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Exam II Review: Sample Questions Supplemental Instruction Iowa State University Leader: Safwan Elkhatib Course: BIO 212 (6) Instructor: Coffman Date: 02/24/2014 Choose the list of three terms that correctly
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Exam II Review: Sample Questions Supplemental Instruction Iowa State University Leader: Safwan Elkhatib Course: BIO 212 (6) Instructor: Coffman Date: 02/24/2014 Choose the list of three terms that correctly fill the blanks in the following sentence: The molecules illustrated here are that combine with and with a group to form monomers that can combine to make DNA. a. pyrimidines, ribose, amino b. purines, ribose, phosphate c. purines, deoxyribose, phosphate d. pyrimidines, deoxyribose, ATP When Hershey/Chase performed phage infection experiments, what compounds did they use to label and detect DNA and protein? a. 35 S was used to label DNA, and 32 P was used to label protein. b. 35 S was used to label protein, and 32 P was used to label DNA. Hydrogen bonding between nitrogenous bases is essential for correct replication of DNA. Which of the following base pairs forms two hydrogen bonds in DNA? a. Adenine - Guanine b. Adenine - Cytosine c. Adenine Thymine d. Adenine - Adenine The structural feature that allows near-perfect copying of DNA molecules is a. their sugar-phosphate backbone. b. the capability of its nitrogenous bases to form specific hydrogen bonds that lead to matching of specific pairs of nucleotides. c. disulfide bonds that hold the two helixes together. d. the three-component (base, sugar, and phosphate) structure of the nucleotides, because all three must be matched to make a perfect copy. In your body, the most important function of ribonucleic acid (RNA) is to a. transmit genetic information to offspring. b. direct the synthesis of protein. c. serve as a template for the synthesis of a complementary copy, thus ensuring genetic continuity. d. act as a template directing the synthesis of DNA Hixson-Lied Student Success Center v v v The two strands making up the DNA double helix molecule a. cannot be separated. b. contain ribose and deoxyribose in opposite strands. c. are held together by hydrogen bonds. d. are attached via ester bonds between phosphates that hold the strands together. In the double helix structure of nucleic acids, cytosine hydrogen-bonds to a. deoxyribose. b. adenine. c. thymine. d. guanine. The pyrimidine bases in DNA are a. Cytosine, thymine and uracil b. Adenine and guanine c. Cytosine and thymine d. Thymine, guanine and cytosine e. Adenine, uracil and guanine The purine bases in DNA are a. Cytosine, thymine and uracil b. Adenine and guanine c. Cytosine and thymine d. Thymine, guanine and cytosine e. Adenine, uracil and guanine Nitrogen comes in a common light form ( 14 N) and a rare heavy form ( 15 N). In 1958, Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl grew E.coli in medium with only 15 N and then switched to medium with only 14 N. They collected samples after each generation, isolated DNA, and subjected it to centrifugation to differentiate between DNA labeled with the common light form ( 14 N) and the rare heavy form ( 15 N). Original parental strands would contain 15 N while newly made strands would contain 14 N. How many bands of DNA would you expect to see in the cesium gradient above after 3 generations if the mechanism of DNA replication was semi-conservative? a. 1 band that is half heavy b. 2 bands, one is light and the other half heavy c. 3 bands, one is heavy, one is half-heavy, and one is light d. 2 bands, one is heavy and one is light Nitrogen comes in a common light form ( 14 N) and a rare heavy form ( 15 N). In 1958, Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl grew E.coli in medium with only 15 N and then switched to medium with only 14 N. They collected samples after each generation, isolated DNA, and subjected it to centrifugation to differentiate between DNA labeled with the common light form ( 14 N) and the rare heavy form ( 15 N). Original parental strands would contain 15 N while newly made strands would contain 14 N. How many bands of DNA would you expect to see in the cesium gradient above after 3 generations if the mechanism of DNA replication was conservative? a. 1 band that is half heavy b. 2 bands, one is heavy and the other half heavy c. 3 bands, one is heavy, one is half-heavy, and one is light d. 2 bands, one is heavy and one is light Nitrogen comes in a common light form ( 14 N) and a rare heavy form ( 15 N). In 1958, Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl grew E.coli in medium with only 15 N and then switched to medium with only 14 N. They collected samples after each generation, isolated DNA, and subjected it to centrifugation to differentiate between DNA labeled with the common light form ( 14 N) and the rare heavy form ( 15 N). Original parental strands would contain 15 N while newly made strands would contain 14 N. How many bands of DNA would you expect to see in the cesium gradient above after 3 generations if