Assessment of ecosystem services in homegarden systems in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam

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Assessment of ecosystem services in homegarden systems in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam
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  Assessment of ecosystem services in homegarden systemsin Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam Hideyuki Mohri a, n , Shruti Lahoti a , Osamu Saito a , Anparasan Mahalingam a ,Nimal Gunatilleke b , Irham c , Van Thang Hoang d , Gamini Hitinayake e ,Kazuhiko Takeuchi a,f  , Srikantha Herath a a Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, 5-53-70 Jingumae, Shibuya, Tokyo 150-8925, Japan b Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka c Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia d Centre for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Vietnam National University, Vietnam e Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka f  Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, University of Tokyo, Japan a r t i c l e i n f o  Article history: Received 5 December 2012Received in revised form9 July 2013Accepted 15 July 2013Available online 22 August 2013 Keywords: HomegardenEcosystem assessmentEcosystem servicesAgrodiversityBiodiversity a b s t r a c t Numerous studies have been conducted on homegarden systems by researchers from differentdisciplines and countries, but most of them focus on ecological structure or speci 󿬁 c ecosystem servicesin a selected study area. Few studies take a comprehensive look at the ecosystem services provided byhomegardens, especially on a regional scale. This paper shows how these homegardens are ecologically,socially, and economically diversi 󿬁 ed and how bene 󿬁 cial they are to human well-being as ecosystemservices. It also investigates the impacts of drivers on homegarden systems in rural areas in threecountries. These studies involved comprehensive literature reviews and  󿬁 eld survey along with aframework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Four types of ecosystem services — provision,regulation, cultural, and support — were assessed and compared. We found that traditional homegardensmaintain high ecosystem diversity especially in rural areas; however, recent socio-economic changes areconverting subsistence-oriented homegardens into commercial ones. Future challenges for furtherresearch include how to enhance the resilience of homegarden systems against socioeconomic andglobal climate changes by integrating traditional homegarden systems, modern technology, and theglobal economy. &  2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252. Methodology and materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252.1. Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252.2. Study area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253. Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1263.1. Scale, structure, and diversity of homegarden systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1263.1.1. Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1263.1.2. Structure of homegarden systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1263.1.3. Vertical structure of homegarden systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1273.1.4. Diversity in homegarden systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1293.2. Ecosystem services provided from homegarden systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1293.2.1. Provisioning services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1293.2.2. Regulating services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ecoser Ecosystem Services 2212-0416/$-see front matter  &  2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.07.006 n Corresponding author. Tel.: + 81 3 5467 1212; fax: + 81 3 5406 7347. E-mail address:  mohri@unu.edu (H. Mohri).Ecosystem Services 5 (2013) e124 – e136  3.2.3. Cultural services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1323.2.4. Supporting services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333.3. Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1334. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1334.1. Drivers of change in homegarden systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1334.2. Homegarden studies and global initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1345. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 1. Introduction A homegarden is a garden surrounding a residence thatprovides various goods and services to members of the household.A homegarden is usually a small-scale supplementary food pro-duction system designed for local inhabitants, but sometimes itmimics natural, multilayered ecosystems (Hoogerbrugge andFresco, 1993). Soemarwoto and Christanty (1985) de 󿬁 ne a home-garden as a land use system with a structure resembling a forestand one that combines the natural architecture of a forest withspecies ful 󿬁 lling the social, economic, and cultural needs of people.A homegarden is often considered part of an agro-socio-ecologicalsystem that comprises domesticated plants and/or animals, as wellas people (Soemarwoto and Conway,1992). By producing a variety of fruits, vegetables, and non-timber forest products, homegardenscontribute to a family ′ s diet and may even provide additionalincome.The majority of homegardens are distributed in East and WestAfrica, South and Southeast Asia, Paci 󿬁 c Islands, and Mesoamerica,which suggests that homegardens are predominantly a tropicalphenomenon (Kumar and Nair, 2006). Tropical homegardens areconsidered one of the oldest forms of managed land use activitynext to shifting cultivation (Kumar and Nair, 2004). Various studies have been conducted on these homegarden systems, but most of them focus on physical structure, function, and ecological struc-ture or a speci 󿬁 c ecosystem service in a particular study area (e.g.,Abdoellah et al., 2006; Karyono, 1981; Kehlenbeck et al., 2007; Phong et al., 2006; Phong et al., 2010; Soemarwoto and Conway, 1992; Ueda, 1996; Wiersum, 1977). Methodological problems associated with each homegarden ′ s uniqueness have hinderedresearch, despite the structural and functional similaritiesbetween various homegardens (Kumar and Nair, 2004). A chal- lenge in homegarden research is the use of commonly acceptedresearch frameworks and procedures (Kumar and Nair, 2004). Agroforestry and traditional production systems that includehomegardens are recently reevaluated as effective measures foradapting to climate and ecosystem changes (Rao et al., 2007;Takeuchi, 2010). However, several studies present empirical evi-dence demonstrating how a homegarden system can contribute tothe enhancement of adaptive capacity.The objectives of this research are as follows:(a) To investigate the scale, structure, and diversity in home-garden systems of Southeast Asia countries.