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University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Doctoral Dissertations Graduate School Augmented Reality on Mobile Devices to Improve the Academic Achievement
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University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Doctoral Dissertations Graduate School Augmented Reality on Mobile Devices to Improve the Academic Achievement and Independence of Students with Disabilities Donald Douglas McMahon University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Recommended Citation McMahon, Donald Douglas, Augmented Reality on Mobile Devices to Improve the Academic Achievement and Independence of Students with Disabilities. PhD diss., University of Tennessee, This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate School at Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. It has been accepted for inclusion in Doctoral Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. For more information, please contact To the Graduate Council: I am submitting herewith a dissertation written by Donald Douglas McMahon entitled Augmented Reality on Mobile Devices to Improve the Academic Achievement and Independence of Students with Disabilities. I have examined the final electronic copy of this dissertation for form and content and recommend that it be accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, with a major in Education. We have read this dissertation and recommend its acceptance: Sherry Bell, Gary Skolits, Maribeth Coleman (Original signatures are on file with official student records.) David Cihak, Major Professor Accepted for the Council: Dixie L. Thompson Vice Provost and Dean of the Graduate School Augmented Reality on Mobile Devices to Improve the Academic Achievement and Independence of Students with Disabilities A Dissertation Presented for the Doctor of Philosophy Degree The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Donald Douglas McMahon May 2014 Copyright 2014 by Donald Douglas McMahon All rights reserved. ii Dedication To my wife Amanda McMahon, the love of my life my daughter Sydney Reese, who teaches me about joy everyday and my parents Don and Billie McMahon, the best teachers I have ever had Thank you all for your love, inspiration, and support! iii Acknowledgements I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. David Cihak, Dr. Sherry Bell, Dr. Mari Beth Coleman, and Dr. Gary Skolits for their guidance, feedback, and support. A doctoral program is a long journey. Your guidance helped make this journey a success. In particular, I would like to thank Dr. David Cihak for supporting, encouraging, and directing my progress. Your support made my doctoral program the amazing experience it has been through all the research, classes, projects, grants, applications, good ideas and bad ideas. I would like to thank my parents for all of their support from birth until now. This work would not have been possible without your time, support, and love. You are the best people I know and I love you very much. Thank you to my friend Dr. Zachary Walker for his friendship and collaborations during my doctoral program. Thank you to my friend Rachel Wright for her help, advice, and redirection when I needed it. Additionally, I would sincerely like to acknowledge the participants in this research. Thank you for your hard work and your time. You are an amazing group of people that I am fortunate to know. Finally, thank you to all my professors, teachers, students, family, and friends for the opportunity to learn from you. And now the end is near And so I face the final curtain My friend I'll say it clear I'll state my case of which I'm certain Regrets I've had a few But then again too few to mention I did what I had to do And saw it through without exemption I planned each charted course Each careful step along the byway And more, much more than this I did it my way Frank Sinatra, My Way. iv Abstract Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that overlays digital information on a live view of the physical world to create a blended experience. AR can provide unique experiences and opportunities to learn and interact with information in the physical world (Craig, 2013). The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate uses of AR on mobile devices to improve the academic and functional skills of students with disabilities. The first chapter is a literature review providing a clear understanding of AR and its connections with existing learning theories and evidence-based practices that are relevant for meeting the needs of individuals with disabilities. This chapter explores the available research on mobile devices, AR educational applications, and AR research involving students with disabilities. The purpose of Study 1 was to examine the effects of an augmented reality vocabulary instruction for science terms on college-aged students with ID. A multiple probe across skills design was used to determine if there was a functional relation between the AR vocabulary instruction