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A publication of the TSS an affiliate society of ASM International Editor Christian Moreau Associate Editors Jan Ilavsky Seiji Kuroda Armelle Vardelle Editor Emeritus Christopher C. Berndt Editorial Office
A publication of the TSS an affiliate society of ASM International Editor Christian Moreau Associate Editors Jan Ilavsky Seiji Kuroda Armelle Vardelle Editor Emeritus Christopher C. Berndt Editorial Office Dr. Christian Moreau National Research Council Canada Industrial Materials Institute 75 Boul. De Mortagne Boucherville (Québec) Canada, J4B 6Y4 Tel: 450/ Fax: 450/ Subscriptions: Customer Service Center/Technical Journals ASM International Materials Park, OH Tel: 440/ , ext Fax: 440/ Journal of Thermal Spray Technology (ISSN: ; CODEN: JTTEE5) is published quarterly by ASM International, Materials Park, OH , USA. Vol. 15, No. 4. Periodicals postage paid at Novelty, OH and additional mailing offices. Copyright 2006 by ASM International. All rights reserved. Subscription rates: Annual (4 issues), ASM member either online OR print-$228; ASM member both online AND print-$342; TSS member either online OR print-$189; TSS member both online AND print-$284; nonmember/library either online OR print -$1319; nonmember/library both online AND print-$1583. Members of the following societies may subscribe to the Journal of Thermal Spray Technology for their personal use at the discounted ASM member rate: The Germany Welding Society (DVS), The German Thermal Spray Society (GTS), High Temperature Society of Japan, The Japan Institute of Materials (JIM), The Japan Thermal Spraying Society The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ), The Korean Thermal Spray Society Postmaster: Send address changes to Subscriptions Specialist, Customer Service, ASM International, Materials Park, OH , USA. Printed in USA ASM International is a Society whose mission is to gather, process and disseminate technical information. ASM fosters the understanding and application of engineered materials and their research, design, reliable manufacture, use and economic and social benefits. This is accomplished via a unique global information-sharing network of interaction among members in forums and meetings, education programs, and through publications and electronic media. ISSN: The Journal of Thermal Spray Technology publishes contributions on all aspects fundamental and practical of thermal spray science including processes, feedstock manufacture, testing, and characterization. As the primary vehicle for thermal spray information transfer, its mission is to synergize the rapidly advancing thermal spray industry and related industries by presenting research and development efforts leading to advancements in implementable engineering applications of the technology. Contents Editorial 457 Calendar of Events 459 In the News 461 News from Institutes and Research Centers Around the World (Jan Ilavsky) 464 Discussion Topics and Threads on Thermal Spray (Rogerio Lima) 469 Selected Patents Related to Thermal Spraying (Jiří Matějíček) 473 Meet Our New Colleagues (Jan Ilavsky) 478 Technical Note Simulation of Particle-Shock Interaction in a High Velocity Oxygen Fuel Process V.R. Srivatsan and A. Dolatabadi Reviewed Papers New Developments in Cold Spray Based on Higher Gas and Particle Temperatures T. Schmidt, F. Gaertner, and H. Kreye Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying of Iron-Base Amorphous Alloy L. Ajdelsztajn, B. Jodoin, P. Richer, E. Sansoucy, and E.J. Lavernia Kinetic Sprayed Rare Earth Iron Alloy Composite Coatings T. Van Steenkiste Effect of Cold Spray Deposition of a Titanium Coating on Fatigue Behavior of a Titanium Alloy T.S. Price, P.H. Shipway, and D.G. McCartney Characterization of Microstructure of Nano-TiO 2 Coating Deposited by Vacuum Cold Spraying S.-Q. Fan, G.-J. Yang, C.-J. Li, G.-J. Liu, C.-X. Li, and L.