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VOLUME 1, BOOK 1 April 15, 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction Purpose Types of Buildings Description of Buildings Old Law Tenements-Tenements Built Before 4/12/
VOLUME 1, BOOK 1 April 15, 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction Purpose Types of Buildings Description of Buildings Old Law Tenements-Tenements Built Before 4/12/ New Law Tenements-Tenements Built On or After 4/12/ Fireproof Multiple Dwellings Including Housing Project Buildings General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings General Operations-Engine Companies General Operations-Ladder Companies Battalion Chiefs Miscellaneous Problems and Key Points Old Law Tenements General Operations Miscellaneous Problems and Key Points New Law Tenements Introduction General Operations-Engine Companies General Operations-Ladder Companies Battalion Chiefs High Rise Fireproof Multiple Dwelling Fires (75 or more in height) General Operations st Engine to Arrive st Ladder to Arrive Chief Officer Command Positions Life Rescue Operations Standpipe and Sprinklers Building Features Low Rise Fireproof Multiple Dwellings (less than 75 in height)... 80 GLOSSARY Accelerant Air shaft Auto exposure Back stretch Beam Bearing wall Bulkhead Casement window Class A Multiple Dwelling Class B Multiple Dwelling Coaming Cockloft Column Compactor Cul-de-sac Drop ladder A flammable liquid or other substance used by arsonists to cause a fire to spread rapidly. A space between buildings or between rooms within a building, provided for the purpose of admitting air and light to rooms. The extension of fire via the exterior of a building from a fire originating in the same building. A method of stretching a hoseline. Members pull off sufficient hose at the location of the fire; engine then proceeds to the hydrant. The hose peels off the back of the engine as it travels to the hydrant. A horizontal supporting member in building construction. A wall of a building which carries any load other than its own weight. A structure on the roof of a building which is built over, or encloses, a stairway, elevator, dumbwaiter or other building facility. A metal framed window which opens outward. A building housing three or more families in which residency is permanent in nature. A multiple dwelling which is occupied transiently. A raised frame around a floor or roof opening or scuttle to keep water from running in. A space between the roof and the top floor ceiling. A vertical structural member in building construction. A device for crushing garbage and trash into a small space prior to removal from the premises. A portion of a dead end road where vehicles can turn around. A vertical ladder normally held in the up position at the second floor balcony of the fire escape by a hook. When this ladder is to be used, the hook is released and the drop ladder is lowered or dropped to the ground. Care must be exercised to make certain that no one is struck by this ladder when it is lowered or dropped to the ground. i Dumbwaiter ECC A device for collecting garbage from apartments by means of a wooden car which is raised and lowered in a vertical shaft by means of a rope and a pulley. In most buildings having these dumbwaiters they are no longer used. Engine company chauffeur. Exposure A system of designating the areas or buildings which are adjacent to the 1, 2, 3, 4 fire building. When facing the main entrance to the fire building, exposure 1 is in front of the building, 2 is on the left, 3 is to the rear of the fire building and 4 is on the right. Fire escape Fire partition Fireproof construction Fire stopping Fire wall Gooseneck ladder In-line pumping K tool An emergency means of egress from a building consisting of metal balconies on the outside of a building connected by ladders to each other and to the ground. Some fire escapes have a ladder from the top floor balcony to the roof. A partition provided for the purpose of protecting life by furnishing an area of exit, or refuge, and having a fire resistive rating of at least three hours as per the 1938 Building Code. A building in which the walls, floors, structural members and stairway enclosures are made of non-combustible materials with fire resistive ratings as required by the Building Code. The closing of all concealed draft openings to form a barrier against the spread of fire with non-combustible materials. A fire-rated, smoke tight wall having protected openings designed to restrict the spread of fire from one structure to another, or from one area of a structure to another. It extends continuously from the foundation to, or through, the roof with sufficient structural stability to withstand the collapse of construction on either side of it. Fire Wall ratings for 1968 BC are rated at 4 hours; 2008 BC are rated at 2 or 3 hours depending on occupancy. A vertical ladder, the side rails of which are curved at the top. This type of ladder is sometimes used between the top floor balcony of a fire escape and the roof. A Procedure in which an engine is placed