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GFS 0914 Assessment of Energy Reduction Campaign An Analysis of the Behavioral and Attitudinal Impacts of an Environmental Initiative in the Danish Municipality of Lyngby- Tårbæk An Interactive Qualifying
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GFS 0914 Assessment of Energy Reduction Campaign An Analysis of the Behavioral and Attitudinal Impacts of an Environmental Initiative in the Danish Municipality of Lyngby- Tårbæk An Interactive Qualifying Project to be submitted to the faculty of Worcester Polytechnic Institute in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science Submitted by: Andrew Keating Andrew Labak Valentina Polyakova Submitted to: Project Advisor: Prof. Guillermo Salazar Project Liaisons: Tina Reinicke, Lyngby-Tårbæk City Hall and Agenda21 Michael Søgård Jørgensen, Technical University of Denmark and The Science Shop May 11 th, 2009 i Abstract This report, prepared for The Science Shop, reviews the impact of an energy reduction campaign upon the attitudes of city employees in the Danish municipality of Lyngby-Tårbæk. This assessment was accomplished through the analysis of energy consumption records from five different municipal buildings, interviews with key informants and information gathered through an internet survey. The campaign had a significant impact upon the attitudes of many municipal employees, although this did not result in energy savings in all cases. ii Acknowledgements We would like to thank Professor Guillermo Salazar for his continued guidance throughout our project and his mentoring during our time in Denmark. We would like to thank Professor Scott Jiusto for his lecturing and guidance during the preparation phase of our project. We would like to thank Professor Michael Jørgensen and the Science Shop, as well as Tina Reinecke and the Lyngby-Tårbæk City Hall, for sponsoring and assisting with our efforts. We wish to thank Professor Peder Pedersen and Tom Thomsen for their outstanding efforts in running the Copenhagen project center and for establishing our project, as well as providing us with background of Danish culture and history. Lastly, we would like to thank Mogens Larsen for introducing us to Copenhagen and the Danish language. iii Authorship Page All group members Andrew Keating, Valentina Polyakova, and Andrew Labak contributed equally to this project. iv Contents ABSTRACT... II ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... III AUTHORSHIP PAGE... IV CONTENTS... V LIST OF FIGURES... VII LIST OF TABLES... VIII CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION...1 CHAPTER 2: BACKGROUND CLIMATE CHANGE Natural Variability and Human Factors Future Climate Change Projections CONTROLLING CLIMATE CHANGE Global Energy Reduction Programs ENERGY CAMPAIGNS Framework for Energy Campaigns Common Components of Energy Campaigns LYNGBY-TÅRBÆK MUNICIPALITY Basic Municipality Information Research and Innovation: The DTU Climate Change Technologies The Science Shop Lyngby s Green Efforts The Lyngy-Tårbæk Energy Reduction Campaign ATTITUDINAL ASPECTS OF ENERGY REDUCTION Relationship between Attitudes and Energy Reduction The Psychology of Energy Usage STRATEGIES FOR ALTERING ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOR SUCCESSFUL CAMPAIGN: TECHNIQUES FOR PROMOTING ENERGY CONSERVING BEHAVIOR...18 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ASSESS ENERGY SAVING CULTURE Surveys Perform Key Informant Interviews Perform systematic observations Interpret Results ASSESS ENERGY SAVINGS Gather energy usage statistics...28 v 3.3 INSTITUTION STRATEGIES Kongevejen Skole Børnehuset Papillon Stadsbiblioteket Rådhusets Personaleafdelingen Virumhallen City Hall Technical Managers...32 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OVERVIEW OF THE 5 INSTITUTIONS Specific Building Information Campaign Effectiveness Index KONGEVEJEN SKOLE BØRNEHUSET PAPILLON STADSBIBLIOTEKET RÅDHUSETS PERSONALEAFDELINGEN VIRUMHALLEN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA SURVEY DATA SURVEY DATA CONCLUSIONS AND ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS...64 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...66 WORKS CITED...71 APPENDIX A: CAMPAIGN MATERIALS...76 APPENDIX B: SURVEY (DANISH)...77 APPENDIX C: SURVEY (ENGLISH)...78 APPENDIX D: SURVEY QUESTIONS (DANISH)...79 APPENDIX E: SURVEY (ENGLISH)...82 APPENDIX F: COMPLETE SURVEY RESULTS...85 APPENDIX G: INTERVIEW QUESTION SET...90 APPENDIX H: CAMPAIGN FEEDBACK (DANISH)...93 APPENDIX I: ENERGY REPORT FOR BØRNEHUSET PAPILLON...95 vi List of Figures Figure 1: Greenhouse gas concentration stabilization projections [38]...7 Figure 2: Program planning cycle [27]...9 Figure 3: Campaign element motivational poster...13 Figure 4: Model describing precursors for environmentally relevant behavior [21]...16 Figure 5: Methodology flowchart...22 Figure 6: Internet survey...24 Figure 7: Informational focuses of data gathering methods...27 Figure 8: Kongevejen Skole...29 Figure 9: Børnehuset Papillon...30 Figure 10: Stadsbiblioteket...30 Figure 11: Rådhuset...31 Figure 12: Virumhallen...32 Figure 13: Campaign poster in the main hallway of Kongevejen Skole...38 Figure 14: Kongevejen Skole energy usage statistics...39 Figure 15: Small campaign sticker on a copy machine...42 Figure 17: Energy-wasting playhouse with air conditioning unit...43 Figure 16: Børnehuset Papillon energy usage statistics...43 Figure 18: Motion-activated water tap...44 Figure 19: Campaign poster in the office space of the library...46 Figure 20: Multitude of overhead lights turned on during the day...47 Figure 21: Stadsbiblioteket energy usage statistics...48 Figure 22: Campaign Fuzzy Mascot and energy-saving reminded mounted on a light switch..50 Figure 23: Rådhuset energy usage statistics...51 Figure 24: Virumhallen energy usage statistics...53 Figure 25: Unoccupied lounge on the main floor. The lights are switched off during the day Figure 26: Energy statistics of the five institutions for January, February and March of 2008 and Figure 27: Survey question measuring impact upon knowledge...59 Figure 28: Survey question measuring social norms...60 Figure 29: Survey question measuring behavior change related to lights...61 Figure 30: Survey question measuring behavior change related to computers...61 Figure 32: Measure of consciousness of an environmental problem...62 Figure 31: Measure of consciousness of relevance of one s behavior...62 Figure 33: Level of effectiveness of the campaign on the change in behavior...63 Figure 35: Greenhouse gas emissions food pyramid...69 Figure 36: Børnehuset Papillon energy rating...95 vii List of Tables Table 1: Targets of survey prompts...25 Table 2: Institutions areas and energy usage per area...35 Table 3: Overview of Campaign Effectiveness Index Grading Criteria...36 Table 4: Kongevejen Skole Campaign Effectiveness Index...41 Table 5: Børnehuset Papillon Campaign Effectiveness Index...45 Table 6: Stadsbiblioteket Campaign Effectiveness Index...49 Table 7: Rådhuset Campaign Effectiveness Index...52 Table 8: Virumhallen Campaign Effectiveness Index...56 Table 9: Campaign visibility...85 Table 10: Attitude measurements...86 Table 11: Energy use habits...87 Table 12: Behavioral change...88 Table 13: Personal appliance use...89 Table 14: Shared appliance use...89 Table 15: Thermostat, light and window access...89 viii Executive Summary There is a large amount of evidence that global warming, and all the dangerous implications of global climate change, is a result of carbon emissions for human sources. This being accepted, efforts to reduce carbon emissions can be found worldwide. Denmark has a long history of reducing carbon emissions going as far back as 1976, when the Danish Energy Authority was created. These efforts have persisted in recent times, as portrayed by the Energy Consumption Reduction Campaign that has been taking place in the municipal buildings of Lyngby-Tårbæk. This project sought to determine the effects of this campaign, which started on January 1 st 2009, on the attitudes and behaviors of municipal employees. This was achieved through performing interviews and systematic observations at five municipal buildings, as well as gathering information from thirty-six municipal employees via an internet survey. The five observed locations represent the spectrum of the different types of municipal buildings utilized in Lyngby-Tårbæk a library, kindergarten, school, sports arena, and the city hall. Each location had a set of characteristics, challenges and circumstances unique to their use. The research was comprised of formal interviews with key informants at each location, where we asked questions to create an understanding of these circumstances, as well as gather some information about the personal attitudes of the individuals interviewed and their colleagues. At these locations we conducted systematic observations, taking note of key ways in which the campaign s informational materials were visible, and the extent to which it was being embraced by the municipal workers. In addition to the visiting of the five locations, an internet survey was used to reach a larger group of municipal employees. The survey included scaled response questions designed to measure attitudes with regard to the campaign, and to identify the general attitudes of municipal workplaces with regard to reducing energy usage. It also included free response ix questions where the survey taker could fill in more detailed responses to questions about what they have done, felt, or thought in respect to the campaign. From the analysis of this data, several strong points of the campaign were identified. Overall the campaign s informational materials were very well received among employees. Nearly all those surveyed had both a basic knowledge that a campaign was currently underway and some understanding of what was being done as part of the campaign initiatives. Also most had seen the various campaign materials around their place of work. We also discovered that among those interviewed and surveyed the majority found that the campaign had affected them in a positive way. Most reported that due to the campaign they were more likely to shut off