Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks

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Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with
  Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance andapparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks A. O. Fafiolu, ∗ ,1 O. O. Oduguwa, ∗ A. V. Jegede, ∗ C. C. Tukura, ∗ , ‡ I. D. Olarotimi, ∗ A. A. Teniola, ∗ , † and J. O. Alabi ∗ ∗ College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria;  † Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Oyo State; and   ‡ National Universities Commission, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria  ABSTRACT  Six hundred and forty one-day-old layerchicks were used to investigate the effect of replac-ing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seedmeal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% lev-els. Diets were without enzyme supplementation orwith enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utiliza-tion were determined. Proximate composition of theundecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed thatundecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9,204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter,crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and sol-uble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed thatthe final weight of 484.4g/bird was obtained for birdson 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, whilethe lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birdson 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weightgain per bird per day was not significantly ( P   >  0.05)affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seedmeal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird perday increased ( P   <  0.05) across the treatment as aresult of increased undecorticated sunflower seed mealinclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementa-tion of the diets showed marked ( P   <  0.05) improve-ments in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight aswell as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was notaffected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter di-gestibility were significantly ( P   <  0.05) reduced dueto high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusionin the diet while crude protein digestibility progres-sively reduced ( P   <  0.05) as the level of undecorti-cated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ashdigestibility values were, however, increased ( P  < 0.05)as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal in-creased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented di-ets consistently showed superior ( P   <  0.05) digestibil-ity values than those on diets without enzyme supple-mentation. However ether extract digestibility was notaffected by enzyme supplementation. The results in-dicated that higher inclusion levels of undecorticatedsunflower seed meal in the diets of layer chicks showeda similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control.Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this studyis a good source of crude protein, ether extract, andamino acids and had the potential to serve as feedingstuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive valueof undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved forlayer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. Key words:  enzyme supplementation, nutrient utilization, layer chicks, undecorticated sunflower seed meal2015 Poultry Science 00:1–6 C   The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on be-half of Poultry Science Association. This is an Open Access articledistributed under the terms of the Creative Commons AttributionNon-commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and re-production in any medium, provided the original work is properlycited. For commercial re-use, please contact December 29, 2014.Accepted March 30, 2015. 