ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF TWO-YEAR FALLOW KEEPING AND CULTIVATION OF WINTER WHEAT

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POLISH JOURNAL OF NATURAL SCIENCES Abbrev.: Pol. J. Natur. Sc., Vol 24(4): , Y DOI /v ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF TWO-YEAR FALLOW KEEPING
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POLISH JOURNAL OF NATURAL SCIENCES Abbrev.: Pol. J. Natur. Sc., Vol 24(4): , Y DOI /v ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF TWO-YEAR FALLOW KEEPING AND CULTIVATION OF WINTER WHEAT Marek Marks, Przemysław Makowski, Krzysztof Orzech Chair of Agricultural Systems University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn K e y w o r d s: fallow land, previous crops, winter wheat, energy effectiveness index. Abstract During exclusion of the land from market production for two vegetation seasons the highest energy outlays were incurred for maintaining the black fallow and the lowest for the herbicide fallow. In winter wheat production technique the highest energy outlays ( MJ ha -1 ) were incurred in materials. In the group of outlays for materials, 66.4% were fertilizers, 31.4% the sowing material and just 2.2% the plants protection media. The second largest flow of energy outlays consisted of energy carriers at MJ ha -1, among which the largest shares were those of soil cultivation 54.3%, harvest 17.9% and crops cultivation 13.2%. Tractors and machines were the third largest energy consumers group (731.1 MJ ha -1 ), where the demand structure was as follows: 35.5% harvest, 34.5% soil cultivation and 15% crops cultivation, fertilization 9.2% and sowing 5.8%. Among the agricultural technique components, fertilization and sowing had the largest share representing respectively 58.0% and 27.8% of all outlays. Among the compared three-field rotation system components, the highest energy efficiency coefficient of 9.9 was achieved while cultivating winter wheat after two-years of red clover, which was coupled with the lowest energy outlays for production of 1 cereal unit. The lowest energy efficiency coefficient (5.4) was achieved in the crops rotation system component of black fallow black fallow winter wheat. OCENA ENERGETYCZNA RÓŻNYCH SPOSOBÓW DWULETNIEGO UGOROWANIA I UPRAWY PSZENICY OZIMEJ Marek Marks, Przemysław Makowski, Krzysztof Orzech Katedra Systemów Rolniczych Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie S ł o w a k l u c z o w e: ugór, przedplon, pszenica ozima, wskaźnik efektywności energetycznej. Address: Marek Marks, University of Warmia and Mazury, pl. Łódzki 3, phone: +48 (89) , 188 Marek Marks et al. Abstrakt Podczas wyłączenia gruntów z produkcji towarowej na dwa sezony wegetacyjne najwyższe nakłady energetyczne poniesiono na utrzymanie ugoru czarnego, a najniższe ugoru herbicydowego. W technologii produkcji pszenicy ozimej największe nakłady energii ( MJ ha -1 ) pochłonęły użyte materiały. W grupie nakładów materiałowych 66,4% stanowiły nawozy, 31,4% materiał siewny, a jedynie 2,2% środki ochrony roślin. Drugim w kolejności strumieniem nakładów energii były nośniki energii 1754,1 MJ ha -1, a największy ich udział przypadał na uprawę roli 54,3%, zbiór 17,9% i pielęgnację 13,2%. Trzecim w kolejności odbiorcą energii były ciągniki i maszyny (731,1 MJ ha -1 ), gdzie struktura zapotrzebowania rozkładała się następująco: 35,5% przypadało na zbiór, 34,5% na uprawę roli, 15% na pielęgnację, nawożenie 9,2% i siew 5,8%. Wśród ogniw agrotechniki największy udział miało nawożenie i siew, osiągając odpowiednio 58,0 i 27,8% wszystkich nakładów. Z porównywanych trójpolowych członów zmianowania najwyższy wskaźnik efektywności energetycznej, wynoszący 9,9, stwierdzono uprawiając pszenicę ozimą po dwuletniej koniczynie czerwonej, odnotowano przy tym najmniejsze nakłady energii na produkcję 1 jednostki zbożowej. Najniższy wskaźnik efektywności energetycznej (5,4) uzyskano w ogniwie zmianowania: ugór czarny ugór czarny pszenica ozima. Introduction In view of many centuries of agricultural science and practice, the fallow had and still has a well-established position. Already in primitive farming systems it formed an inseparable component of crops rotation system (NOWICKI et al. 2007). After accession of Poland to the European Union Structures and introduction of direct subsidies, agricultural producers are required to observe the minimum conservation requirements for agricultural land (Rozporządzenie Ministra ). According to the regulation by the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development (2007), the requirements concerning lying arable land fallow are considered satisfied if it was subject to cultivation but was not sown with a crop for a period exceeding 6 months or was covered with vegetation and was subject to at least one mowing before July 30 (Rozporządzenie Ministra ). The method of conservation of soils temporarily excluded from cultivation (fallow) should secure the most favorable conditions of following market production on them (NOWICKI et al. 2007). Optimization of fallow method from the economic