and the acquisition of correctly defined and labeled science terms. The results indicated that all participants learned new science vocabulary terms using the augmented reality vocabulary instruction. Study 2 examined the effects of using an AR navigation, Google Maps, and a paper map as navigation aids for four college-aged students with ID enrolled in a PSE program. Using an adapted alternating treatments design, students used the three navigation aids to travel independently to unknown businesses in a large downtown city to seek employment opportunities. During the intervention phase, students used a mobile device with Google maps v and the AR application to navigate to unfamiliar businesses. Results from Study 2 indicated all students improved navigation decision making when using AR. In the final chapter, both studies are discussed in relation to the AR research literature and as potential interventions. Findings from the studies include the capabilities of ARon mobile devices, academic and functional applications of this technology for students with disabilities, implications for mobile learning, and limitations of this technology. Recommendations for future research are presented to further examine using AR for students with disabilities. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: UNDERSTANDING AUGMENTED REALITY AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL TOOL FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES... 1 Organization of This Dissertation... 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS... 3 Key Terms... 4 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF AUGMENTED REALITY... 6 Augmented Reality... 6 Mixed Reality Types of AR... 8 AR in relation to UDL, AT, and IT Universal Design for Learning Assistive Technology REVIEW OF RESEARCH Mobile learning for students with ID and ASD Evidence-Based Practices on mobile devices Research on Augmented Reality Marker-Based AR Markerless AR Mixed Reality and Students with Disabilities Virtual Reality and Students with Disabilities AR and Students with Disabilities RESEARCH PLAN Why AR matters for students with disabilities Purpose of this Research Research Questions CHAPTER 2: AUGMENTED REALITY AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL TOOL FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY TO POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES AND AUTISM METHODS Participants Setting Materials Variables and Data Collection Procedures Design Data Analysis Procedures Interobserver and Procedural Reliability Social Validity RESULTS Effect Size Social Validity Results DISCUSSION Limitations Future Studies Summary vii CHAPTER 3: AUGMENTED REALITY AS A NAVIGATION TOOL TO EMPLOYMENT OF ACTIVITIES FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES Barriers to Employment Mobile Devices for Students with Disabilities Augmented Reality for Location Based Learning and Navigation Purpose: Navigating to Employment Opportunities METHODS Participants Settings Research Design Treatment Conditions and Materials Variables and data collection General Procedures Data Analysis Procedures Interobserver Agreement and Treatment Integrity Social Validity RESULTS Social Validity Results DISCUSSION Limitations Future Studies Conclusion CHAPTER 4: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF AUGMENTED REALITY AND INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Mobile Learning AR in Education UDL and AR LIMITATIONS FUTURE RESEARCH Lines of Research from Study Lines of Research from Study PREPARING FOR THE AUGMENTED FUTURE CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDICES APPENDIX A. STUDY 1: VOCABULARY WORDS APPENDIX B. STUDY 1: SAMPLE DATA COLLECTION FORM AR VOCABULARY LIST APPENDIX C. STUDY 1: TREATMENT INTEGRITY CHECKLIST VOCABULARY APPENDIX D. STUDY 1: SOCIAL VALIDITY QUESTIONNAIRE APPENDIX E. DATA COLLECTION FORM: STUDY 2 NAVIGATION APPENDIX F. STUDY 2: PROCEDURAL INTEGRITY DATA SHEET APPENDIX E. SAMPLE DATA COLLECTION FORM: NAVIGATION VITA viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. STUDY 1: PARTICIPANTS CHARACTERISTICS TABLE 2. STUDY 1: EFFECT SIZES BY STUDENT TABLE 3. STUDY 1: STUDENT RESPONSES TO SOCIAL VALIDITY QUESTIONS TABLE 4. STUDY 2: PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE 5. STUDY 2: STUDENT RESPONSES TO SOCIAL VALIDITY QUESTIONS ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. MILGRAM AND KISHINO S MIXED REALITY CONTINUUM... 