the mechanism of DNA replication was dispersive? a. 1 band that is a mixture of heavy and light DNA b. 2 bands, one is heavy and the other half heavy c. 3 bands, one is heavy, one is half-heavy, and one is light d. 2 bands, one is heavy and one is light Which of the four structures labeled A, B, C and D in the figure is best described as a nucleotide? a. A b. B c. C d. D Which of the following is the best description of the class of molecules known as nucleotides? a. a nitrogenous base linked to a phosphate group b. a nitrogenous base linked to a pentose (5 carbon) sugar c. a molecule including a nitrogenous base, a pentose (5 carbon) sugar and a phosphate group d. a phosphate group linked to an adenine or uracil e. a pentose sugar linked to a purine or pyrimidine What is the function of helicase during DNA replication? a. It separates the two strands of the double helix. b. It relieves the overwinding of DNA ahead of the replication fork due to DNA strand separation. c. It synthesizes the RNA primers used to initiate DNA replication. d. It joins the Okazaki fragments together. What is the function of topoisomerase during DNA replication? a. It separates the two strands of the double helix. b. It relieves the overwinding of DNA ahead of the replication fork due to DNA strand separation. c. It synthesizes the RNA primers used to initiate DNA replication. d. It joins the Okazaki fragments together. What is the function of primase during DNA replication? a. It separates the two strands of the double helix. b. It relieves the overwinding of DNA ahead of the replication fork due to DNA strand separation. c. It synthesizes the RNA primers used to initiate DNA replication. d. It joins the Okazaki fragments together. What is the function of ligase during DNA replication? a. It separates the two strands of the double helix. b. It relieves the overwinding of DNA ahead of the replication fork due to DNA strand separation. c. It synthesizes the RNA primers used to initiate DNA replication. d. It joins the Okazaki fragments together. Which of the following statements about DNA replication is NOT correct? a. Leading strand synthesis is continuous, while lagging strand synthesis is discontinuous. b. Both leading and lagging strands are synthesized in the 5 to 3 direction. c. Leading strand synthesis is conservative, while lagging strand synthesis is semiconservative. d. Completion of the lagging strand requires ligation of Okazaki fragments. How are telomeres made? a. By ligation of adjacent Okazaki fragments. b. Telomerase synthesizes them by copying the telomerase RNA. c. By telomerase which is capable of synthesizing DNA in the 3 to 5 direction. d. By fusion of adjacent replicons. Eukaryotic chromosomes have telomeres that protect the terminal nucleotides from degradation by nucleases. Bacterial chromosomes do not need telomeres because a. bacterial DNA replication has no lagging strand synthesis, so there is no overhang to protect. b. bacterial chromosomes are circular. c. bacteria have specialized proteins that protect the ends of their chromosomes. d. bacterial DNA polymerases can synthesize DNA bidirectionally. e. bacterial chromosomes have a single origin of replication at one end of each linear chromosome. What are the repeating DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that protect them from loss of important DNA during replication? a. Telomeres b. Telomerase c. Replicons d. Primers e. Promoters Which of the following statements about nucleosomes are correct? a. Contain about 150 bp of DNA wrapped around histones b. The histones are called H1, H2A, H3 and H4 c. The histones are basic proteins which is important to bind DNA d. Nucleosomes represent the first level of compaction of the eukaryotic chromosome e. All of the above During translation, what is the direction of polypeptide synthesis? a. From 5 to 3 b. From 3 to 5 c. From N-terminal to C-terminal d. From C-terminal to N-terminal e. From positive to negative During DNA replication, what is the direction of DNA synthesis? a. From 5 to 3 b. From 3 to 5 c. From N-terminal to C-terminal d. From C-terminal to N-terminal e. From positive to negative The following statements are consistent with the central dogma a. A. During transcription, DNA is copied into RNA. b. B. During translation, RNA sequences code for polypeptide sequences. c. C. The process of transcription produces a polypeptide sequence. d. D. DNA is translated into ribonucleotides. e. A and B. f. C and D. Which of the following best summarizes the central dogma? a. DNA is translated into RNA, and RNA is transcribed into polypeptides. b. RNA is translated into DNA, and DNA is transcribed into polypeptides. c. DNA is transcribed into RNA, and RNA is translated into polypeptides. d. polypeptides translate DNA into ribosomes e. All of the above. Using the single-letter amino acid codon table shown below, translate the following mrna: 5 -AUG,GCG,AGA,GUU,GAG,CUG,UGA-3 a. MAGICAL b. MARVEL c. MONSTER d. MAYHEM The diagram shows a step in the experiment by Avery, MacCleod and McCarty in which they demonstrated that