Club Mosses, Ferns & Horsetails: the Seed-free Vascular Plants

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Club Mosses, Ferns & Horsetails: the Seed-free Vascular Plants Vascular Plants - a quick review Two unrelated groups within cryptogams seed free vascular plants are recognized as phyla: 1. Lycopodiophyta
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Club Mosses, Ferns & Horsetails: the Seed-free Vascular Plants Vascular Plants - a quick review Two unrelated groups within cryptogams seed free vascular plants are recognized as phyla: 1. Lycopodiophyta : lycopods 2. Polypodiophyta: ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns Vascular Plants - a quick review Why were the seed-free plants grouped together? They produce free spores, the principal dispersal units, via meiosis. Spore: a reproductive cell, capable of developing into an adult without fusion with another cell. Life-cycle spores Vascular Plants - a quick review Why were the seed-free plants grouped together? Spores develop within a sporangium (pl. sporangia) Life-cycle sporangium spores Vascular Plants - a quick review Why were the seed-free plants grouped together? Spores germinate and develop into gametophytes that exist independently of the spore-producing plants. The gametophytes (haploid, n) tend to be inconspicuous and short-lived. Life-cycle sporangium gametophyte spores Vascular Plants - a quick review Why were the seed-free plants grouped together? Like all plants, seed-free plants produce two kinds of gametes in their gametophytes: sperm and egg that unite to form a zygote (2n or diploid) via fertilization Life-cycle sporangium zygote gametophyte spores Vascular Plants - a quick review Why were the seed-free plants grouped together? The sporophyte (2n) develops from the zygote and is more conspicuous, usually perennial and lives for an indefinite period Life-cycle sporophyte sporangium zygote gametophyte spores Vascular Plants - a quick review Why were the seed-free plants grouped together? Life-cycle alternation of generations sporophyte sporangium zygote gametophyte spores Wisconsin Seed-free Plants The best website to identify and see images of Wisconsin s seedfree plants is Gary Fewless at UW-Green Bay; links provided below Key to Ferns and Fern Allies of Wisconsin List of Pteridophytes of Wisconsin Glossary of Fern Terminology also: Michigan Online Flora Wisconsin Seed-free Plants The best manual to identify lycopods and ferns is Ferns of Northeastern and Central North America (2 nd ed.) in the Peterson Field Guides Warning: - synonyms! Families and genera (and thus species names) are changing quickly in the seed-free plants Phylum Lycopodiophyta club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts Leaves microphylls: small, simple, one-veined leaves Sporangia: the spore producers on the sporophytes are located singly on the upper surfaces or in axils of the bracts of a cone or of green leaves Phylum Lycopodiophyta Carboniferous forest from Illinois This group arose in the Later Silurian about 420 million years ago and was dominant in the Carboniferous and used to be much more diverse. Lycopodiaceae - club mosses Phylum Lycopodiophyta 15 genera and about 375 species Lycopodium now split into several genera Evergreen, stems elongate and dichotomously branching. Leaves often densely covering the stem. Many species over-collected for Christmas wreaths. Oily compounds in the cell walls ignite rapidly into a flash of light Diphasiastrum complanatum Ground cedar, crowfoot Lycopodiaceae - club mosses Phylum Lycopodiophyta Homosporous: same spore - one kind of spore produced; cones terete (rounded) Lycopodiaceae - club mosses other examples Phylum Lycopodiophyta Dendrolycopodium obscurum Ground pine Lycopodiaceae - club mosses other examples Phylum Lycopodiophyta Lycopodiella inundata Bog club moss Lycopodiaceae - club mosses other examples Phylum Lycopodiophyta Huperzia lucidula Shiny club moss Alkaloid for Alzheimers? Selaginellaceae - spike mosses 1 genus and about 750 species