High School Biology - Problem Drill 12: Nucleic Acids

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High School Biology - Problem Drill 12: Nucleic Acids Question No. 1 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 1. Which of the following is
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High School Biology - Problem Drill 12: Nucleic Acids Question No. 1 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 1. Which of the following is not correct about DNA s function? Question #01 (A) Serves as genetic material. (B) Directs the synthesis of mrna. (C) Maintains cell shape. (D) Forms chromosome structure. (E) The blueprint for all of the cell s proteins. DNA is the genetic material. DNA is transcribed to make RNA. C. Correct! DNA does not maintain cell shape. A DNA molecule makes a chromosome. DNA is the blueprint of the cell itself. DNA has many roles: 1) the genetic material which is passed on from one cell to the next, 2) transcription to mrna in protein synthesis, 3) wound up and packaged into DNA for storage, and 4) the blueprint for all of the cell s proteins. However, DNA is information, not a worker molecule. Thus, it does not maintain cell shape. That is the job of the cytoskeleton and vacuoles. The correct answer is (C). Question No. 2 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 2. Which of the following statement about the levels of organization and structure of chromosomes is true? Question #02 (A) DNA is packed into chromosomes in cells. (B) RNA is packed into chromosomes in cells. (C) The correct order is: Nucleotides gene chromosome - double helix. (D) The correct order is: Nucleotides gene histones - chromosome - double helix. (E) Chromosomes have a p arm (longest) and a q arm (shortest). A. Correct! DNA is packed into chromosomes in cells. DNA is packed into chromosomes in cells. The correct order is: Nucleotides gene DNA strand double helix nucleosome chromatin - chromosome. The correct order is: Nucleotides gene DNA strand double helix nucleosome chromatin - chromosome. Chromosomes have a p arm (smallest) and a q arm (longest). Chromosomes are made up of DNA. The short arm of the chromosome is called the p arm and the long arm is called the q arm. Spindle fibers attach to the centromere during cell division. DNA is packed into chromosomes in cells. The correct order is: Nucleotides gene DNA strand double helix nucleosome chromatin - chromosome. The correct answer is (A). Question No. 3 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 3. Which of the following statements about DNA is true? Question #03 (A) Four bases make up DNA: Adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). (B) Four bases make up DNA: Adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). (C) Adenine only pairs with Guanine, and Cytosine only pairs with Thymine. (D) Adenine only pairs with Thymine, and Uracil only pairs with Cytosine. (E) DNA is made up of a nitrogenous base + ribose + phosphate base. A. Correct! Four bases make up DNA: Adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). Four bases make up DNA: Adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). Adenine only pairs with Thymine, and Guanine only pairs with Cytosine. Adenine only pairs with Thymine, and Guanine only pairs with Cytosine. DNA is made up of a nitrogenous base + deoxyribose + phosphate base. DNA is made up of four bases: Adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). A only pairs with T, and G only pairs with C in DNA. DNA has a phosphate backbone. Base pairing connects two strands of DNA together. The two strands wrap around each other and form a double helix structure. Each DNA strand has a 3 and 5 end. The two strands run in opposite directions (anti-parallel). The correct answer is (A). Question No. 4 of Which of the following statements about DNA replication is true? Question #04 (A) During replication, DNA is tightly packed and each strand copied. This results in one parent strand being in each new daughter molecule. This is known as semiconservative replication. (B) During replication, DNA is unwound and only one strand is copied. This results in one parent strand being in each new daughter molecule. This is known as semiconservative replication. (C) DNA Polymerase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA, creating the replication fork. (D) DNA Helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA, creating the replication fork. (E) DNA is copied in the 5 to 3 direction on the leading strand. The lagging strand is copied in spurts creating Okazaki fragments. During replication, DNA is unwound and each strand copied. This results in one parent strand being in each new daughter molecule. This is known as semiconservative replication. During replication, DNA is unwound and each strand copied. This results in one parent strand being in each new daughter molecule. This is known as semiconservative replication. DNA Helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA, creating the replication fork. D. Correct! DNA Helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA, creating the replication fork. DNA is copied in the 3 to 5 direction on both strands. The lagging strand