close to a fire and receives its water supply through a hoseline stretched between the engine and a hydrant. A forcible entry tool used for pulling lock cylinders. ii Raised roof Return Riding list Scissor Stairs Scuttle Shielded lock Single room occupancy Size-up Unprotected steel Ventilation Window gate A roof which is raised above the roof beams and supported by 2 x 4 s. The extent to which it is raised varies, so as to provide proper drainage on the roof. The result is a large open cockloft where fire can spread easily. Also called an inverted, reversed or rain roof. The interior surface of a scuttle or skylight between the roof and the top floor ceiling. A list of members on duty. One copy is kept on the apparatus and one copy is carried by the officer on duty. This list (Form EBF-4) also shows riding positions, tools assigned, masks assigned and group numbers for each firefighter on the list. Two enclosed stairs separated by rated walls contained in a single stair shaft. Scissor stairs may be installed in multiple dwellings rather than requiring stairs to be remote, and are counted as two separate exits. Scissor stair exit doors are placed no less than 15 apart in the public hallway. An opening in the roof or a floor fitted with a lid. A lock which is protected by a steel plate to prevent unlawful entry. A multiple dwelling in which the apartments, which were formerly rented to families, are now rented as single rooms to unrelated people. These occupants use the kitchen and bathroom facilities in common. An estimate of the conditions and problems of a fire or emergency situation. Steel structural components of a building which do not have any fire resistive covering such as concrete, brick, asbestos, etc. The controlled and coordinated removal of heat and smoke from a structure, replacing the escaping gases with fresh air. This exchange is bi-directional with heat and smoke exhausting at the top and air flowing in towards the fire at the bottom. The fire will pull the additional air flow into the building towards the fire which can intensify the fire conditions. This exchange can occur by opening doors, windows or roof structures. Coordinated and controlled ventilation will facilitate quicker extinguishment and limit fire spread. A folding gate placed at a window to prevent intruders from entering. The type that is approved by the Board of Standards & Appeals does not have any locks. iii 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 PURPOSE To describe certain buildings, listed below, which comprise the major portion of the multiple dwellings in New York City. To point out the problems and features of such buildings with regard to fires. To establish methods of operating at fires in such buildings and recommend precautions that should be taken. All members shall comply with the provisions of Firefighting Procedures, Volume 4, Book 1, Chapter 1 titled Safety Team. When giving assignments, the Officer on duty shall ensure members are reminded of their designations as safety team members. These members must be aware that this designation is based on their unit s order of arrival at the box and will change as additional units arrive. 1.2 TYPES OF BUILDINGS Old Law Tenements (tenements built before 4/12/1901) New Law Tenements (tenements built on or after 4/12/1901 and before 4/18/1929) Non-fireproof multiple dwellings built on or after 4/18/1929. Fireproof multiple dwellings, including housing project buildings. Note: It is not intended to describe and date each law that affects the above listed types of multiple dwellings. It is almost impossible, when arriving at a fire in one of these buildings, to tell the age of the building, nor is that so necessary. It is sufficient to know the general features of the building and this can be accomplished at a glance if the classification of the building is known; namely, Old Law Tenement, New Law Tenement, newer non-fireproof multiple dwelling or fireproof multiple dwelling. 1 2. DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS 2.1 OLD LAW TENEMENTS BUILT BEFORE 4/12/1901 (Figure 1) Three to seven stories in height. 20' or 25' wide. 50' to 85' deep. Class 3, non-fireproof construction (brick walls, wood floor beams and wood floors) Two means of egress from each apartment, almost always consisting of an interior stairway and a fire escape. Originally the stairs and stairway enclosures were wood with wood lath and plaster partitions. In 1934, most of these buildings were required to fire retard the stairway enclosure. Stairway to the cellar is located inside the building, usually beneath the interior stairway. To provide light and air to each room, shafts of different shapes and sizes are provided between adjoining buildings. (Figure 2) Two to four apartments on each floor. When the building has four windows per floor and no front fire escape, it usually indicates two railroad flats with a rear fire escape (Figure 3). Railroad flats are those apartments which extend from the front of the building to the rear. There are usually two of these apartments on each