Phylum Lycopodiophyta Mainly tropical family with some species extending into arctic regions of both hemispheres Leaves spirally arranged and often 4- ranked on the secondary and ultimate branches. Spores borne in or near the axils of well-differentiated sprophylls, usually on 4 sided strobilus. Selaginellaceae - spike mosses Phylum Lycopodiophyta Heterosporous: different spores Unlike Lycopodiaceae, Selaginellaceae are heterosporous with different types of spores: microspores and megaspore - the micro give rise to male gametophytes and the mega give rise to the female gametophytes. Selaginellaceae - spike mosses Phylum Lycopodiophyta Heterosporous: different Selaginellaceae - spike mosses Phylum Lycopodiophyta Selaginella eclipes meadow spike moss Selaginellaceae - spike mosses Phylum Lycopodiophyta Selaginella ruprestis Rock spike moss Selaginella selaginoides Northern spike moss Endangered! Isoetaceae - quillworts 1 genus and about 150 species; worldwide; 2 spp. in WI - Isoetes echinospora most common Aquatic or semi-aquatic plants. Microphylls quite long (15+ cm). Phylum Lycopodiophyta I. butleri - not native Isoetes echinospora Isoetaceae - quillworts Phylum Lycopodiophyta Heterosporous plants with sporangia borne at the base of sporophylls which are similar to vegetative leaves. Megasporangia + microsporangia Phylum Polypodiophyta - ferns & horsetails Equisetaceae - horsetails, scouring rushes 1 genus, Equisetum, 15 species with a cosmopolitan distribution except for Australia or New Zealand [9 species in Wisconsin] Shoots monomorphic or dimorphic (see right). Often highly branched (horsetails) appearing like leaves. Others not branched (scouring rushes). Phylum Polypodiophyta Equisetaceae - horsetails, scouring rushes Internodes with conspicuous vertical ridges; jointed stems; stems hollow (both important taxonomic features for keying species) Phylum Polypodiophyta Equisetaceae - horsetails, scouring rushes Leaves in whorls, united to form a sheath around the stem; these leaves are reduced megaphylls with a blade that has a complex system of veins. megaphyll sheath branch Horsetails belong with the normal looking-leaved ferns Phylum Polypodiophyta Equisetaceae - horsetails, scouring rushes Sporangia clustered terminally in cones composed of polygonal, umbrella-like structures with sporangia beneath. Phylum Polypodiophyta Equisetaceae - horsetails, scouring rushes Horsetails are homosporous and form conspicuous green gametophytes Phylum Polypodiophyta Equisetaceae - some examples of native horsetails & scouring rushes Equisetum arvense Field horsetail Equisetum sylvaticum Woodland horsetail Phylum Polypodiophyta Equisetaceae - some examples of native horsetails & scouring rushes Equisetum laevigatum Smooth scouring rush Equisetum scirpoides Dwarf horsetail Phylum Polypodiophyta the true ferns Most diverse of the vascular cryptogams, both in species number (ca. 11,000 worldwide) and form (small aquatics to trees). Phylum Polypodiophyta the true ferns Like the horsetails, leaves are megaphylls; blade is called a frond and the petioles as stipes. Phylum Polypodiophyta ferns Circinate vernation: vernation is the arrangement of folded leaves in a bud, forming a crozier or fiddlehead, i.e. coiled or rolled up at the tip and unfolding lengthwise when emerging - due to auxin and differential growth of tissue. Protects young bud. Phylum Polypodiophyta ferns Sporangia borne on the margin or the lower surface of the leaf; often grouped in sori (pl.) sorus (sing.); a sorus may be protected by a flap-like structure called the indusium. Phylum Polypodiophyta ferns The sprorangium is often associated with an annulus a cluster or row of cells with thick walls that open the sporangium and catapult the spores into the air. annulus Phylum Polypodiophyta ferns The sprorangium is often associated with an annulus a cluster or row of cells with thick walls that open the sporangium and catapult the spores into the air. Phylum Polypodiophyta There is major disagreement on what are the fern