-Z. Zhang Numerical Simulation of the Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Process M. Karimi, A. Fartaj, G. Rankin, D. Vanderzwet, W. Birtch, and J. Villafuerte Modeling the Restrike Mode Operation of a DC Plasma Spray Torch E. Moreau, C. Chazelas, G. Mariaux, and A. Vardelle Investigation of Splat Curling up in Thermal Spray Coatings Minxia Xue, Sanjeev Chandra, and Javad Mostaghimi Application of Multiscale Modeling in the Coating Formation Simulation of APS PYSZ TBCs E. Lugscheider, K. Bobzin, and R. Nickel Modeling Thermal Conductivity of Thermal Spray Coatings: Comparing Predictions to Experiments Y. Tan, J.P. Longtin, and S. Sampath Modeling of Motion and Heating of Powder Particles in Laser, Plasma, and Hybrid Spraying Yu. Borisov, A. Bushma, and I. Krivtsun Measurement and Numerical Simulation of Particle Velocity in Cold Spraying Wen-Ya Li, Chang-Jiu Li, Hong-Tao Wang, Cheng-Xin Li, and Hee-Seon Bang Simulation Results of Arc Behavior in Different Plasma Spray Torches J.P. Trelles and J.V.R. Heberlein Effect of Particle Impact on Residual Stress Development in HVOF Sprayed Coatings P. Bansal, P.H. Shipway, and S.B. Leen Cover photos: Image 1: High-resolution scanning electron microscopy showing a nanoparticle covered nanowire with a faceted catalyst. The diameters of the nanoparticles coating the wires are in the range 5-25 nm. The nanowires are synthesized by a process combining nanoparticle impaction with chemical vapor deposition. See article Hypersonic Plasma Particle Deposition A Hybrid Between Plasma Spraying and Vapor Deposition, p of this issue. Image 2: Aspects of thermal spray molding of microcomponents. The picture shows the steps in the process: (top left) machined mold, (top right) filled mold, (bottom left) polished filled mold, and (bottom right) demolded spiral. Photos courtesy of J. Wilden, J.P. Bergmann, and T. Luhn, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Fachgebiet Fertigungstechnik, Germany. Comparison of the Photocatalytic Behavior of TiO 2 Coatings Elaborated by Different Thermal Spraying Processes Filofteia-Laura Toma, Dmitry Sokolov, Ghislaine Bertrand, Didier Klein, Christian Coddet, and Cathy Meunier Effect of Cu 2+ Doping on Photocatalytic Performance of Liquid Flame Sprayed TiO 2 Coatings Guan-Jun Yang, Chang-Jiu Li, Cheng-Xin Li, Yu-Yue Wang, and Xin-Chun Huang Nanostructured Photocatalytic Titania Coatings Formed by Suspension Plasma Spraying Filofteia-Laura Toma, Ghislaine Bertrand, Didier Klein, Christian Coddet, and Cathy Meunier Comparison of Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed Anode Layers for SOFCs Using Different Feedstock D. Hathiramani, R. Vaßen, D. Stöver, and R.J. Damani Characterization of YSZ Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Electrolyte Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying and Low Pressure Plasma Spraying C. Zhang, H.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Li, G. Zhang, C. Coddet, C.-J. Li, C.-X. Li, and X.-J. Ning Development of Porous Anode Layers for the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Plasma Spraying H. Weckmann, A. Syed, Z. Ilhan, and J. Arnold Effect of Steam Treatment During Plasma Spraying on the Microstructure of Hydroxyapatite Splats and Coatings H. Li, K.A. Khor, and P. Cheang Improving Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes A.A. Syed, Z. Ilhan, J. Arnold, G. Schiller, and H. Weckmann Biocompatible Nanostructured High-Velocity Oxyfuel Sprayed Titania Coating: Deposition, Characterization, and Mechanical Properties R.S. Lima, H. Li, K.A. Khor, and B.R. Marple Development of Osteoblast Colonies on New Bioactive Coatings J.-G. Legoux, F. Chellat, R.S. Lima, B.R. Marple, M.N. Bureau, H. Shen, and G.A. Candeliere Microstructure and Properties of Thermally Sprayed Al-Sn-Based Alloys for Plain Bearing Applications T. Marrocco, L.C. Driver, S.J. Harris, and D.G. McCartney Effects of Ce and Si Additions to CoNiCrAlY Bond Coat Materials on Oxidation Behavior and Crack Propagation of Thermal Barrier Coatings K. Ogawa, K. Ito, T. Shoji, D.W. Seo, H. Tezuka, and H. Kato Metal-Glass Based Composites for Application in TBC-Systems D.E. Mack, S.