7 FIGURE 2. MARKER BASED AUGMENTED REALITY USED TO TEACH SIGHT WORDS FIGURE 3. A SCREENSHOT OF MARKERLESS AR... 9 FIGURE 4. UDL, AT, AND IT FIGURE 6. THE GARTNER HYPE CYCLE OF NEW TECHNOLOGY FIGURE 7. STUDY1: SCREENSHOT FROM MOBILE DEVICE DISPLAYING THE AR CONTENT FIGURE 8. STUDY 1: STUDENT USING THE AR VOCABULARY INTERVENTION FIGURE 9. STUDY 1: MIGUEL S RESULTS FIGURE 10. STUDY 1: CATHERINE S AR VOCABULARY RESULTS FIGURE 11. STUDY 1: BILLIE S AR VOCABULARY RESULTS FIGURE 12. STUDY 1: BRENDA S AR VOCABULARY RESULTS FIGURE 13. STUDY 1: GRAPH OF PND BY STUDENT FIGURE 14. STUDY 2: AUGMENTED REALITY VIEW OF LOCATION BASED JOBS INFORMATION FIGURE 15. STUDY 2: PARTICIPANTS USING THE MOBILE DEVICES FIGURE 16. STUDY 2: JAMIE S NAVIGATION RESULTS GRAPH FIGURE 17. STUDY 2: CATELYN S RESULTS GRAPH FIGURE 18. STUDY 2: JON S RESULTS GRAPH FIGURE 19. STUDY 2: AYRA S RESULTS GRAPH FIGURE 20. EXAMPLES OF MARKER-BASED AR FOR FUNCTIONAL SKILLS FIGURE 21. EXAMPLES OF MARKERLESS AR FOR ACADEMIC LEARNING x Chapter 1 Understanding Augmented Reality as an Instructional Tool for Students with Disabilities: Problem Statement Educators have more educational technological tools at their disposal than at any time in history due to the proliferation of new technologies, mobile devices, applications, and other innovations available for the delivery and creation of instructional content. Many of these new tools have provided special educators with new and creative strategies for implementing interventions for students with disabilities (Carnahan, Basham, Christman, & Hollingshead, 2012, p. 50). This research explores the potential of augmented reality (AR) which is an interactive technology based medium that engages people with digital content in the physical world (Craig, 2013). AR uniquely bridges the digital world and physical world to create a blended environment that has the benefits of both by allowing users to experience digital information in the physical world. At this time, the problem with AR instructional tools for students with disabilities is that there is limited research evidence for their use. If this new medium is to be effectively applied to meet the needs of individuals with disabilities, AR interventions need to be designed to connect with existing learning theories and evidence-based practices. After being examined empirically, these practices can become another technologicalbased intervention option to increase the academic achievement and functional independence of students with disabilities. This dissertation includes an examination of the features, capabilities, and available research in order to provide an adequate understanding of AR as a strategy for students and teachers. It also examines connections between the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and AR in education. Learning is becoming increasingly mobile as people use new 1 devices to access information whenever and wherever they need it (Elias, 2011). AR on mobile devices provides a new means of viewing digital information in the physical world. The combination of real world and digital information will only continue to grow as a field (Wu, Lee, Chang, & Liang, 2013). In summary, AR is a relatively young technology based medium that is beginning to be examined in education, but needs additional research to establish it as a means to address the needs of teachers and students. AR research in education tends to involve students without disabilities related to science, language arts, and math activities. Research is needed involving students and people with disabilities. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine empirically the use of AR technologies on mobile devices for college students with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Organization of This Dissertation This four chapter dissertation examines the use of augmented reality as an instructional and functional living tool for students with disabilities. Chapter 1 defines augmented reality, its relationship to related mediated reality concepts, the importance of mobile devices for learning in terms of augmented reality for students with disabilities, what research has been conducted on AR in education, a discussion of the current problems of AR in education for students with disabilities, and the research questions to be examined in this dissertation. Chapter 2 is the first study of this two-study dissertation and it is designed to stand alone as a single subject design study. It examines an AR based intervention to teach academic vocabulary to postsecondary education students with intellectual disabilities. Chapter 3 is the second study of this two-study dissertation and designed to stand alone as a single subject design study. It examines an AR based intervention to support functional navigation skills relating to an employment task to postsecondary education students with intellectual disabilities. Chapter 4 is a discussion of the 2 findings from both studies and previous research, implications from these studies, a discussion of AR technology trends, the importance of AR specifically for students with disabilities, and what needs exist in future AR research for people with disabilities. Research Questions Study 1 The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a marker-based AR technology to teach college students with ID and ASD science related vocabulary words. Specific research questions include: 1. What are the effects of marker-based augmented reality vocabulary instruction on the acquisition of science vocabulary words of college students with ID and ASD? 2. Do college students with ID and ASD find augmented reality vocabulary instruction to learn new science vocabulary words socially acceptable? Study 2 The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a markerless AR technology to teach college students with ID and ASD to navigate a city independently to local businesses. Specific research questions include: 1. What are the differential effects of using a printed map, Google Maps, and a markerless augmented reality navigation map on navigating a city independently to businesses for college students with ID and ASD? 2. Which navigation strategy does college students with ID and ASD report as being most helpful and socially acceptable? 