lights when leaving a room. Despite the campaign s positive impact upon employee attitudes, we only observed reductions in energy consumption at two of the five locations. Additionally, one of the two energy-saving locations attributes their savings to recent building upgrades, an effort unrelated to the campaign. This finding led us to conclude that positive attitudinal changes cannot necessarily be correlated with savings in energy usage. While the campaign had strong points, it also exhibited some limitations. Notably, we found that the weekly campaign-related messages sent by electronic mails were often ignored once they had become common place. These may have been more effective if they had been sent less frequently. We also found that municipal buildings did not receive any information or tips to reduce energy consumption which were directed specifically at their organization. As a result, the organizations were forced to be creative in their energy reduction efforts something that which not embraced at all of the municipal buildings. The vast majority of the municipal employees we encountered already held strong environmentally-conscious attitudes prior to the campaign. As a result of the preexisting positive attitudes, the campaign which strove to improve the attitudes of the employees x towards the environment often had only a small effect in the positive direction. A more effective campaign strategy might have been a focus upon spreading building-specific energy reduction information and providing lesser-known energy reduction tips, in the opinions of several of our interviewees. After analyzing the campaign s impacts, we drafted a set of recommendations which could be utilized in future attitudinally-targeted energy reduction efforts. xi Chapter 1: Introduction Mass coastal flooding, drought, food shortage, severe storms these are all very real consequences of global climate change [1]. A major factor in climate change is the concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth s atmosphere *4+. These gases, among which carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (NH 4 ) are the most significant, prevent heat from escaping the atmosphere, which results in rising air temperatures [2]. In their naturally-occurring concentrations, these gases play a vital role in maintaining the Earth s normal climate. However, human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels cause extra emission of greenhouse gases, which has led to unnatural atmospheric concentrations [1]. This is the primary source of the environmental phenomenon known as global warming and its highly undesirable effects. Although the Earth s climate exhibits some natural fluctuation *4+, there is an abundance of evidence tying human behavior to increases in the Earth s temperature *2+. Additionally, warming trends are predicted to persist and even grow more severe [6]. This puts humans in a crucial position in order to counteract the damage we have inflicted upon the planet, there is a need for widespread efforts ranging from international energy policies to personal behavioral modifications. Failure to respond to this global threat could prove to be devastating. Many of the world s industrialized countries began taking significant steps towards national climate policies after the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a collection of alarming measurements and projections in a 1990 report *3+. The IPCC s findings were a major motivation for efforts by the United Nations to combat climate change at the international level, highlighted by a number of emissions reduction goals embodied in the 1 Kyoto Protocol [5]. Denmark, however, had already been working toward the goal of reducing emissions since the establishment of the Danish Energy Authority in 1976, a governmental body which is still prevalent in energy-reduction efforts in Denmark today [32]. Denmark is among the world s leaders in the response to alarming human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. Denmark s Kyoto Protocol goal a 5% reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases by 2012 has already been met and is projected to be surpassed with an additional 18.8% reduction [33]. By investing in renewable energy sources, Denmark has become one of the key trend-setters in the fight against global climate change. It is the world s leader in wind power, and the numerous environmentally-focused organizations in Denmark perform extremely important research in the areas of increasing energy efficiency and utilizing renewable energy. In 2007, Connie Hedegård, the Danish Climate and Energy Minister announced a nationwide initiative called the One Ton Less Campaign. This campaign called for cities and towns across Denmark to come together and reduce each of their CO 2 emissions by one ton annually. In October 2008 the One Ton Less Campaign received an award for the best practice in European communication of the EU's Green Spider network, [39] an international network focused upon propagating information from environmental agencies. [44] A mid-term evaluation of the