-M. Gross, R. Vaßen, and D. Stöver Thermomechanical Behavior of Nanostructured Plasma Sprayed Zirconia Coatings R. Soltani, E. Garcia, T.W. Coyle, J. Mostaghimi, R.S. Lima, B.R. Marple, and C. Moreau Effect of Substrate Hardness on Splat Morphology in High-Velocity Thermal Spray Coatings W. Trompetter, M. Hyland, D. McGrouther, P. Munroe, and A. Markwitz A New High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Process for Making Finely Structured and Highly Bonded Inconel Alloy Layers from Liquid Feedstock X.Q. Ma, J. Roth, D.W. Gandy, and G.J. Frederick Suspension Plasma Spraying of Nanostructured WC-12Co Coatings J. Oberste Berghaus, B. Marple, and C. Moreau Liquid Plasma Sprayed Coatings of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia for SOFC Electrolytes R. Rampon, F.-L. Toma, G. Bertrand, and C. Coddet Microstructure and Abrasion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Titania Coatings P. Ctibor, K. Neufuss, and P. Chraska High-Velocity DC-VPS for Diffusion and Protecting Barrier Layers in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) R.H. Henne, T. Franco, and R. Ruckdäschel Plasma Spray Synthesis from Precursors: Progress, Issues, and Considerations B.G. Ravi, S. Sampath, R. Gambino, P.S. Devi, and J.B. Parise Volume 15(4) December 2006 Journal of Thermal Spray Technology Photographing Impact of Plasma-Sprayed Particles on Metal Substrates André McDonald, Mario Lamontagne, Sanjeev Chandra, and Christian Moreau Examination of Substrate Surface Melting-Induced Splashing During Splat Formation in Plasma Spraying Chang-Jiu Li, Cheng-Xin Li, Guan-Jun Yang, and Yu-Yue Wang Effect of Substrate Roughness on Splatting Behavior of HVOF Sprayed Polymer Particles: Modeling and Experiments M. Ivosevic, V. Gupta, J.A. Baldoni, R.A. Cairncross, T.E. Twardowski, and R. Knight Effect of Reinforcement Size on the Scratch Resistance and Crystallinity of HVOF Sprayed Nylon-11/Ceramic Composite Coatings S. Niezgoda, V. Gupta, R. Knight, R.A. Cairncross, and T.E. Twardowski On the Reproducibility of Air Plasma Spray Process and Control of Particle State V. Srinivasan, A. Vaidya, T. Streibl, M. Friis, and S. Sampath A New Approach to Online Thickness Measurement of Thermal Spray Coatings A. Nadeau, L. Pouliot, F. Nadeau, J. Blain, S.A. Berube, C. Moreau, and M. Lamontagne High-Speed Visualization and Plume Characterization of the Hybrid Spray Process J. Stanisic, D. Kosikowski, and P.S. Mohanty Influence of Surface Character Change of Substrate Due to Heating on Flattening Behavior of Thermal Sprayed Particles M. Fukumoto, H. Nagai, and T. Yasui Exploration Thermal Spray Gray Alumina Coating Pore Network Architecture by Combining Stereological Protocols and Impedance Electrochemical Spectroscopy G. Antou, G. Montavon, F. Hlawka, A. Cornet, and C. Coddet Ambient and High-Temperature Thermal Conductivity of Thermal Sprayed Coatings W. Chi, S. Sampath, and H. Wang Plasma Transferred Arc Welding Modeling and Experimental Optimization J. Wilden, J.P. Bergmann, and H. Frank Plasma Transferred Arc Deposition of Beryllium K. Hollis, B. Bartram, J. Withers, R. Storm, and J. Massarello Optimization of Laser Cladding Process Using Taguchi and EM Methods for MMC Coating Production L. Dubourg and L. St-Georges Scientific, Technological, and Economic Aspects of Rapid Tooling by Electric Arc Spray Forming P.S. Grant, S.R. Duncan, A. Roche, and C.F. Johnson Heat Treatment Effects on the Tribological Performance of HVOF Sprayed Co-Mo-Cr-Si Coatings G. Bolelli and L. Lusvarghi Characterizations and Hot Corrosion Resistance of Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr Coating on Ni-Base Superalloys in an Aggressive Environment T.S. Sidhu, S. Prakash, and R.D. Agrawal Effects of Blasting Parameters on Removability of Residual Grit T. Maruyama, K. Akagi, and T. Kobayashi Hypersonic Plasma Particle Deposition A Hybrid between Plasma Spraying