1 Corresponding author:, fafioluao@funaab. INTRODUCTION The recent feed energy crisis as a result of high priceshas raised global awareness for alternative sources of energy and protein for poultry. Increases in the pro-duction of these alternatives may invariably force downthe prices of the energy and/or protein contributingfeed ingredients (for example maize, soybean, etc.). Sev-eral alternatives have been identified, some of which in-clude copra meal, rapeseed meal, and sunflower mealto mention a few. Only sunflower meal has a very closechemical composition to soybean meal as a more con-ventional protein source in animal feed (Smith, 1968;1   b  y g u e  s  t   on J   un e  7  ,2  0 1  5 h  t   t   p :  /   /   p s  . oxf   or  d  j   o ur n a l   s  . or  g /  D o wnl   o a  d  e  d f  r  om   2  FAFIOLU ET AL. Tsuzuki et al. 2003). However, of major concern are theearlier works of Nowland et al. (1981) and Adeniji andOgunmodede (2006) who reported that the nature andthe content of sunflower seed fibre impose limitationson the utilization of its nutrients.Advances in the field of nutrition have made itpossible for improvement in the utilization of lesser-known feedstuffs. One of these advances is the use of enzyme technology, which can ameliorate the nega-tive effects of dietary nonstarch polysaccharides in highfiber feed stuffs. Rovabio TM (RVB) is a concentratedmulti-enzyme (multi-enzyme complexes are stable as-semblies of more than one enzyme, generally involvedin sequential catalytic transformation) made from thesame organism and fermentation process. It containsxylanase and  β  -glucanase made from a fermentationbroth of   Penicillium fumiculosum  . It was suggested bythe manufacturer (Adisseo Ltd, Rue Marcel Lingot,France) that the commercial blend could improve en-ergy metabolism up to 6% and enhance protein utiliza-tion up to 2%. Cowieson et al. (2006b) observed thenutrient metabolism of broilers fed corn and soybeanmeal diets was increased by a combination of xylanase,amylase, protease, and phytase. Most studies (Berghet al., 1999, Cowieson et al., 2006a, Oduguwa et al., 2007) conducted have been done with specific enzymesof maize or soybean. As a result of limited publishedstudies evaluating the effect of multi-enzyme prepara-tion on undecorticated sunflower seed meal ( USFM )using starting layer chicks, this study was conducted toassess the combined effects of replacing soybean meal( SBM ) with USFM and supplementing the resultantdiets with or without commercial enzyme Rovabio TM on growth and apparent nutrient utilization for start-ing layer chicks. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental Facility and Layer ChicksHusbandry  The study protocol was conducted in accordance withthe Animal Care and Use Review Committee guidelinesof the College of Animal Science and Livestock Produc-tion, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nige-ria. A 12 h day and dark period existed throughout theexperimental period. All the birds received intraocular,infectious bursal disease, and Lasota vaccines. Otherregular medications were strictly adhered to throughoutthe duration of the study. After transportation from thehatchery (University of Agriculture, Abeokuta – Lev-entis Agro Allied Industries Ltd) to the research unit(Poultry unit of Teaching and Research Farms, FederalUniversity of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nige-ria), the chicks were assigned to floor pens. Each floorpen was equipped with fountain drinkers and flat feed-ing trays. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Thebirds were placed on a litter of softwood shavings. The Table 1.  Composition of experimental diets fed layer chicks (0to 10 wk) (g/kg). Levels of SBM replaced by USFMIngredient 0 25 50 75Maize 530.0 465.0 380.0 290.0Fish meal (72%CP) 1 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0Soybean meal (44%CP)  1 180.0 45.0 90.0 135.0Sunflower meal (20.45%CP)  1 - 90.0 178.0 264.0Groundnut cake (45%CP)  1 120.0 200.0 132.0 20.0Wheat offal 2 69.0 99.0 119.0 190.0Bone meal 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0Oyster shell 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0L-Lysine-HCl 3 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0DL-Methionine 4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 ∗ Premix 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5Sodium Chloride 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0Total 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0Nutrient analysis (DM basis)Metabolizable Energy (MJ/kg) 11.7 11.9 11.9 11.9Crude protein 217.4 213.2 218.5 217.4Ether extract 40.2 43.4 41.5 