perspective is no less important. This paper aims at assessment of energy efficiency of different methods of two-year fallow use as forecrop for winter wheat in three-fields system of rotation fallow fallow winter wheat. Assessment of Energy Requirements Material and Methods The results of studies on the basis of which the appropriate computations were made come from a closed field experiment conducted during the years at the Experimental-Production Farm in Bałcyny. The field experiment was established on gray-brown podzolic, medium dusty soil, with gley underneath. The base is light clays without structure containing up to 26% of floatable fraction and up to 17% of dust fractions. The surface level of mollic type contained around 23% of floatable parts and 12% of dust fractions. The soil was characterized by slightly acid reaction (ph KCL ) and medium content of organic substance ( %). As concerns agricultural suitability it was classified to use class IIIa and goof wheat complex 2. In the experiment established every year on the field after winter wheat, six three-field rotation system components were analyzed encompassing the following plants and sequence of crops: spring rape pea winter wheat (control field), black fallow black fallow winter wheat, herbicide fallow herbicide fallow winter wheat, fallow sown with red clover winter wheat, fallow sown with Italian ryegrass winter wheat, fallow sown with the mix of red clover and Italian ryegrass winter wheat. The black fallow was maintained using the soil miller. The milling was done at the time when weeds reached the height of around cm or covered a significant part of soil surface. The herbicide fallow was maintained on a similar principle as the black fallow, Instead of milling spraying with Roundup 300 SL herbicide at 3 dm 3 ha -1 was applied. During the second year of use the last mowing of red clover, Italian ryegrass and the mix of red clover and Italian ryegrass was ploughed as green fertilizer. Zyta cultivar winter wheat was sown during the second decade of September at quantities assuring the number of plants after seedling development at 500 plants m -2, i.e. around kg ha -1. Aiming at determination of forecrop value of the fields for winter wheat the decreased nitrogen fertilization was applied that totaled 120 kg N ha -1. Fertilizer dose was divided into two parts applying the first one at 80 kg N ha -1 in the spring at the time when vegetation started in the form of 46% urea and the second one at 40 kg N ha -1 in the form of 34% ammonium nitrate at full tillering of the wheat. For winter wheat protection against agrophages during individual years of studies spraying with preparations available in the market was applied according to the recommendations by the Institute of Plant Protection in Poznań. 190 Marek Marks et al. The conducted energy balance for fallow and winter wheat cultivation encompassed: energy outlays according to flows: labor, materials (fertilizers, means of plants protection, sowing material), machines and tractors, energy carriers (fuel), energy outlays according to stages of agricultural technique (soil cultivation, sowing, fertilization, cultivation, harvest), energetic value of production, unit energy outlays and energy efficiency. Aiming at elimination of year-to-year variation the average yields of seeds of spring rape and pea, winter wheat grain as well as green mass of red clover and Italian ryegrass obtained during the years were assumed for the basis of economic assessment. The energy efficiency analysis was carried out by applying the method described by WIELICKI (1989), and recommended by FAO. In determining the energetic value of the harvest it was assumed that 1 kg of green mass is equivalent to 0.71 MJ or 1 kg of dry mass to MJ (WÓJCICKI 1981). The volume of outlays accumulated in means of production (materials) was determined according to the actual consumption of fertilizer, sowing material and plant protection preparations. The level of energy outlays resulting from use of tractors and machines in the production process was determined by multiplying the unit material consumption of the equipment piece by the equivalent set at 112 MJ kg -1. Human labor was calculated assuming after PAWLAK (1989) the standard of 40 MJ work h -1. The volume of fuel and other materials and means of production consumed were converted to MJ using for that purpose the applicable accumulated energy coefficients applied in energy balance of plant production (WÓJCICKI 1981, MACIEJKO 1984, WIELICKI 1986, ANUSZEWSKI 1987, GOĆ, MUZALEWSKI 1997, WIELICKI 1989): nitrogen fertilizers (1 kg N) 77 MJ, phosphorus fertilizers (1 kg P 2 O 5 ) 15 MJ, potassium fertilizers (1 kg K 2 O) 10 MJ, plant protection media (1 kg of active substance) 300 MJ, seeds of small seed legume plants and grasses (1 kg) 30 MJ, seeds of oil and leguminous plants (1 kg) 24 MJ, sowing seeds of winter wheat (1 kg) 16.0 MJ, liquid fuel (1 kg) 48 MJ. The energy efficiency index (E e ) was computed according to the formula: E e = P e N e where: P e energetic value of the obtained crop