is copied in spurts creating Okazaki fragments. During DNA replication, the DNA is unwound and each strand copied. This results in one parent strand being in each new daughter molecule. This is known as semiconservative replication. DNA uses the original strands as templates to copy the new strands. DNA Helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA, creating the replication fork. DNA polymerase binds each strand; one is the lagging and the other is the leading strand. DNA polymerase extends the DNA using the original strand as the template. DNA is copied in the 3 to 5 direction on both strands. The lagging strand is copied in spurts creating Okazaki fragments. The correct answer is (D). Question No. 5 of Which of the following statements about the nucleic acid central dogma is true? Question #05 (A) The central dogma states that: DNA is transcribed into RNA and then RNA is translated into proteins. (B) The central dogma states that: DNA is transcribed into RNA and then RNA is translated into ribosomes. (C) In preparation for protein translation, the DNA is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. (D) In preparation for protein translation, the mrna transcript is imported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. (E) The incoming mrna binds to trna, carrying with it the correct amino acid. A. Correct! The central dogma states that: DNA is transcribed into RNA and then RNA is translated into proteins. The central dogma states that: DNA is transcribed into RNA and then RNA is translated into proteins. In preparation for protein translation, the mrna transcript is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In preparation for protein translation, the mrna transcript is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The incoming trna binds to mrna, carrying with it the correct amino acid. DNA stores all of the information a cell needs to stay alive, in the form of genes. The central dogma states that: DNA is transcribed into RNA and then RNA is translated into proteins. In preparation for protein translation, the mrna transcript is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. During translation, the ribosome and mrna come together and the incoming trna brings in the correct amino acid dictated by the mrna codon. The correct answer is (A). Question No. 6 of Which of the following statements about RNA is true? Question #06 (A) Transfer RNA (trna) transports amino acids to the ribosomes during transcription. (B) Transfer RNA (trna) transports amino acids to the ribosomes during translation. (C) Ribosomal RNA (rrna) forms complexes with DNA and is essential for the translation of the mrna sequence. (D) Ribosomal RNA (rrna) forms complexes with ribosomal proteins and is essential for the translation of the trna sequence. (E) Small nuclear RNA (snrna) guides the chemical modification of rrnas and other RNA genes (trnas, snrnas). Transfer RNA (trna) transports amino acids to the ribosomes during translation. B. Correct! Transfer RNA (trna) transports amino acids to the ribosomes during translation. Ribosomal RNA (rrna) forms complexes with ribosomal proteins and is essential for the translation of the mrna sequence. Ribosomal RNA (rrna) forms complexes with ribosomal proteins and is essential for the translation of the mrna sequence. Small nuclear RNA (snrna) forms complexes with proteins used in eukaryotic RNA processing, e.g. exon splicing, intron removal. RNA (ribonucleic acid) uses the base uracil (U) in place of thymine (T), A:U. In DNA, A (adenine) pairs with T thymine). mrna: messenger RNA encodes the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide and is copied from DNA. trna: transfer RNA transports amino acids to the ribosomes during translation. rrna: ribosomal RNA forms complexes with ribosomal proteins and is essential for the translation of the mrna sequence. snrna: small nuclear RNA forms complexes with proteins used in eukaryotic RNA processing, e.g. exon splicing, intron removal. snornas: small nucleolar RNAs guide chemical modification of rrnas and other RNA genes (trnas, snrnas). They are classed as snrna. The correct answer is (B). Question No. 7 of Which of the following statements about the steps of transcription is true? Question #07 (A) DNA polymerase binds to DNA at the promoter, a sequence of bases (such as TATA) that the polymerase recognizes. (B) RNA polymerase binds to RNA at the promoter, a sequence of bases (such as TATA) that the polymerase recognizes. (C) RNA polymerase extends the mrna, using each original DNA strand as a template to copy a new mrna strand, replacing Thymine with Uracil. (D) DNA polymerase extends the mrna, using each original DNA strand as a template to copy a new mrna strand, replacing Thymine with Uracil. (E) RNA polymerase reads the DNA bases until it reaches the stop sequence, a certain base code then transcription begins. RNA polymerase binds to DNA at the promoter, a sequence of bases (such as TATA) that the polymerase recognizes. RNA polymerase binds to DNA at the promoter, a sequence of bases (such as TATA) that the polymerase recognizes. C. Correct! RNA polymerase extends the mrna, using each original DNA strand as a template