39.1Crude fibre 31.9 34.6 47.3 52.4Calcium 16.9 18.0 19.3 20.4Av. Phosphorus 5.80 5.90 6.30 6.60Lysine 6.80 6.70 6.60 6.40Methionine 3.81 3.62 3.61 3.50Methionine + Cystine 5.82 5.71 5.55 5.23Threonine 5.90 5.90 5.90 5.82Tryptophan 1.90 1.95 1.97 2.0 ∗ Premix used supplied the following per kg diet. Vit. A: 6000IU, vit E: 40000IU, vit. K  3  : 800mg, vit. B  1 : 2000mg, vit.B  2  : 6000mg, vit. B  6  : 5000mg, vit. B  12  : 25mg, Niacin:80000mg, Pan-tothenic Acid: 20000mg, Folic Acid: 200mg, Biotin: 8mg, Manganese:300000mg, Iron: 80000mg, Zinc: 8000mg, Copper: Nil, cobalt: 80mg,Iodine: 400mg, Selenium: 40mg, Choline: 800000mg BTH: 25,000,mg Anticaking agent: 6,000mg. 1 Values in parentheses are CPcontent (N x 6.25). 2 Honeywell Plc. 3 Ajinomoto Eurolysine S.A.S, Amiens, France, 780 g/kg of lysine. 4 MetAMINO  R  , Evonik Degussa Gmbh, Essen, Germany, 990 g/kgof methionine. feeding trial involved the use of six hundred and fortyYaffa brown R  day-old layer chicks and the experimentlasted for ten wk. Undecorticated Sunflower Seed Meal  The test ingredient USFM was sourced from theNigeria Sunflower and Oil Seed Association. After har-vest, USFM was sun dried until constant weight andthereafter milled and kept until ready for incorporationinto formulated diets. Experimental Design and Diets The enzyme preparation was added to all the dietsalongside the micro-ingredients to ensure maximum in-fluence on the feed ingredients. A total of 640 day-oldlayer chicks were randomly assigned to each of the eightdietary treatments (Table 1). The diets were in accor-dance with NRC, 1994 nutrient requirements. The ex-periment was arranged in a 2  ×  4 factorial arrange-ment within a completely randomized design. The ex-perimental diets were formulated given that the protein   b  y g u e  s  t   on J   un e  7  ,2  0 1  5 h  t   t   p :  /   /   p s  . oxf   or  d  j   o ur n a l   s  . or  g /  D o wnl   o a  d  e  d f  r  om   ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION OF UNDECORTICATED SUNFLOWER SEED MEAL FOR LAYER CHICKS  3supplied by soybean meal in the control diet (withoutUSFM) was taken to be 100%. In the other diets, USFMreplaced SBM at 25, 50, and 75% (protein for protein).Diets were of two groups, with or without exogenous en-zyme supplementation. Each treatment had four repli-cations with twenty birds. The diets were presented tothe birds in mash form. Traits Measured  The following growth data were evaluated: bodyweight, feed intake, and feed to gain. The birds wereweighed on the first day of the experiment and there-after on a weekly basis throughout the study period.Fresh feed was made available daily and the remainingfeed was weighed at the end of the week to calculatefeed to gain. Mortality was collected daily and feed in-take was corrected for mortality to adjust feed to gain. Digestibility Study  At the expiration of the ten wk, four birds from eachreplicate were selected and placed in clean, disinfected,and steel frame metabolic cages equipped with a gridfloor and collector tray. Three d of the acclimatizationperiod were allowed prior to the commencement of totalexcreta collection. A known weight (more than enough)of feed was given to each treatment group daily whilethe total excreta collection was done daily for a periodof three d. The daily excreta samples for each replicatewas weighed, dried, and the cumulative samples pooledand used to determine the proximate composition ac-cording to AOAC (2000). Chemical Analyses Diets, excreta samples, and USFM were analyzed us-ing the standard methods of the Association of Offi-cial Analytical Chemists (AOAC International, 2000).Moisture content as dry matter ( DM , AOAC, 2000;930.15), crude protein ( CP , AOAC, 2000; 990;03), ether extract ( EE , AOAC, 2000; 954.02), crude fibre( CF , AOAC, 2000; 978.10), crude ash ( CA , AOAC,2000; 942.05) and soluble carbohydrate ( SC ) of sam-ples was determined in four replications after sampleswere ground. Soluble carbohydrate determination wascalculated from the formula SC = 100  −  (CF + EE+ CP + CA + moisture). Gross energy of sampleswas determined using the adiabatic bomb calorime-ter model CAL 2K. Amino acid analysis was under-taken using high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC ). Protein in USFM samples was hydrolyzed (6M hydrochloric acid) in