and Vapor Deposition J. Hafiz, R. Mukherjee, X. Wang, P.H. McMurry, J.V.R. Heberlein, and S.L. Girshick Nozzle Developments for Thermal Spray at Very Low Pressure Rodolphe Bolot, Dmitri Sokolov, Didier Klein, and Christian Coddet Selected Abstracts of Thermal Spray Literature 834 Keyword Index 845 Author Index 846 Instructions for Authors Inside Covers Journal of Thermal Spray Technology Volume 15(4) December JTTEE5 15:457 DOI: / X ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Basil Marple Margaret Hyland Yuk-Chiu Lau Rogerio Lima Joël Voyer The International Thermal Spray Conference is the largest international gathering of this type dedicated entirely to the science and technology of thermal spray. It brings together the principal players from the various disciplines and industrial sectors researchers, engineers, technicians, equipment and powder manufacturers, applicators, and end-users to present cutting-edge research, exhibit the latest technology and newest equipment, exchange ideas, discuss challenges, identify business and research opportunities, and establish collaborations and partnerships. The conference is organized jointly by the ASM Thermal Spray Society (TSS), the German Welding Society (DVS), and the International Institute of Welding (IIW). Held annually, the venue for this conference rotates among cities in Europe, North America, and Asia, returning to each continent every third year. By following the papers presented at this event, it is possible to keep abreast of new developments and identify trends in the thermal spray field. This special issue of Journal of Thermal Spray Technology (JTST) features a selection of papers presented at the 2006 International Thermal Spray Conference (ITSC 2006) held in Seattle, WA, in May These articles have been drawn from the more than 250 papers that appeared in the Proceedings of that conference published in CD-ROM format. Authors of the selected articles were invited to submit their manuscripts to JTST, where they passed through the full review process required for publishing refereed papers. These papers represent a cross section of the wide range of topics covered at the conference. We trust that this expanded JTST volume containing more than 50 peer-reviewed contributions based on papers presented at ITSC 2006 will be useful to readers, as a valuable reference source, and to authors, in serving as an important venue for disseminating their recent research results. Guest Editors Basil Marple Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council of Canada Boucherville, Quebec, Canada Margaret Hyland University of Auckland New Zealand Yuk-Chiu Lau GE Global Research New York, USA Rogerio Lima Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council of Canada Boucherville, Quebec, Canada Joël Voyer Austrian Research Centers Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum Ranshofen Ranshofen, Austria Journal of Thermal Spray Technology Volume 15(4) December A publication of the TSS, an affiliate society of ASM International Christopher C. Berndt, Chair, James Cook University Joachim V.R. Heberlein, Past Chair, University of Minnesota Christian Moreau, Editor, National Research Council, Canada Rehan Ahmed, Heriot-Watt University Manish M. Bhusari, TAFA, Inc. Christian Coddet, Institut Polytechnique Belfort-Montbeliard Daryl E. Crawmer, Thermal Spray Technologies, Inc. Masahiro Fukumoto, Toyohashi University of Technology Peter Hanneforth, Spa Com L.L.C. Peter Heinrich, Geschäftsstelle Der GTS E.V. Y.C. Lau, General Electric Research & Development Center Editorial Committee Jiri Matejicek, Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR Robert A. Miller, R.A. Miller Materials Engineering Montia C. Nestler, Sulzer Metco Per Nylēn, University of Trollhätten/Uddevalla Roland D. Seals, Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Mark F. Smith, Sandia National Laboratories Yoshiki Tsunekawa, Toyota Technological Institute Robert C. Tucker, Jr., The Tucker