to copy a new mrna strand, replacing Thymine with Uracil. RNA polymerase extends the mrna, using each original DNA strand as a template to copy a new mrna strand, replacing Thymine with Uracil. RNA polymerase reads the DNA bases until it reaches the start sequence, a certain base code then transcription begins. RNA polymerase binds to DNA at the promoter, a sequence of bases (such as TATA) that the polymerase recognizes. RNA polymerase reads the DNA bases until it reaches the start sequence, a certain base code. RNA polymerase extends the mrna, using each original DNA strand as a template to copy a new mrna strand (remember that U replace T). RNA polymerase stops making mrna when it reaches a stop sequence on the DNA. This mrna is called a pre-mrna because it s not complete yet. The correct answer is (C). Question No. 8 of Which of the following statements about proteins is true? Question #08 (A) There are 18 amino acid residues. The amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond. (B) There are 20 amino acid residues. The amino acids are joined together by hydrogen bonds. (C) Typically, more than one gene encodes for one protein. (D) Typically, one gene encodes for one protein. This is called the one gene-one protein hypothesis. (E) The sequence of amino acids is called the secondary structure of a protein. There are 20 amino acid residues. The amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond. There are 20 amino acid residues. The amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond. Typically, one gene encodes for one protein. This is called the one gene-one protein hypothesis. D. Correct! Typically, one gene encodes for one protein. This is called the one gene-one protein hypothesis. The sequence of amino acids is called the primary structure of a protein. There are 20 amino acid residues. The amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond. The amino acid sequence of a protein is determined by the DNA sequence of the gene. Typically, one gene encodes for one protein. This is called the one geneone protein hypothesis. The sequence of amino acids is called the primary structure of a protein. The correct answer is (D). Question No. 9 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem statement and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 9. Which of the following statements about the genetic code is true? Question #09 (A) A codon is a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid. (B) A codon is a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for a DNA base. (C) There are 32 possible codon combinations that code for a total of 20 amino acids. (D) There are 60 possible codon combinations that code for a total of 20 amino acids. (E) The code is said to be degenerate because there is only one codon for every amino acid. A. Correct! A codon is a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid. A codon is a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid. There are 64 possible codon combinations that code for a total of 20 amino acids. There are 64 possible codon combinations that code for a total of 20 amino acids. The code is said to be degenerate because there is more than one codon for every amino acid. A codon is a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid. mrna is read 3 bases at a time. Every three bases that code for an amino acid is called a codon.there are 64 possible codon combinations that code for a total of 20 amino acids. The code is said to be degenerate because there is more than one codon for every amino acid. The correct answer is (A). Question No. 10 of Which of the following statements about mutations is true? Question #10 (A) A gene mutation is a permanent change in the mrna sequence that makes up a gene. (B) A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. (C) Gene mutations only occur by inheriting them from a parent. (D) Gene mutations are only acquired during a person s lifetime. (E) DNA damage is caused by radiation, low glucose levels and mutagenic chemicals. A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. B. Correct! A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Gene mutations occur in two ways: (1) they can be inherited from a parent or (2) acquired during a person s lifetime. Gene mutations occur in two ways: (1) they can be inherited from a parent or (2) acquired during a person s lifetime. DNA damage is caused by radiation, UV exposure or mutagenic chemicals. A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Gene mutations occur in two ways: (1) they can be inherited from a parent or (2) acquired during a person s lifetime. DNA damage is caused by radiation, UV exposure or mutagenic chemicals. Acquired (or somatic) mutations occur in the DNA of individual cells at some time during a person s life due to environmental factors. Acquired mutations in somatic cells cannot be passed on to offspring. Mutations that are passed from parent to child are hereditary mutations or germline mutations. Mutations that are only in egg or sperm, or those that happen immediately after fertilization, are de novo mutations. The correct answer is (B).
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