sealed tubes at 110 ◦ C for 24 h.The resulting hydrolysate was diluted and filtered. Fivemilliliters of filtrate was taken along with a 0.5ml inter-nal standard solution into a 50 ml quick fit round bot-tom flask and dried at 65 ◦ C under vacuum. The residuewas dissolved in 2.5 ml glacial acetic acid, transferred toa 20ml polythene bottle, and analyzed by HPLC. Sub-sequent to acid hydrolysis and pre-column derivatisa-tion using  ortho -phthaldialdehyde ( OPA ), HPLC wascompleted using a Dionex ASI-100 autosampler fittedwith a Dionex P580 pump and a Dionex RF-2000 de-tector (Germering, Germany). The flow rate used was1 ml/min and the column used was a Spherisorb ODS2150  ×  4.6 mm fitted with a Waters guard cartridge(Milford, USA). Analysis of amino acids were deter-mined at Eurofins Food Testing (Wolverhampton, UK)and analysis followed EC directives 2000/45/EC fortryptophan (OJEC, 2000) and EC/98/64 (L 257/16)for the rest of the amino acids (OJEC, 1998). Calculations Values obtained were used to calculate the apparentdigestibility of the DM, CP, EE, CF, CA, and SC. Solu-ble carbohydrate determination was calculated from theformula SC = 100  −  (CF + EE + CP + CA + mois-ture). Samples were placed in a hot dry oven (105 ◦ C)for 16 h for DM determination. CP determination fol-lowed the micro-Kjeldahl procedure and using 6.25 toconvert nitrogen into CP. Soxhlet extraction appara-tus with petroleum ether was used for EE determina-tion. All the procedures were outlined in AOAC Inter-national (2000). Apparent nutrient digestibility ( AND )coefficient of proximate fractions were estimated usingthe formula AND (%) = [(aNC  −  aNE)/NC]  ×  100,where  aNC  = amount of nutrient consumed and  aNE = amount of nutrient excreted. Nutrient consumptionand excretion were properly monitored in order to de-termine the amount of nutrient in feed and excreta, andthis was done by measuring the amount of feed givenand total leftover. Total excreta collection was thusmeasured for the entire period. The following formulawas used to estimate the amount of nutrient consumed:aNC = TFC  ×  aNFA, where  TFC  = total feed con-sumed during the period of study and aNFA = amountof nutrient in the feed analyzed. In the same vein, theamount of nutrient excreted was obtained from the for-mula aNE = TPEx  ×  aNEx, where  TPEx  = total exc-reta produced during study period and  aNEx  amountof nutrient analyzed Statistical Analysis Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Vari-ance using the general linear model (GLM) procedureof SAS (1999). Statistical significance was set at confi-dence level greater than, or equal to 95%. RESULTS Proximate and amino acids composition of USFM arepresented in Table 2. Results indicated that USFM con-tained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0, and 192.2g/kgdry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre,   b  y g u e  s  t   on J   un e  7  ,2  0 1  5 h  t   t   p :  /   /   p s  . oxf   or  d  j   o ur n a l   s  . or  g /  D o wnl   o a  d  e  d f  r  om   4  FAFIOLU ET AL. Table 2.  Chemical composition and aminoacid content of undecorticated sunflower seedmeal. Nutrients Concentration (g/kg)Dry matter 925.9Crude Protein 204.5Ether extract 336.2Crude fibre 215.1Ash 52.0Soluble Carbohydrates 192.2Indispensable amino acidsArginine 10.1Histidine 2.8Isoleucine 6.4Leucine 8.9Lysine 3.9Methionine 1.6Phenylalanine 6.2Threonine 3.7Tryptophan 0.9Valine 7.7Dispensable amino acidsAlanine 5.6Aspartic acid 12.4Cysteine NDGlutamic acid 28.1Glycine 6.8Proline NDSerine 3.7Tyrosine 2.4Analyzed values are mean of four replicates. ash, and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Aminoacid composition of USFM used in this study showedthat, among indispensable amino acids, arginine hadthe highest concentration followed by leucine and valinewith 10.12, 8.97, and 7.73 (g/kg), respectively. Tryp-tophan and methionine are the most limiting aminoacids in USFM. The starting layer chicks fed USFMdiets had significant ( P   >  0.05) reduction in drymatter, crude protein, crude fibre, and ether extractdigestibilities (Table 3). Enzyme supplementation im-proved ( P   <  0.05) the digestibility of the proximateconstituents except for ether extract digestibility. A fi-nal weight of 484.41g was obtained for birds fed diets inwhich SBM was replaced by 75% USFM, while the low-est value of 472.20g was obtained for their counterpartsthat received 25% USFM diet. Weight gain was slightlyhigher for birds on the 75% USFM diet, though no sta-tistical ( P   >  0.05) difference was obtained among thetreatments. Feed intake values were increased at highUSFM inclusion (Table 4). DISCUSSION Results from the study (Table 2) indicated that thetest ingredient is a good source of crude protein witha relatively high crude fibre content and ether extract.This value of crude fibre is in congruence with that Table 3.  