Group, LLC Armelle Vardelle, University of Limoges Petri Vuoristo, Tampere University of Technology T.W. Clyne, University of Cambridge, UK Stanley Dapkunas, National Institute of Standards and Technology Karlis A. Gross, Monash University, Australia Jan Ilavsky, Argonne National Laboratory Bertrand Jodoin, University of Ottawa, Canada J. Karthikeyan, ASB Industries Richard Knight, Drexel University Basil Marple, National Research Council, Canada International Board of Review Ghislain Montavon, Université de Technologie de Belfort, France Javad Mostaghimi, University of Toronto, Canada Andrew R. Nicoll, Sulzer Metco, Inc. Philip Shipway, University of Nottingham, UK Mark F. Smith, Sandia National Laboratories Robert C. Tucker, The Tucker Group Published by ASM International Materials Park, Ohio Tel: 440/ , ext Fax: 440/ Publisher Scott D. Henry Manager, Technical Journals Mary Anne Fleming Manager, Production Bonnie Sanders Journal Coordinator Ellyn T. Vander Kaay Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by ASM International for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $19 per article is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA Reprints: Copies of the Journal of Thermal Spray Technology articles are available as reprints. For prices, see the order form in the back of this issue. The Journal of Thermal Spray Technology is covered in the following Institute for Scientific Information products: Current Contents - Engineering, Computing & Technology, SciSearch, Research Alert, and the Materials Science Citation Index. The contents of this journal are also indexed or abstracted by: Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA), Compendex Engineering Index, Institute de L Information Scientifique et Technique (INIST) and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. The acceptance and publication of manuscipts in the Journal of Thermal Spray Technology does not imply that the reviewers, editors, or ASM International accept, approve, or endorse the data, opinions, and conclusions of the authors. Although manuscripts published in the Journal of Thermal Spray Technology are intended to have archival significance, the authors data and interpretations are frequently insufficient to be directly translatable to specific design, production, testing, or performance applications without independent examination and verification of their applicability and suitability by professional qualified personnel. Claims to ASM for issues not received must be made within 120 days of expected delivery date. ASM International is the society for materials engineers and scientists, a worldwide network dedicated to advancing industry, technology, and applications of metals and materials. ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA This publication is copyright ASM International. All rights reserved. Publication title Thermal Spray 2006: Building on 100 Years of Success Product code 05205Z To order products from ASM International: Online Visit /bookstore Telephone (US) or (Outside US) Fax Mail Customer Service, ASM International 9639 Kinsman Rd, Materials Park, Ohio , USA In Europe In Japan American Technical Publishers Ltd Knowl Piece, Wilbury Way, Hitchin Hertfordshire SG4 0SX, United Kingdom Telephone: (account holders), (credit card) Neutrino Inc. Takahashi Bldg., 44-3 Fuda 1-chome, Chofu-Shi, Tokyo 182 Japan Telephone: 81 (0) Terms of Use. This publication is being made available in PDF format as a benefit to members and customers of ASM International. You may download and print a copy of this publication for your personal use only. Other use and distribution is prohibited without the express written permission of ASM International. No warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, are given in connection with this publication. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM's control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specificati
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