@festo.com France Festo Eurl ZA des Maisons Rouges 8 rue du clos sainte Catherine 94360 Bry-sur-Marne Tel. +33 (0) 820 20 46 40 (numéro indigo), Fax +33 (0) 820 20 46 41 E-mail: info_fr@festo.com Austria Festo Gesellschaft m.b.H. Linzer Straße 227 1140 Wien Tel. +43 (0)1 910 75-0, F
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  Textbook  Festo Didactic574181 en HydraulicsElectrohydraulics Fundamentals T B P A  BATPM1 M2   Order no. 574181 Revision level: 08/2013 Authors: Renate Aheimer, Christine Löffler, Dieter Merkle, Georg Prede, Klaus Rupp, Dieter Scholz, Burkhard Schrader Editor: Frank Ebel Graphics: Doris Schwarzenberger Layout: 09/2013, Frank Ebel © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 73770 Denkendorf, Germany, 2013 Internet: www.festo-didactic.com E-mail: did@de.festo.com Reproduction, distribution and utilisation of this document, as well as the communication of its contents to others without explicit authorisation, is prohibited. Offenders shall be held liable for damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to file patent, utility model and registered design applications.   © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 574181 3   Contents Preface  ________________________________________________________________________________ 10 1 The functions of a hydraulic system  __________________________________________________ 11 1.1 Hydraulics – what does it mean? _____________________________________________________ 11 1.2 Stationary hydraulics ______________________________________________________________ 11 1.3 Mobile hydraulics _________________________________________________________________ 12 1.4 Attributes of hydraulics ____________________________________________________________ 13 2 Physical fundamentals of hydraulics  _________________________________________________ 15 2.1 Pressure ________________________________________________________________________ 15 2.2 Pressure transmission _____________________________________________________________ 18 2.3 Force transmission ________________________________________________________________ 19 2.4 Displacement ratio ________________________________________________________________ 20 2.5 Pressure boosting _________________________________________________________________ 21 2.6 Volumetric flow rate _______________________________________________________________ 22 2.7 Continuity equation _______________________________________________________________ 22 2.8 Pressure measurement ____________________________________________________________ 23 2.9 Temperature measurement _________________________________________________________ 24 2.10 Volumetric flow rate measurement ___________________________________________________ 24 2.11 Types of flow _____________________________________________________________________ 25 2.12 Friction, heat, pressure drop ________________________________________________________ 27 2.13 Energy and power _________________________________________________________________ 31 2.13.1 Energy __________________________________________________________________________ 31 2.13.2 Power __________________________________________________________________________ 34 2.14 Cavitation _______________________________________________________________________ 37 2.15 Throttle points ___________________________________________________________________ 38 3 Hydraulic fluids  __________________________________________________________________ 40 3.1 Functions of hydraulic fluids ________________________________________________________ 40 3.2 Types of hydraulic fluid ____________________________________________________________ 41 3.3 Characteristics and requirements ____________________________________________________ 42 3.4 Viscosity ________________________________________________________________________ 43 4 Components of the power supply section  _____________________________________________ 47 4.1 Drive ___________________________________________________________________________ 47 4.2 Pump ___________________________________________________________________________ 48 4.3 Couplings _______________________________________________________________________ 55 4.4 Tanks ___________________________________________________________________________ 55 4.5 Filters ___________________________________________________________________________ 57 4.5.1 Return filter ______________________________________________________________________ 59  Contents 4  © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 574181 4.5.2 Intake filters _____________________________________________________________________ 59 4.5.3 Pressure filters ___________________________________________________________________ 60 4.5.4 Filter arrangement ________________________________________________________________ 60 4.5.5 Bypass filtering ___________________________________________________________________ 63 4.5.6 Contamination indicators ___________________________________________________________ 63 4.5.7 Determining the differential pressure of a pressure filter _________________________________ 64 4.6 Cooling _________________________________________________________________________ 65 4.7 Heating _________________________________________________________________________ 66 4.8 Hydraulic accumulators ____________________________________________________________ 67 4.8.1 Design and mode of operation _______________________________________________________ 67 4.8.2 Piston accumulators _______________________________________________________________ 69 4.8.3 Diaphragm accumulators ___________________________________________________________ 70 4.8.4 Bladder accumulators _____________________________________________________________ 71 4.8.5 Safety regulations _________________________________________________________________ 72 4.8.6 Safety Equipment _________________________________________________________________ 73 5 Drives  __________________________________________________________________________ 74 5.1 Hydraulic cylinders ________________________________________________________________ 74 5.1.1 Single-acting cylinders _____________________________________________________________ 74 5.1.2 Double-acting cylinders ____________________________________________________________ 75 5.1.3 End-position cushioning ____________________________________________________________ 78 5.1.4 Seals ___________________________________________________________________________ 79 5.1.5 Mounting options _________________________________________________________________ 80 5.1.6 Exhaust _________________________________________________________________________ 80 5.1.7 Characteristic data ________________________________________________________________ 80 5.1.8 Resistance to buckling _____________________________________________________________ 82 5.1.9 Selecting a cylinder _______________________________________________________________ 84 5.2 Hydraulic motors _________________________________________________________________ 85 6 Characteristic values and designs of hydraulic valves  ___________________________________ 88 6.1 Characteristic values of valves _______________________________________________________ 88 6.2 Actuating force ___________________________________________________________________ 89 6.3 Designs _________________________________________________________________________ 89 6.3.1 Poppet valves ____________________________________________________________________ 90 6.3.2 Slide valves ______________________________________________________________________ 91 6.4 Switching overlap _________________________________________________________________ 92 6.5 Control edges ____________________________________________________________________ 94 7 Pressure regulators  _______________________________________________________________ 95 7.1 Pressure-relief valves ______________________________________________________________ 95 7.2 Pressure-reducing valves ___________________________________________________________ 97
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