families, but 30 are generally recognized worldwide. Use the list of genera & families in the Student Herbarium. Linear sequence of lycophyte, fern and gymnosperm families Lycophytes L1 Lycopodiaceae Huperzia Lycopodiella Lycopodium Spinulum L2 Isoetaceae Isoetes L3 Selaginellaceae Selaginella Ferns F4 Equisetaceae Equisetum F5 Ophioglossaceae Botrychium Botrypus (Botrychium) Sceptridium (Botrychium) Ophioglossum F8 Osmundaceae Osmunda F16 Marsileaceae Marsilea F17 Salviniaceae Azolla F30 Dennstaedtiaceae Dennstaedtia Pteridium F31 Pteridaceae Adiantum Cheilanthes Cryptogramma Pellaea F32 Cystopteridaceae Cystopteris Gymnocarpium F33 Aspleniaceae Asplenium F34 Diplaziopsidaceae Diplaziopsis F35 Thelypteridaceae Phegopteris Thelypteris F36 Woodsiaceae Woodsia F38 Onocleaceae Matteuccia Onoclea F40 Athyriaceae Athyrium Deparia F42 Dryopteridaceae Dryopteris Polystichum F48 Polypodiaceae Polypodium Gymnosperms G3 Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo G7 Pinaceae Abies Larix Picea Pinus Tsuga G11 Cupressaceae Juniperus Thuja G12 Taxaceae Taxus Phylum Polypodiophyta Ophioglossaceae - adder s tongue family Primitive ferns; 2 genera in Wisconsin: Ophioglossum and Botrychium (now 3 genera) Sporangia are on an erect axis with a green blade attached below sporangia Ophioglossum pusillum Adder s tongue fern Phylum Polypodiophyta Ophioglossaceae - adder s tongue family Primitive ferns; 4 genera in Wisconsin: Ophioglossum and Botrychium (now 3 genera) Botrychium mormo Goblin fern Botrychium lunaria Moonwort fern Botrypus virginianum Rattlesnake fern Osmundaceae - royal fern family Primitive ferns; 1 genus in Wisconsin: Osmunda Fertile and sterile leaves dimorphic Phylum Polypodiophyta Phylum Polypodiophyta Osmundaceae - royal fern family 3 species of Osmunda in Wisconsin; easily separated by position of fertile portions All widespread & Bot 401 exam plants! Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon fern Osmunda claytoniana Interrupted fern Osmunda regalis Royal fern Phylum Polypodiophyta Dennstaedtiaceae - bracken family Includes one of the most widespread of all vascular plants. Clonal with rhizome; large compound leaves. Ubiquitous in Wisconsin. Marginal sori with no indusia but with revolute (rolled over) leaf edge protecting sori. Pteridium aquilinum Bracken fern Phylum Polypodiophyta Dennstaedtiaceae - bracken family Anti-mosquito and fly repellent Pteridium aquilinum Bracken fern Phylum Polypodiophyta Pteridaceae - maidenhair fern family 4 genera in Wisconsin Sori that lack indusia or are protected by a reflexed or revolute margins Distinctively compound frond with dark purple stipe and rachis Adiatum pedatum Maidenhair fern Aspleniaceae - spleenwort family 1 genus in Wisconsin. Defined by linear or kidney shaped sori. Phylum Polypodiophyta Asplenium viride Green spleenwort Asplenium platyneuron Ebony spleenwort Phylum Polypodiophyta Onocleaceae- sensitive fern family 2 genera in Wisconsin (also Matteuccia ostrich fern). Dimorphic fronds - sterile frond pinnately lobed. Fertile frond turning black. Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive fern Phylum Polypodiophyta Dryopteridaceae - woodfern family Large and diverse group of ferns; often broadly defined to include other smaller families. 2 genera and 13 species in Wisconsin. Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern Dryopteris intermedia Shield fern Polypodiaceae - rockcap family 40 genera and over 500 species in tropics and subtropics, but a single species in Wisconsin. Phylum Polypodiophyta Distinctive fronds: simple, pinnately lobed; leathery. Colonizes bare rock. Polypodium virginianum Rockcap fern Sori in two rows on each lobe. Phylum Polypodiophyta Salviniaceae (Azollaceae) mosquito fern family Floating aquatic, reduced ferns with 2 ranked leaves, each 2 lobed. Symbiotic relationship with N2 fixing blue green bacteria Anabaena azollae. Heterosporous! Western & SE coastal elements Azolla mexicana & A. caroliniana Floating fern
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