yield per ha, MJ, N e energy outlays incurred to obtain the yield per ha. Assessment of Energy Requirements Results The highest energy outlays were made for keeping the control object where sowing pea was the element of rotation in the production cycle and winter rape during the second year (Table 1). In total they were MJ ha -1, and materials used for production in the form of fertilizers, plant protection mean and sowing material were the largest component according to the energy flows (79.5%). Among the compared variants of two-year fallow use the black fallow was the most energy intensive variant where the energy outlays were MJ. They were, however, lower by 67.3% as compared to the control object and in the structure of expenditures energy carriers were the largest component (76.6%) followed by tractors and machines 16.0% and labor 7.7%. Objects after Italian ryegrass and the mix of Italian ryegrass and red clover followed with almost identical energy outlays. The structure of energy flows was similar and energy carriers had the largest share in them. During two years of fallow use, the lowest energy outlays were incurred for maintaining the herbicide fallow. Those outlays represented only 12.5% of those on cultivation of pea and winter rape on the control object and energy carriers (50% of all outlays) and materials 34.0% were the main flows. As concerns the operations of agricultural technique the largest energy outlays required for cultivation of pea and winter rape (control object) where those on fertilization 59.8% while soil cultivation represented 12.3% only. The remaining operations (sowing, cultivation and harvest) together represented 27.9% of the outlays (Table 2). Among the compared fallow use methods, black fallow was the most energy intensive one where 100% of energy outlays were those on soil cultivation (the group of post-harvest operations following the harvest of forecrop and several milling operations), of which 60.1% of outlays were made during the first and 39.9% during the second year of fallow use. In all variants of two-year green fallow use cultivation of soil was also the dominating component of agricultural technique in he overall balance of energy outlays because in different variants of maintaining the soil in effective condition no fertilizers were applied. In the structure of energy outlays it ranged from 54.1% on objects after Italian ryegrass and the mix of red clover with Italian ryegrass to 57.6% in case of keeping the fallow with red clover. In case of the least energy intensive fallow use, the herbicide fallow the highest share in energy outlays was also that on soil cultivation at 52.8%. In winter wheat production technology the highest energy outlays ( MJ ha -1 ) were those on materials used (Table 3). In the group of material outlays fertilizers represented 66.4%, sowing material 31.4% and plant protection means 2.2% only. The second highest flow of energy Energy outlays according to flows for variants of two-year follow use Table 1 Time of fallow use Item Spring rapepea-winter wheat (control field) black fallow After holding land fallow for two years herbicide treated fallow green fallow mix of red clover red clover Italian ryegrass and Italian ryegrass First year of fallow use Second year of fallow use MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % labor machines and tractors energy carriers materials total a labor machines and tractors energy carriers materials total b Total sum a+b Marek Marks et al. Energy outlays according to agricultural elements for maintenance of two-year fallow land Table 2 Time of fallow use Agricultural element Spring rapepea-winter wheat (control field) black fallow After holding land fallow for two years herbicide treated fallow green fallow mix of red clover red clover Italian ryegrass and Italian ryegrass First year of fallow use Second year of fallow use MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % soil cultivation fertilization sowing crop cultivation harvest total a ,1 soil cultivation fertilization sowing crop cultivation harvest total b Total sum a+b Assessment of Energy Requirements Energy outlays according to flows and agricultural elements for cultivation of winter wheat Table 3 Agricultural element Labor Machines and tractors Energy carriers Materials Total MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % MJ ha -1 % Soil cultivation Fertilization Sowing Crop cultivation Harvest Total Energy balance for rotation fallow land fallow land winter wheat Table 4 Item Spring rape-pea- -winter wheat (control field) Crop rotation segment 2 years mix 2 years 2 years herbicide 2 years 2 years of red clover black fallow treated fallow red clover Italian ryegrass and Italian winter wheat winter wheat winter wheat winter wheat ryegrass winter wheat Outlays (MJ ha -1 1) Yield value (MJ ha -1 1) Cumulate energy gain (MJ ha -1 1) Production energy intensity Production effectiveness Production in cereal units z 1 ha Energy outlay for1 JZ production (MJ JZ -1 ) Marek Marks et al. Assessment of Energy Requirements outlays was that