Chemical Refining of Oils in Solvent Phase

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Chemical Refining of Oils in Solvent Phase Fundamentals of Oilseed and Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course, Shanghai, 2014 Robert Zeldenrust Overview Miscella Refining Chemical neutralisation
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Chemical Refining of Oils in Solvent Phase Fundamentals of Oilseed and Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course, Shanghai, 2014 Robert Zeldenrust Overview Miscella Refining Chemical neutralisation of edible fats and oils in the miscella phase Alcohol Neutralisation Chemical neutralisation of fats and oils with the alkaline glycerin / alcohol phase from a transesterification process as pre-treatment in biodiesel plants Safety issues Requirements for the use of equipment for explosive products 2 Overview Miscella Refining Chemical neutralisation of edible fats and oils in the miscella phase Alcohol Neutralisation Chemical neutralisation of fats and oils with the alkaline glycerin / alcohol phase from a transesterification process as pre-treatment in biodiesel plants Safety issues Requirements for the use of equipment for explosive products 3 Integration of Miscella Refining into the extraction plant Seed Hexane Meal Pressing/Flaking Press oil Extraction 1 st hexane evaporation stage Miscella Refining 15-20% Oil content 60-70% Oil content Toaster Soapstock 2 nd hexane evaporation stage Soapstock Desolventizer Steam Stripping stage Degummed and neutralised oil 4 Why is the miscella refining done after the first hexane evaporation? Separators can handle liquid mixtures of a certain specific gravity difference The specific gravity difference of the unconcentrated miscella after the extractor and the soapstock is too large The specific gravity difference of the miscella after the 2nd hexane evaporation stage and the soapstock is too small no advantage to standard alkaline neutralisation The flowrate of pre-concentrated miscella is lower The miscella concentration can be adjusted by the first hexane evaporator or by adding press oil to the crude miscella 5 Optional: Miscella mixing Miscella from Extractor Press Oil Hexane Density meter Miscella Refining 6 Miscella Refining Standard process M steam caustic soda N 2 refined miscella crude miscell a condensate operating water N 2 N 2 soapstock Process conditions: Miscella concentration: min. 60 %, max. 70% Process temperature: C Caustic soda concentr.: % Caustic soda excess: % Retention time: min. 7 Advantages of Miscella Refining Only a 1-stage refining process necessary Low soap content in the neutralised oil ( 100 ppm) without washing No waste water Higher yield compared to conventional alkali refining Optimal gossypol removal in case of cottonseed oil Less fouling of the hexane evaporators Only bleaching and deodorisation after extraction 8 Disadvantages of Miscella Refining Soapstock Desolventizer before splitting (if the soapstock cannot be added into the desolventizer/toaster) Higher fat content of the meal Grey color of the meal (instead of white) Adopted design of the desolventizer / toaster and the hexane distillation columns Special design centrifuges for safety reasons 9 Overview Miscella Refining Chemical neutralisation of edible fats and oils in the miscella phase Alcohol Neutralisation Chemical neutralisation of fats and oils with the alkaline glycerin/alcohol phase from a transesterification process as pre-treatment in biodiesel plants Safety issues Requirements for the use of equipment for explosive products 10 Reasons for alcohol neutralisation Easy integration in biodiesel process Use of the alkaline of the glycerin phase after the first transesterification stage Alcohol (Methanol) for breaking emulsions and higher selectivity Glycerin for getting has a higher density difference to the oil phase better separation and higher selectivity Glycerin is hygroscopic - drying of the oil Very good oil quality (low Phosphor content) 11 Integration of pre-degumming and alcohol refining in the transesterification process Crude oil Degumming Gums Alcohol Neutralisation glycerol phase from 1 st reaction of transesterification heavy phase from alc. neutralisation Transesterification Methylester Heavy Phase Soap Splitting FFA Glycerolprocessing 12 Pre-treatment: TOP Degumming/ Alcohol Neutralization Top Degumming Alcohol Neutralisation: Westfalia Patent Steam Acid Lye Water Holding tank Lauge Lye Methanol Glycerin / Alkohol/Alkali Glycerine / Alcohol /Alkaline M Glycerine / Methanol / Water/Soap / Gums Neutral Oil Methanol Sludge Crude oil Condensate M M Separator Clarifier M Top Degumming plus Alcohol Neutralisation ensures perfect glycerine quality 13 Alcohol Neutralization in combination with a pre-degumming Less investment costs compared with physical refining and combination of alkaline refining plus soap splitting No high contaminated waste water No water wash No acid water from soapstock splitting Higher yield Less steam consumption Same temperature in Pre-treatment and transesterification ( 60 C) No high pressure steam necessary (no physical refining and vacuum drying) 14 Alcohol Neutralization in combination with a pre-degumming No bleaching earth/ absorbent use No caustic soda necessary up to 1.5 % FFA content of the crude oil Full recovery of the FFA of the degummed oil in the soap splitting of the glycerin treatment section High availability, even in case of dirty oils, whole system can be CIP (Cleaning in Place) High glycerin quality, Phosphatides are reduced in the predegumming stage. 15 Overview Miscella Refining Chemical neutralisation of edible fats and oils in the miscella phase Alcohol Neutralisation Chemical neutralisation of fats and oils with the alkaline glycerin / alcohol phase from a transesterification process as pre-treatment in biodiesel plants Safety issues in case of solvents Requirements for the use of equipment for explosive products 16 Explosion Triangle Oxidator - Air atmosphere Explosive Burning Substance Burning Substance - Explosive gas dust Ignition Source - Equipment 17 Ignition Sources of Centrifuges hot surface gas friction of the fast rotating bowl un-balance of the bowl damaged bearings or gaskets damaged V-belts mechanically induced sparks un-balance of the bowl heavily damaged bearings no proper adjusted or any broken parts electrostatic loading high flow rates in small gabs spraying mist (aerosol) damaged belts or rubbing gaskets 18 Avoid Explosive Atmosphere change process conditions remove oxygen by inert gas safe operation Explosive safe Explosive operation Burning Substance Non-Explosive Atmosphere Burning Substance 19 Westfalia Centrifuges for Explosion Proof Areas Simplified installation of a gear driven N2 machine: Vent system 10 to 20 mbar N mbar N 2 Nitrogen Control Unit mbar N 2 operating water 20
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