Expository Discourse in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Development and Disorders

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Expository Discourse in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Development and Disorders Edited by Marilyn A Nippold, Cheryl M Scott Series: New Directions in Communication Disorders Research List Price: 45.00
Expository Discourse in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Development and Disorders Edited by Marilyn A Nippold, Cheryl M Scott Series: New Directions in Communication Disorders Research List Price: Publication Date: 27/10/2009 Expository discourse is the use of language to inform others as when a science teacher explains how to conduct a chemistry experiment, or a high school student explains Newton s laws of gravity. Much has been written about the development and disorders of conversational and narrative discourse, and many books are available on the nature, assessment, and treatment of those genres in children and adolescents. In contrast, no books have yet been published on expository discourse. This omission is surprising, given that expository discourse is commonly employed in school settings as teachers explain new concepts to their students, who in turn must demonstrate their newly acquired knowledge through the use of spoken and written expository discourse. This book should be of interest to practicing speech-language pathologists, graduate students, and researchers in speech-language sciences. It should also be relevant to special and regular educators, teachers, linguists, psychologists, and psycholinguistics concerned with language development and language disorders. Each chapter consists of approximately pages, including text, tables, figures, and references. Study guide questions follow each chapter, making the book useful for university teaching. 2 Chapter 1: Overview of Expository Discourse: Development and Disorders Marilyn A. Nippold* & Cheryl M. Scott** University of Oregon* & Rush University Medical Center**, Chicago USA This chapter will provide an overview of the book, including its purpose, content, and importance to speech-language pathologists and other professionals concerned with language development and disorders. It will briefly introduce the expository genre and its subtypes (various macrostructures), and describe logical versus temporal organization. It will also discuss school and textbook contexts, how expository text is taught in schools, and how it becomes the main vehicle for delivering information in educational settings. Chapter 2: Comprehension Processes for Expository Texts : Building Meaning and Making Sense Lynn Snyder and Donna Caccamise University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA The main focus of this chapter is the core semantic processes that take place during comprehension of expository information, with a particular emphasis on the construction-integration model. The integrated processing of the lexicon, morphology, and syntax will be described with respect to the larger issue of building meaning at the discourse level. Modality specific and text-specific processes will be addressed, and the constraints placed by memory load and suppression/inhibition of competing meanings will be considered. Lastly, the role that is played by individual differences, motivation and engagement of the listener/reader, and compensatory trade-offs will be described. Chapter 3: Explaining Complex Matters: How Knowledge of a Domain Drives Language Marilyn Nippold University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA The development of expository discourse abilities in school-age children, adolescents, and adults will be discussed, focusing on spoken and written language. The use of complex syntax in typically-developing English-speaking individuals from the United States and New Zealand will be covered, addressing factors that appear to drive the development of linguistic complexity in expository discourse across cultures. In addition, differences in the performance of New Zealand children and adolescents when expository discourse is elicited using different methods will be discussed. Chapter 4: The Development of Multimodal Explanations in French Children Jean Marc Colletta* & Catherine Pellenq** Université Stendhal* et Université Joseph Fourier**, Grenoble, FRANCE 3 This chapter will address the development of explanation behaviour in French children between 3 and 11 years of age, covering verbal, nonverbal, and co-verbal components. Of particular interest is the topic of co-verbal gestures that are used by children during their explanations. Over half of these gestures express abstract meanings (McNeill, 1992). This suggests that the ability to perform multimodal explanations is a window into discourse development and the emergence of abstract thought in children. Chapter 6: Linguistic Complexity in School-Age Text Production: Expository vs. Mathematical Discourse Dorit Ravid, Esther Dromi and Pazit Kotler Tel Aviv University, ISRAEL This chapter will discuss the development of expository and mathematical discourse in Hebrew-speaking children during written language tasks. Differences and similarities across genres will be highlighted in these common school-based activities. Chapter 7: Expository Discourse in Children and Adolescents with Language desorderst: nature of the problem Jeannene M. Ward-Lonergan A rich body of research has described features of conversational and narrative language production that distinguish children and adolescents with language impairments from typically developing peers. The study of expository discourse is a last frontier in the sense that it is a relatively unexplored genre in children generally, and particularly so in school-age children with language impairments. Expository discourse is also a last frontier for students as individuals. Research has shown that for any given student, fluency in conveying information, particularly academic information, develops later than fluency when telling stories or having a conversation. This chapter will explore sentence and discourse-level features and their interactions in children and adolescents with language impairments. Of particular interest are genre comparisons (conversational, narrative, and expository) and modality comparisons (speech and writing). Relationships among productivity, complex syntax (sentences with 2 or more clauses), and discourselevel features (for example, number and type of expository elements) are probed with finer-grained analyses than have been used in the past. Chapter 8: Assessing Expository texts Produced by School-Age Children and Adolescents Cheryl M. Scott Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA 4 Chapter 9: Reading comprehension and Expository Text Structure : Direction for intervention with Adolescents Barbara J. Ehren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders and Director of the Doctoral Program in Language and Literacy University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA Academic success for adolescents is contingent upon their ability to read a variety of textbooks. For poor readers, including students with language disorders, lack of academic achievement is associated with problems in text comprehension. This chapter will explore the research on effective intervention practices with adolescents struggling to comprehend subject area texts. Central to the chapter will be a discussion of the appropriateness of general versus content specific strategies for comprehension of science, mathematics, and social studies texts. The focus will be on the application of research and theory to the teaching of reading comprehension strategies for expository text with adolescents. Chapter 10: Expository Discourse Intervention: Helping School-Age Children and Adolescents with Language Disorders Master the language of the curriculum Jeannene Ward-Lonergan University of the Pacific, Stockton, California, USA Expository discourse refers to academic, factual, informational language that is typically found in textbooks, classroom lectures, technical papers, etc. It is critical that speech-language pathologists, special education teachers, general education teachers and other professionals involved in the education of school-age children and adolescents with language disorders develop a thorough understanding of expository discourse abilities and deficits in this population. This knowledge base will greatly enhance their ability to support these students as they strive to master this complex language of the curriculum. The primary purpose of this chapter is to present a detailed description of what is currently known about school-age children and adolescents with language disorders. Information pertaining to spoken expository discourse abilities (i.e., listening comprehension and verbal production) will be reported in the first section of the chapter, followed by information related to written expository discourse in this population in the second section of the chapter. An in-depth discussion of the specific features of expository discourse that re impaired in children and adolescents with language disorders with respect to semantic, syntactic, morphological, and pragmatic abilities will be included for both spoken and written expository discourse. The third section of this chapter will be comprised of a comprehensive review of research findings that have clinical implications for the assessment and treatment of expository discourse abilities in this population. Finally, this chapter will conclude with case study application exercises and study questions. 5 Chapter 11: Expository Discourse Production in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury Catherine A. Moran, Gail T. Gillon, and Emma Hay University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NEW ZEALAND This chapter will include in-depth examinations of children and adolescents in New Zealand who have language disorders and language differences. Case studies of children and adolescents with acquired brain injury, English as a second language, and developmental language disorders will be presented. Finally, the chapter will conclude with clinical implications of examining expository discourse production in children and adolescents with language disorders and language differences.
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