DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. DNA stands for? Di-ox-e-rye-bow-new-clay-ic-acid

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DeoxyriboNucleic Acid DNA stands for? Di-ox-e-rye-bow-new-clay-ic-acid DNA s composition What is DNA? DNA-is also the same place that we talk about Genes and traits that make you---you. Can DNA also transmit
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DeoxyriboNucleic Acid DNA stands for? Di-ox-e-rye-bow-new-clay-ic-acid DNA s composition What is DNA? DNA-is also the same place that we talk about Genes and traits that make you---you. Can DNA also transmit behavior or personality? DNA-Base Pairs Cytosine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine and Guanine are always paired together Adenine and Thymine are always paired together These four units make up your DNA T-A or G-C can be on either side Nucleotides Deoxyribose Guanine Deoxyribose Cytosine Nucleotides consist of a Phosphoric Acid, Deoxyribose, and one of the Nitrogen bases Phosphoric Acid Deoxyribose Phosphoric Acid Thymine Phosphoric Acid Deoxyribose Phosphoric Acid Adenine Double Helix DNA s structure or design consists of a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis Hydrogen Bonds in DNA Occurs at the Base Pairs Three Hydrogen Bonds Cytosine Guanine Thymine Adenine Two Hydrogen Bonds Deoxyribose and Phosphate Group Phosphates (phosphoric acid) are one of the two elements that provide support and hold the DNA in place. Deoxyribose is a sugar molecule that attached and holds the A-T and C-G base pairs Purine Guanine Consist of Guanine and Adenine. Adenine Pyrimidine Cytosine Consist of Cytosine and Thymine. Thymine What is RNA? RiboNucleic Acid-needs to copy some of the DNA to make Proteins from the 20 Amino Acids that exist. The BASIC Structure of DNA There are Six molecules that make up your DNA 1. Adenine (A) 2. Thymine (T) 3. Cytosine (C) 4. Guanine (G) 5. Deoxyribose (S) 6. Phosphoric Acid (P) The BASIC Structure of DNA compared to other animals What do you notice about the base pairs on the chart? What do you notice about the base pairs of each species? The BASIC Structure of DNA compared between animals and plants What do you notice about the base pairs on the chart? What do you notice about the sequences of base pairs of each species? Through DNA-we have MAP of Human Migration (50,000 years ago) RNA strands comes from DNA What are the 6 elements that make up RNA 1. Cytosine 2. Guanine 3. Adenine 4. Uracil 5. Ribose 6. Phosphoric Acid There are three main differences between RNA and DNA: 1. The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose, 2. RNA is generally single-stranded 3. RNA contains uracil in place of thymine. RNA Polymerase Polymerase is what splits DNA hydrogen bonds and at the same time creates the messenger RNA Transcription Occurs when the RNA polymerase reads the DNA and puts together the RNA strand based on what DNA Nitrogen Bases (A, T, C, G) Translation The mrna lays itself down on the Ribosome (rrna) and waits for the specific transfer RNA (trna) to bring the amino acids so can create the chain of amino acids that become a protein when done. Ribosomal RNA (Ribosome)? The made up of proteins and Ribosomal RNA this is where the amino acids are put together to make proteins. The path of the Messenger RNA (mrna) Once mrna is completed it leaves the cell nucleus and heads for a Ribosome (also contains ribosomal RNA (rrna) Transfer RNA The RNA that brings the required amino acids to the Ribosome so they can be put together with other amino acids to make the proteins that particular cells needs to do its job. Anticodon The 3 nitrogen bases attached to the bottom of Transfer RNA Anticodon Codons The three nitrogen bases on the mrna that contain the code that triggers that specific transfer RNA to bring its amino acid to the ribosome. In the cell nucleus Polymerase splits the DNA hydrogen bonds and at the same time reads the DNA (transcription) and creates the messenger RNA (mrna) The path of the Messenger RNA (mrna) Once mrna is completed it leaves the cell nucleus and heads for a Ribosome (also contains ribosomal RNA (rrna) The mrna finds a ribosome The mrna lays itself down on the Ribosome (rrna) and waits for the specific transfer RNA (trna) to bring the amino acids so can create the chain of amino acids that become a protein when done. The Ribosome gets the Transfer RNA (trna) The transfer RNA (trna) brings the amino acids that the mrna codons contains so that it create the chain of amino acids that will become that protein. Protein Synthesis is complete when--- The last codon of the mrna has been read (translated) by the last trna-then that protein has been completed. A completed Protein (end of Protein Synthesis) ALL proteins produced in the cells through Protein Synthesis are made of those amino acids from that mrna strand. Proteins-what are they? Proteins are created in all your cells. Your body has the ability to generate 2 million different types of proteins Total number of proteins in human body is estimated to be around 50,000. Proteins-what are they? continued Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs; and each protein has unique functions Proteins-what are they? STRUCTURE Structure-Proteins provide a support structure from your individual cells to every part of your body. Just like houses use wood to create their structure. Proteins-what are they? FUNCTION Function-Proteins provide important body functions. Muscle contractions that allow you to move. Proteins-what are they? REGULATION Regulation -Proteins provide important body functions. Regulate cell division. Failure of proteins to properly regulate the division process can cause tumor growth and cancer. For your next quiz coming up you will need to briefly explain the 3 items related to DNA and Protein Synthesis. Can you--draw a model or provide an example that shows how DNA is related to proteins? Explain how DNA is related to proteins Here you need to look back at your notes from this PowerPoint presentation on White blood cells, red blood cells, and nerve cells all have a different structure how does this happen? Answer is that proteins, not DNA, that determine the function and activity of a cell in your body. In each of these different cells the RNA Polymerase splits open only the DNA sections it needs to create the mrna so that those specific proteins needed for that cell are created. If you stretched one of your DNA in one cell all the way out (3 billion base pairs), it would be about 6.5 feet long, and if all the DNA in all your cells in your body (37.2 trillion cells) would be stretched out it would be about twice the diameter of our Solar System.
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