floor. This does not necessarily apply to a corner building. When the building has four windows per floor and a front fire escape, it usually indicates three or four apartments per floor with another fire escape in the rear. The ever dangerous exception to this is buildings with railroad flats whose secondary means of egress is a front fire escape. The absence of a rear fire escape is of major concern for the safety of the operating forces. This information should be relayed immediately to the IC. 2 2.2 NEW LAW TENEMENTS BUILT ON OR AFTER 4/12/1901 AND BEFORE Generally six or seven stories high. 35' to 50' wide. 85' in depth. Five to six apartments per floor. The first floor (cellar ceiling) is of fireproof construction and unpierced. The entrance to the cellar is by way of exterior stairs. The interior stairs are fireproof and enclosed in partitions of fireproof construction. Apartment doors are constructed of fire resistant materials. The second means of egress is either another stairway or an exterior fire escape. The fire escape is more generally found in these buildings. All interior walls and furred partitions are required to be fire stopped at each story. Steel I beams were introduced to carry floor joists which couldn't span the enlarged floor areas. These steel beams generally were supported by masonry walls. 2.3 NEW LAW TENEMENTS BUILT BETWEEN 1916 AND 1929 (Figure 5) They had a much larger floor area, e.g. 150' x 200'. To avoid being required to be built of fireproof construction, the floor areas were broken up into areas of 2,500 square feet or less. This means that between some apartments there are brick or fireproof partitions which effectively limit the horizontal spread of fire. However, these dividing walls only go as high as the ceiling of the top floor. This results in a very large undivided cockloft area. Fire can, and often does, spread throughout this large cockloft area. Unprotected steel beams are used to support some of the wood floor joists. These steel beams are supported by vertical steel columns which run the height of the building. Wooden floor joists (beams) run horizontally from brick wall to a steel girder or from a steel girder to a steel girder. There are dumbwaiter shafts located in the apartments. In most cases, 2 apartments share 1 dumbwaiter. They terminate on the roof in a bulkhead with a skylight on top. 3 Elevators are provided in some buildings. They run from the cellar to the top floor with a bulkhead on the roof. Entrance to the basement is by a side or rear door at that level, accessed via an exterior stair from the first floor, or through a passageway located in the front of the building. Note: Because of the size and complexity of the larger type non-fireproof multiple dwellings, more complete descriptions are provided in Section NFP MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT ON OR AFTER 4/18/1929 (Figure 6) After 4/18/1929, multiple dwellings were no longer called Tenements and became known as Apartment Houses. It must be emphasized that no matter what protection a law provides, it cannot be depended upon entirely in these NFP buildings due to renovations, settling of the building, original shoddy workmanship or repair work. Between 1930 and 1940, firewalls were required to be carried to the underside of the roof boards, and after 1940, to the top of the roof boards. These changes were designed to effectively reduce the size of the cockloft and limit fire spread. The size of the area to be enclosed by fire walls is 3,000 square feet. This is larger than the area of an OLT, and it should be realized that there are several of these areas under one roof of later built multiple dwellings. Buildings of extraordinary dimensions are now being built. They include various designs which, although they comply with the 3,000 sq. ft. rule, result in interior public hallways hundreds of feet long. The limitation of height (six stories or 75 feet) for NFP residence buildings is bypassed for buildings that are built on grades. It is not unusual to find a NFP multiple dwelling seven, eight, or nine stories in height with no standpipe. Fire escapes as a second means of egress are still very common. Some of the newer buildings may have 10 or more. Some of the newer buildings have non storage garages below. A sprinkler system may be required, depending when the building was erected. 