DNA was the genetic material. Recall that they made an extract from the S strain bacteria and mixed the extract with the R strain. Why did the experimenters treat sample C with DNase? a. To activate the DNA. b. To allow the DNA to enter the R strain bacteria. c. To demonstrate that DNA in the extract was the genetic material. d. To purify the DNA from other materials in the extract. e. All of the above. The diagram shows a step in the experiment by Avery, MacCleod and McCarty in which they demonstrated that DNA was the genetic material. Recall that they made an extract from the S strain bacteria and mixed the extract with the R strain. Why did the experimenters treat sample D with RNase? a. To activate the DNA. b. To demonstrate that DNA makes RNA. c. To demonstrate that RNA is not the genetic material. d. To purify the DNA from other materials in the extract. e. All of the above. The diagram shows a step in the experiment by Avery, MacCleod and McCarty in which they demonstrated that DNA was the genetic material. Recall that they made an extract from the S strain bacteria and mixed the extract with the R strain. Why did the experimenters treat sample E with Protease? a. To activate the DNA b. To allow the DNA to enter the R strain bacteria. c. To purify the DNA from other materials in the extract. d. To demonstrate that protein is not the genetic material. e. All of the above In the structure of DNA. (finish the sentence) a. the backbone of each strand consists of deoxyribose sugars and phosphates linked together by phosphodiester bonds. b. the two strands of the helix are bonded together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases. c. the two strands run antiparallel to each other meaning that one strand runs 5 to 3 and the other from 3 to 5. d. All of the above. In the structure of DNA. (finish the sentence) a. the backbone of each strand consists of deoxyribose sugars and phosphates linked together by phosphodiester bonds. b. the two strands of the helix are bonded together by hydrogen bonds from one purine to another purine and from one pyrimidine to another pyrimidine. c. the two strands run parallel to each other meaning the purines base pair with pyrimidines and pyrimidines base pair with purines. d. All of the above. A DNA strand in double-stranded DNA is based paired with its complementary strand. The strand complementary to a strand with the sequence 5 - GCAAGTCATGCCGAAT-3 would read as follows: a. 5 -CGTTCAGTACGGCTTA-3 b. 5 -ATTCGGCATGACTTGC-3 c. 5 - GCAAGTCATGCCGAAT-3 d. 5 -ATGCAGTTACAATGCA-3 A DNA strand in double-stranded DNA is based paired with its complementary strand. The strand complementary to a strand with the sequence 5 - ATGCAGTTACAATGCA-3 would read as follows: a. 5 -ATTGCCGTACTGAACG-3 b. 5 -TAACGGCATGACTTGC-3 c. 5 -ATGCAGTTACAATGCA-3 d. 5 -TGCATTGTAACTGCAT-3 DNA synthesis is said to semi-conservative because.. (finish the sentence). a. the parental DNA strands are not always conserved, only sometimes, during DNA replication. b. only one parental strand is found in each sister chromatid following DNA replication. c. two parental strands are found in one sister chromatid and two daughter strands are found in the other sister chromatid following DNA replication. d. the daughter strands have to be separated during DNA replication. e. none of the above. In this very simple diagram of a DNA replication fork shown above, which red strand(s) is the lagging DNA strand? a. A b. B c. A and B d. Neither A nor B In this very simple diagram of a DNA replication fork shown above, which red strand(s) is the leading DNA strand? a. A b. B c. A and B d. Neither A nor B During DNA synthesis on the lagging strand (finish the sentence) a. DNA is made in pieces called Okazaki fragments. b. DNA synthesis is initiated by RNA primers. c. DNA primase hops back to the opening of the replication fork to make additional RNA primers. d. All of the above. e. None of the above. During DNA replication, the function of DNA polymerase is: a. to removes tightened coils ahead of DNA replication folk. b. to separate double stranded DNA into single strands. c. to synthesize DNA in both leading and lagging strands. d. to synthesize short RNA primers. e. to covalently attaches adjacent Okazaki fragments in the lagging strand. Nucleosomes: a. are DNA structures with histone proteins wrapped around them. b. are composed of DNA wrapping around core histones and linked together by a DNA linker region to which histone H1 is bound. c. are about 30 nanometers in diameter. d. All of the above e. None of the above The first order of chromatin fold is: a. the formation of 30 nanometer chromatin fiber. b. the formation of radial loops from the 30 nanometer chromatin fiber c. the formation of nucleosome d. all of the above e. none of the above The second order of chromatin fold is: a. the formation of 30 nanometer chromatin fiber. b. the formation of radial loops from the 30 nanometer chromatin fiber. c. the formation of nucleosome d. all of the above e. none of the above The cartoon below depicts DNA replication. The mechanism of replication