campaign has showed that 17% of Danes have reduced their emissions since the campaign started. According to a recent Copenhagen Post article, more than 78,000 employees have agreed to reduce their greenhouse gases *40+ and the number of participants is expected to increase. [40] The campaign will continue until the end of 2009 and new figures show that both energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions dropped last year as a result of concerted efforts *41+. The Danish municipality of Lyngby-Tårbæk responded to this initiative by setting goals of its own. Rolf Ågård-Svendsen, Lyngby s mayor, promised to achieve a 2% reduction in CO 2 emissions in municipal buildings by the end of 2009, showing full support of the One Ton Less Campaign. Recognizing electricity usage as a major cause of greenhouse gas emissions, he made an additional commitment to reduce electricity usage in municipal buildings by 3% 2 annually. It is possible that the mayor will enter into future commitments to reduce emissions and electricity usage among the entire municipality, and not just municipal buildings. However, this introduces additional complications, as it would require the cooperation of all municipality citizens. Generation of electricity and heating are the two most significant emitters of greenhouse gases in most industrialized nations, and Denmark is no exception to this. A common strategy for reducing emissions is to implement energy reduction campaigns which may involve technical improvements to the buildings. A successful campaign must incorporate innovative energy-efficient technology in conjunction with taking action to promote energy efficient behavior among energy users. Behavioral Aspects of Energy Conservation & Sustainability [34], an energy reduction campaign at the University of Michigan, strayed from a common pitfall of past campaigns too great of a focus on simple number crunching. A number of factors affect energy usage, but one which is commonly overlooked is the social aspect of human attitudes and behaviors. Noticing this, Schipper commented that ...those of us who call ourselves energy analysts have made a mistake...we have analyzed energy. We should have analyzed human behavior. [35] The efforts of the Michigan researchers have set solid groundwork regarding the task of measuring the behavioral aspects of energy conservation. However, their research focused on just one location a single university s population. When attitudes are sought to be assessed and compared on a larger and more diverse population, the factors which affect them become more numerous and complex. A team consisting of representatives from Lyngby-Tårbæk s city hall, the Agenda21 organization and The Science Shop at the Technical University of Denmark has begun working toward Mayor Ågård-Svendsen s goals by creating an energy-reduction campaign. The campaign spanning from January to May of 2009 seeks to educate municipal employees of their individual significance in the effort to reduce energy through informational posters, weekly municipality-wide updates (a sample can be seen in Appendix H), and training sessions, among other efforts. They hope to create an energy-conserving culture among the 3 employees in which they are aware of and genuinely concerned with their energy usage at work. Thus campaign initiatives have been carefully designed to affect the attitudes and subsequent behaviors of its targets. This energy campaign is just a small step in the effort to combat global climate change, but these concerted energy conservation efforts on a smaller municipality scale are essential for making a global change. In our project we performed a detailed assessment of how successfully the campaign has affected the attitudes of municipal employees, and we analyzed which aspects of the campaign were particularly effective. When a campaign s objective is to affect human attitudes and create an energyconserving culture, the task of assessing effectiveness is both crucial and complex. Attitudes can t be gauged by merely measuring energy usage statistics, so in our analysis of the campaign we addressed the human aspects of the campaign by speaking with the individuals who the campaign targeted. By selectively identifying key informants we performed an assessment of the overall energy savings observed during the campaign and attempted to identify its effects upon the energy-saving culture of Lyngby-Tårbæk s municipal employees. We utilized surveys, interviews and systematic observations to achieve this goal, and identified attitudinal and behavioral patterns which we related back to specific campaign initiatives. Our assessment of Lyngby-Tårbæk s energy reduction campaign, especially with its unique attitudinal focus, puts the municipality in a good position to continue reducing energy usage far beyond the end date of the campaign. Additionally, our findings are certainly not limited to use within the municipality they should prove to be useful for anyone striving to conduct or assess energy reduction efforts. 4 Chapter 2:
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