3 Key Terms Augmented Reality: A field of technology and/or a medium using technology that combines a live view of the physical world, overlaid with digital information, which can include text, pictures, audio, and video. At times AR will be referred to both as medium and a technology. ios Devices: The operating system used by iphones, ipads, and ipod Touch devices, that includes access to over 1 million mobile apps available on Apple s App Store. Internet of Everything: A developing concept in information technology that describes an interconnected world that includes a wide variety of Internet connected devices including household appliances, medical devices, mobile devices, traditional computers, and public infrastructure. Marker: In the field of augmented reality a marker is an object that when viewed by the AR application will trigger preselected digital content. Examples include pictures, audio, and video that display for the user when the user views the printed trigger. Markers are sometimes referred to as triggers or trigger images. This form of AR generally does not require an internet connection and/or GPS. Markerless or Markerless AR: Also referred to as location based AR. This is a type of augmented reality that displays digital information based on a user's specific location. This type information generally requires access to the internet and/or Global Position System (GPS) to provide accurate display information. Mediated Reality: See Mixed Reality. Mixed Reality: A continuum in the field of technology that describes the intersection of the physical world and digital information. This continuum includes both augmented reality and 4 virtual reality. Mobile Device(s): Portable computers with a variety of applications, which can be customized to meet the needs of the individual user. These devices can include smartphones, ipads, Android devices, and other handheld devices. Physical World: The material world that people inhabit comprised of corporeal matter. Universal Design for Learning: Universal Design for Learning is an instructional framework connected to neuroscience, learning sciences, and cognitive psychology (CAST, 2011). The three broad principles of UDL are: Provide Multiple Means of Representation Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Provide Multiple Means of Engagement In the Higher Education Opportunity Act 2008 UDL is defined as a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practices that: (A) provide flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and (B) reduce barriers in instruction, provide appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintain high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who have limited English proficiency. (HEOA, 2008, p. 110) This policy definition supports the definition of UDL established by Rose and Meyer (2002) and updated by CAST (2011). Virtual Reality: A fully artificial digital environment in which a user navigates an avatar in order to complete tasks or gain experiences. 5 Theoretical Foundations of Augmented Reality Augmented reality (AR) is a relatively new medium of technology combining digital information and in the physical world (Craig, 2013). Although the AR research literature is limited involving students and people with disabilities, existing educational frameworks, learning theories and principles in education do support the use of AR as a promising instructional strategy for students and people with disabilities. What follows is a review of the literature defining AR and depiction of educational theories and principles that support the applications of AR for students with disabilities. Augmented Reality Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that takes a physical environment and overlays virtual information on top of the physical world to create an interactive space where users can explore, discover, interact, and learn (Craig, 2013). Milgram and Kishino (1994) described AR as any instance where the display of an otherwise real environment is augmented by means of virtual (computer graphic) objects (p. 2). The combination of computer graphic displays and views of the real world appeared as early as 1968 with the use of large stationary computers and helmet-mounted video screens (Sutherland, 1968). The term augmented reality was introduced in 1992 to describe a manufacturing advancement by Boeing engineers, which allowed workers to see digital prompts over real-time imagery to assist in the completion of
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