is thought to be a. Conservative b. Dispersive c. Semi-conservative A repeating DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes that prevents them from losing base pair sequences at their ends and from fusing together is a. A telomere b. A telomerase c. A replicon d. A primer e. A promoter In eukaryotic cells histones bind to DNA to form chromatin. What is the basic (and smallest) organizational unit of chromatin? a. Double helix b. 30 nanometer fiber c. nucleosome d. ribosome e. circular DNA Gene expression Which of the following is the correct RNA transcript of the DNA template strand? a. T G A C G G G T A C T C G C T G G G G A A G C C C G A G C C C C T T A C T T A G C b. A C T G C C C A T G A G C G A C C C C T T C G G G C T C G G G G A A T G A A T C G c. A C U G C C C A U G A G C G A C C C C U U C G G G C U C G G G G A A U G A A U C G d. U G A C G G G U A C U C G C U G G G G A A G C C C G A G C C C C U U A C U U A G C The following is/are true about Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases a. They catalyze the attachment of amino acids to trnas. b. They are enzymes and comprise a family of proteins. c. They utilize energy from ATP to attach amino acids to trnas. d. Referred to as the second genetic code because they are able to recognize the appropriate trna and the corresponding amino acid. e. All of the above. Which strand gets transcribed into mrna? a. The coding strand. It is read 3 to 5 by RNA polymerase. b. The template strand. It is read 3 to 5 by RNA polymerase. c. The coding strand. It is read 5 to 3 by RNA polymerase. d. The template strand. It is read 5 to 3 by RNA polymerase. The resulting mrna from transcription has the following polarity a. 3 to 5 b. 5 to 3 c. 5 to 5 d. 3 to 3 What parts of the following structural gene are represented in processed mrna? a. The exons only b. The introns only c. The exons and introns d. The promoter and exons e. The promoter and introns The following statement is true about introns and exons a. Only exons are transcribed, introns are spliced from the RNA b. Only introns are transcribed because exons are spliced from the DNA c. Both introns and exons are transcribed, introns are spliced from the mrna. d. The promoter, exons, and introns are transcribed. Exons are spliced from the mrna. What is the promoter region? a. It is a region of RNA that binds to the RNA polymerase and initiates transcription. b. It is a component of each type of RNA. c. It is responsible for the selective nature of transcription. d. It is a region of a parent DNA strand that binds to the RNA polymerase and initiates transcription. Anticodon is the term applied to a. the part of the trna that interacts with the codon b. the list of amino acids that corresponds to the genetic code c. the concept that multiple codons sometimes code for a single amino acid d. the several three-nucleotide stretches that code for stop e. the part of the trna that binds to an amino acid Which of the following may be involved in combinatorial control of eukaryotic gene expression a. Activator proteins b. Repressor proteins c. DNA methylation d. Alteration of chromatin structure e. All of the above In eukaryotic genes, exons are in the regions of a gene and are. a. coding, spliced out b. noncoding, spliced out c. coding, not spliced out d. nocoding, not spliced out In eukaryotic genes, introns are in the regions of a gene and are. a. coding, spliced out b. noncoding, spliced out c. coding, not spliced out celd. nocoding, not spliced out Mature mrnas have adenine nucleotides added to 3 -end. Which is true for the poly A tails: a. It increases stability and life span of mrna. b. It is encoded by gene sequence. c. It ensures proper exit of mrna. d. It binds to ribosome. The diagram above shows the three-dimensional structure of a trna. What can be said about trnas? a. An amino acid is linked to the 3 -end by an aminoacyl-trna synthetase. b. There is a different aminoacyl-trna synthetase for every amino acid. c. The GGC sequence is the anticodon recognizes and base pairs with codons in the mrna. d. All of the above. e. None of the above Table 12.1 is a table of codons from your textbook. Using the table above, translate the following mrna sequence from the start codon to the stop codon (you need to find the translation start codon first): 5 -UGCCAUGGCACCUGACUAG-3 Choose the correct amino acid sequence. a. Leu-Val-Arg-Cys-His-Gly b. Cys-His-Gly-Thr c. Pro-Trp-His-Leu_Thr d. Met-Ala-Pro-Asp Table 12.1 is a table of codons from your textbook. Using the table above, translate the following mrna sequence from the start codon to the stop codon (you need to find the translation start codon first): 5 -CCAUGGACGAACGCUGACG-3 Choose the correct amino acid sequence. a. Pro-Trp-Thr-Asn-Ala-Asp b. Met-Asp-Glu-Arg c. Arg-Gln-Arg-Ser-Ser-Met d. His-Gly-Arg-Thr-Leu-Thr In bacterium growth media with both lactose and glucose, which sugar bacteria will use first: a. lactose b. glucose c. lactose and glucose at the same time d. none of the above In the media in which the
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