Main effect of undecorticated sunflower, enzyme and interaction between enzymeand undecorticated sunflower seed meal on apparent nutrient digestibility of layer chicks fedundecorticated sunflower seed meal-based diets (%). Levels of SBM replaced by USFM EnzymeParameters 0 25 50 75 SEM  −  + SEM USFM  ×  EDry matter 87.36 a 87.48 a 87.24 a 83.30 b 0.74 84.96 b 87.73 a 0.52 NSCrude protein 68.11 a 67.46 b 66.25 c 64.78 d 0.82 64.91 b 68.39 a 0.58 NSCrude Fiber 69.61 a 66.49 b 62.79 c 60.75 d 0.81 60.22 b 69.59 a 0.57 NSEther Extract 76.61 a 75.38 b 66.44 c 62.94 d 0.90 70.55 70.13 0.64 NSAsh 62.89 d 64.05 c 66.36 b 70.34 a 0.71 63.53 b 68.29 a 0.50  ∗∗ a–d Means on the same row having different superscript are significantly different ( P   <  0.05).SEM: Standard Error of Means.NS: Not significant ( P   >  0.05). ∗∗ : Significant ( P   <  0.05). Table 4.  Main effect of sunflowers, enzyme, and interaction between enzyme and undecorticatedsunflower seed meal on performance of layer chicks fed undecorticated sunflower seed meal-baseddiets. Levels of SBM replaced by USFM EnzymeParameters 0 25 50 75 SEM  −  + SEM USFM  ×  EInitial Weight (g) 32.74 32.77 32.74 32.72 0.02 32.71 32.78 0.02 NSFeed intake/b/d(g) 43.65 c 49.43 b 49.82 b 54.96 a 1.07 54.22 a 44.70 b 0.75 NSFinal Weight (g) 476.36 472.20 472.45 484.41 2.76 472.25 b 480.46 a 1.95 NSWeight gain/b/d(g) 6.34 6.28 6.28 6.45 0.03 6.27 b 6.39 a 0.02 NSFeed: Gain 7.26 7.61 7.69 8.32 0.33 8.62 a 6.81 b 0.23  ∗∗ Survivability (%) 100.00 100.00 100.00 95.00 0.03 97.5 100.00 0.62 NS a–c Means on the same row having different superscript are significantly different ( P   <  0.05).SEM: Standard Error of Means.NS: Not significant ( P   >  0.05). ∗∗ : Significant ( P   <  0.05).   b  y g u e  s  t   on J   un e  7  ,2  0 1  5 h  t   t   p :  /   /   p s  . oxf   or  d  j   o ur n a l   s  . or  g /  D o wnl   o a  d  e  d f  r  om   ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION OF UNDECORTICATED SUNFLOWER SEED MEAL FOR LAYER CHICKS  5obtained by Villamide and San Juan (1998) who re-ported that the fibre fraction in sunflower meal rangedbetween 14 to 30%. Although the lysine content of sun-flower seed meal is quite appreciable, the result ob-tained in this study including that of methionine andtryptophan being the most limiting underscores manystudies that have reported that the three most limitingamino acids in oil seed cakes are methionine, trypto-phan, and lysine.The reduced digestibility of the various proximatefractions in USFM diets (Table 3) is a pointer to thefact that the diets may not have met the requirementsof the birds for these essential nutrients. Undecorti-cated sunflower seed meal contains large amounts of cellwall polysaccharides/fibers (Kalmendal et al., 2011);this may have interfered with other nutrients in the re-sulting diets and these interferences may have resultedin reduced digestibility of proximate constituents un-der the present experiment. Ash digestibility however,increased significantly across the treatments, the ele-vated ash level suggests that more minerals are avail-able to the birds. None of the birds showed any min-eral deficiency symptoms throughout the experimentalperiod, Slominski and Campbell (1990) reported thatdietary enzyme supplementation of Canola meal based-diet improved utilization of non-starch polysaccharidesin poultry chickens. Similarly, addition of enzyme inthis present study led to significant improvement in di-gestibility of crude protein, crude fiber, and ash. Therewas a significant interaction effect of USFM by enzymeon the ether extract digestibility in which the birds fedon 0 and 25% USFM diets without enzyme supplemen-tation gave the best values. The enzyme used may nothave affected the ether extract