4 2.5 FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS INCLUDING HOUSING PROJECT BUILDINGS May be low-rise or high-rise of varying height. Irregularly shaped clusters of buildings: Double H, Star, rectangular, semi-circular, that may have elevators, incinerators or compactors, standpipes and limited sprinklers. Well constructed and maintained. Rarely exposure problems. Life Hazard: The potential exists for rapid fire development and extensive smoke on the fire floor and all the floors above, especially the top floor. Smoke will travel via vertical shafts, most notably the stairwells and elevator shafts. Usually poured concrete floors, cinder block or gypsum block walls. Newer buildings use gypsum board (sheetrock) in the interior construction. Apartments may be served by two remote, fireproof stairways, generally leading to a public hallway, or sometimes opening directly into the apartments. Scissor stairs may be installed in multiple dwellings rather than requiring stairs to be remote, and are counted as two separate exits. The smaller four to six story fireproof buildings usually have one fireproof stairway, which may be open or enclosed and runs from first floor to roof. First floor may contain: Large stores, supermarkets, day care centers, clinics, offices, the size of which may cover several apartments on the second floor. Cellars and basements may contain: Parking garages, laundry rooms, meeting rooms, stock areas for the first floor stores, tenant storage, incinerator or compactor rooms, or loading docks. 5 3. GENERAL: NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS 3.1 A great deal of information in this bulletin pertains to more than one type of building. To avoid repetition, the following material is applicable to Old Law Tenements and New Law Tenements: 3.2 GENERAL OPERATIONS - ENGINE COMPANIES Exercise caution when using the front suction inlet so as not to block out arriving ladder apparatus. Place the apparatus as close to parked cars as possible and use the side suction inlet. This will permit an aerial ladder or tower ladder to get in front of the fire building if necessary In most cases, the first line is stretched via the interior stairs to the location of the fire. The purpose of this line is to protect the primary means of egress for occupants evacuating the building and to confine and extinguish the fire. An exception to stretching the first line up the interior stairs may be made when flame is issuing from windows opening onto the fire escape and endangering people trying to come down the fire escape. In this case, the first line may be operated from the street to protect people on the fire escape. A second line should be promptly stretched to the interior of the building. If the entrance door to the building is self-closing and equipped with a locking device, the first member entering the building should use a chock, rug or other means of preventing the door from locking and thereby delaying other members trying to enter the building There are other instances in which engine company operations may vary from the usual procedure of stretching to the origin of the fire via the interior stairs, such as store fires, cellar fires and dumbwaiter fires. These will be addressed separately The second engine company to arrive shall assist in stretching the first line. They must remain together as a unit and relieve the first engine company as required Getting the first line in position and in operation is of vital importance In order to provide a reliable and uninterrupted flow of water, all arriving engine and squad companies (assigned as an engine) shall locate, test and confirm a positive water source (hydrant, drafting, etc.). The failure to select and test a hydrant can cause a delay in stretching additional lines, especially if it becomes necessary to back up the engine in order to locate a hydrant. If the engine gets blocked in by other responding units, the delay becomes even greater. Engine company officers and chauffeurs must be prepared to immediately adjust operations and seek alternate sources of supply such as use of gated inlets and inline pumping if the original hydrant proves inadequate If two or more apartments are involved in fire, with lines being used in each apartment, companies should be aware of the possibility of fire getting behind them through the ceiling space if the line in the adjacent apartment is not advancing as rapidly as theirs. 6 3.2.8 Tower and aerial ladders should not be tied up by stretching lines up them. These ladders may be needed for egress from the upper floors or roof, or for use of their heavy caliber streams Hoselines should not be operated into ventilation holes from the roof as this decreases ventilation and nullifies the action of lines operating on the top floor. A roof line should be used only to prevent fire from extending past the trench, to protect exposures, or to extinguish fire that cannot be reached from below, such as fire in a cornice The use of the manifold, which is carried by Satellite Units, can be a great advantage at fires where many hoselines must be stretched. The manifold can be placed in front of the fire building. This cuts down on the amount of hose needed, saves time and energy in stretching hose, and makes for a more orderly operation by eliminating surplus hose in the street. Engine companies arriving after the manifold has been set up should be informed as to how many lengths of hose to bring to the manifold for stretching to their point of operation Stretching of hoselines on the first alarm: The first line stretched for a fire in a multiple dwelling should be stretched by way of the interior stairs. The primary purpose of this line is to safeguard the stairway so t
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