consisting of energy carriers at MJ ha -1, and the highest share among them was that of soil cultivation 54.3%, harvest 17.9% and crop cultivation 13.2%). The third group of energy consumers were tractors and machines (731.1 MJ ha -1 ), where the demand structure was as follows: harvest 35.5%, soil cultivation 34.5%, crop cultivation 15%, fertilization 9.2% and sowing 5.8%. Labor is the last flow of energy outlays. In case of winter wheat production it was computed at the level of MJ ha -1. It was established that fertilization consuming 58% of total energy outlays was the most energy intensive operation in winter wheat production consuming 58% of the total energy outlays. Sowing ranks second at 27.8% of outlays (because of the sowing material used) and they are followed by soil cultivation at 7%, crop cultivation at 3.9% and harvest at 3.2%. Energy efficiency is a synthetic indicator as the ratio of energy accumulated in the yield to the energy input. In average in the studied segments of crop rotation system that indicator was at a very high level (Table 4). The highest production efficiency index at 9.9 was found in the rotation system of red clover red clover winter wheat. It was found at the same time that this system was characterized by the lowest energy outlays for production of 1 cereal unit. The second place in the ranking based on production effectiveness was taken by the rotation system involving two years of red clover cultivation in the mix with Italian ryegrass winter wheat. The third place was taken by herbicide fallow (for two years) winter wheat where the energy efficiency index was 6.3. The energy outlays for production of 1 cereal unit were the highest in the system of two years of black fallow followed by winter wheat at MJ cereal unit -1. Discussion In market economy every production undertaking (agricultural or non- -agricultural) can be considered rational on condition that it was verified through economic calculation and subjected to assessment in the aspect of expected negative and positive consequences for the surrounding environment (WOŚ 1992). Plant production technologies currently applied in practice differ in the level of consumption of yield generating means, i.e. production intensity, and making the energy balance allows the optimal choice of such technologies. The assessment of production technologies applied in most cases is limited to production-economic criteria to which the energy balance could be a complement (MACIEJKO 1984). High comparability of results indifferent of the 196 Marek Marks et al. relations of prices is its particular advantage. It can be applied for assessment of energy intensity of individual agricultural technology operations, e.g. soil cultivation (GONET, ZAORSKI 1988, GONET 1991, KORDAS 1999), fertilization (NASALSKI 2001), technique of cultivation of selected crops (WIELICKI 1986), crops rotation systems, and even entire farms (ORLIŃSKI 1986, PAWLAK 1989). Among agricultural technology operation, the highest energy outlays were related to fertilization. According to NASALSKI (2001) fertilization is the basic factor determining the economic effectiveness of agricultural production. It is a significant yield-generating factor and at the same time it has a significant share in the structure of outlays and costs of production. High-energy outlays related to soil cultivation were reported by GONET and ZAORSKI (1988), GONET (1991) and KORDAS (1999), Energy efficiency characterized by the index expressing the relation between the energy contained in the harvest and the energy outlays made in the process of production is also an important criterion of economic nature applied in analysis and assessment of production. WIELICKI (1989) reports that under average conditions of farming four units of energy of product produced should be generated per one unit of energy outlays. In the tested two-field segments of rotation system that indicator exceeded those value in every case. Conclusions 1. In two-year cycle of fallow maintenance the highest energy outlays were incurred for maintenance of black fallow and the lower in case of herbicide fallow. 2. The energy outlays for winter wheat cultivation were dominated by materials (fertilizers, means of plants protection, sowing material) representing as much as 85.5% of the total. As concerns the agricultural technique operations the highest share was that of fertilization and sowing representing 58.0% and 27.8% of all the outlays respectively. 3. Among the six compared three-field elements of crops rotation the highest energy efficiency index (9.9) was characteristic for the system red clover red clover winter wheat offering at the same time the lowest energy outlays for production of 1 cereal unit. The lowest energy efficiency index (5.4) was recorded for the rotation system of black fallow black fallow winter wheat. Translated by JERZY GOZDEK Accepted for print Assessment of Energy Requirements References ANUSZEWSKI R Metoda oceny energochłonności produktów rolniczych (MET). Zag.
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