digestibility since theliterature has confirmed only its activity against NSPs,not fat. Furthermore, a look at the profile of the ac-tivity according to the manufacturer’s details suggeststhat the enzyme contains xylanases,  β  -glucanase, cel-lulases, pectinase, and proteases. The preparation doesnot contain lipase, hence its lack of effect on the etherextract digestibility.Feed intake values were higher at elevated USFMlevels. The fibrous nature of the test material mayhave been responsible for the significantly high feedintake. The body weight of birds on the 75% USFMdiet did not decrease but was actually increased nu-merically because the birds had to consume apprecia-bly more feed to gain 1 kg of body weight. Burrowset al. (1982) and Jorgensen et al. (1996) had reported that increasing fiber concentration caused increased fe-cal bulk and weight and decreased digestibility of allnutrients. It has been widely reported that increaseddietary fiber in feed lowers the energy of metabolism, if the likely lowered metabolized energy was to be respon-sible, chicks during the starter phase were expected toconsume more to make up for the lower energy. Butthe diets offered were formulated to be isocaloric andisoproteinous. Because of the increase in the amountof feed intake, there were no suspected complications of bitter taste of the test ingredient. However, birds on theUSFM diets had a higher feed to gain ratio, which isa pointer to poor feed utilization. The observed trendwas also noticed when broilers were offered the samediets (Fafiolu et al., 2009). However, enzyme supple-mentation of the diets showed marked improvementsin feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as wellas the feed to gain ratio. Mortality/survivability wasnot affected by enzyme supplementation. Enzyme sup-plementation enhanced the utilization of the feed bythe birds. The improvement noticed in this present ex-periment might be as a result of improvement in theutilization of the USFM diet as a result of enzyme ad-dition. This may have been due to increased solubilityand digestibility of the NSPs present in USFM. Manyreports have indicated significant improvement of thenutritive value of cereal grains such as wheat, barley,oats, and rye by enzyme addition (Irish and Balnave,1983; Bishavi and McGinnes, 1984; Choct and Annison, 1990, 1992; Friesen et al., 1992). Enzyme supplementa- tion used here conferred beneficial improvement statuson the test ingredients. Significant interactions betweendietary USFM levels and enzyme supplementation werenoted for feed intake and feed to gain ratio in the ex-perimental birds. These interactions may suggest thatenzyme supplementation was more effective when thelayer chicks were offered a 75% enzyme-supplementedUSFM diet unlike noticed in broilers (Fafiolu et al.,2009). These results indicate a synergistic effect for en-zyme at higher levels of USFM in relation to feed intakeand feed to gain of the starting layer chicks since such aresponse is probably related to improved energy releaseby the enzyme used.In conclusion, USFM used in this current study is agood source of crude protein, ether extract, and aminoacids with appreciable content of crude fiber and hasthe potential to serve as feedstuffs to replace soybeans.The nutritive value of USFM can be improved for layerchicks with exogenous multi-enzyme supplementation,therefore, allowing USFM the capacity to replace a highproportion of soybean in the layer chicks’ diet. Conflict of Interest  The authors of this publication received supportfrom the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,Nigeria, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agri-cultural Development and Sustainable Environment(CEADESE) and the National Universities Commis-sion (NUC) Nigeria. No conflict of interest was iden-tified for management based on the overall scope of the work. The terms of the arrangement have been re-viewed and approved by the College of Animal Scienceand Livestock Production, Federal University of Agri-culture, Abeokuta, Nigeria in accordance with its policyon objectivity in research.   b  y g u e  s  t   on J   un e  7  ,2  0 1  5 h  t   t   p :  /   /   p s  . oxf   or  d  j   o ur n a l   s  . or  g /  D o wnl   o a  d  e  d f  r  om 
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