(b)To assess the biodiversity and ecosystem services provided byhomegarden systems.(c) To identify recent changes and drivers of these changes, includ-ing climate change, on homegarden systems in rural Asia. 2. Methodology and materials  2.1. Methodology We have used the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)framework to evaluate the interaction among various servicesoffered by homegarden systems and current drivers of change toaddress the recent  󿬁 ndings on ecosystem services and environ-mental bene 󿬁 ts provided by the homegarden system. Althoughthe MA (2003, 2005) states that homegardens are intensively managed and modi 󿬁 ed by humans to avail ecosystem services, it isan important source of the maintenance of local biodiversity.The MA framework focuses mainly on linkages and dynamicinteractions between ecosystem services and human well-being(MA, 2005). In addition to the dynamic process of evolution inhomegardens, sociocultural and economic factors alter the humancondition, while various natural factors in 󿬂 uence ecosystems.On the basis of the MA framework, a comprehensive literaturereview was conducted. As listed in the references, a total of 104books, peer-reviewed journal articles, and conference papers wereexamined. Distribution of publications is diverse in terms of publication year and theme. Almost equal numbers of literaturefor three countries ’  homegarden studies are referenced to identifycomponents, spatial layout, temporal/spatial scales, diversity, andfunctions of each system by country. In addition to the literaturereview,  󿬁 eld observation and professional workshops were con-ducted in each country in 2011 and 2012, as shown in Table 1.  2.2. Study area The homegarden is a traditional land use system that hasevolved from prehistoric times (e.g., hunters and gatherers),through ancient civilizations to the modern era. Hutterer (1984)reported that the homegardens of Java originated in the 7thmillennium BC. The historical records suggest that they wereattached to temples, palaces, elite residences, and the homes of   Table 1 Professional workshops in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam.Country  Indonesia Sri Lanka Vietnam Workshop date 6 – 8 January 2012 17 – 19 September 2011 30 June – 1 July 2011Workshop venue Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Peradeniya University, Kandy, Sri Lanka Vietnam National University, Hanoi, VietnamNumber of local experts 16 13 10 H. Mohri et al. / Ecosystem Services 5 (2013) e124 – e136   e125  common people. The homegarden system srcinated in Central Java and parts of East Java, spreading to West Java in the mid-18thcentury (Terra, 1954). Early references to a garden in ancient Sri Lankan literature that resembled modern homegardens canbe found in the ancient epic  Ramayana  (Puri and Nair, 2004;Kumar and Nair, 2004). This garden type has evolved into amultistoried vegetation plot established by rural families aroundtheir homes, using an ingeniously selected mixture of multiple-usespecies of both indigenous and exotic srcin with complementaryecological characteristics (Gunatilleke et al.,1993). In the Kandyan region, rural and semi-rural tree gardens were also referred to asforest gardens owing their social functions and links to localnatural forests (McConnell, 2003; Perera and Rajapakse, 1991;  Jacob and Alles,1987). The VAC system which stands for Vuon-Ao-Chuong in Vietnamese, which translates to Garden-Pond-Livestockpen, srcinated in the Red River delta and midlands of northernVietnam and utilizes land for carrying out various agri-aquacultural activities in domestic dwellings (Trinh et al., 2003). Implementation of the Doi Moi policy in 1986 promoted the VACsystem with an aim to increase and stabilize the nutritionalstandard of poor rural people (Luu, 2001). Consequently, inte-grated farming has spread extensively across Vietnam especiallyirrigated lowlands, rainfed uplands, and semi-urban areas, andalmost 44% of all households now have such a system (Luu, 2001;Nguyen, 1997; Phong et al., 2003; Phong et al., 2010). There are many types of homegarden systems worldwide. Thispaper focuses on three countries in Asia — Indonesia, Sri Lanka, andVietnam — each of which has different characteristics depending onthe socioeconomic and geographic conditions of their land useforms. However, other countries such as India or Bangladesh havevery similar homegarden systems (Bardhan et al., 2012; Kabir and Webb, 2008; Kumar and Nair, 2004; Nair and Kumar, 2006; Nair and Sreedharan, 1986). As described below, this study basically focuses on one particular kind of homegarden in each country,such as the Pekarangan, Kandyan, and VAC system.Indonesia is the world ′ s largest island nation and has diverseland use patterns and various bioproduction systems. The devel-opment of oil palm plantations has been a primary driving force of changes in Indonesia ′ s rural landscape. Various homegardensystems exist in different areas (Kaya et al., 2002; Kehlenbeck and Maass, 2004; Michon and Mary, 1994). In this study, we focus on a typical traditional homegarden system in Java, known as the Pekar-angan. This is generally managed by individuals who grow variousproducts, including timber, vegetables, and fruits (Wiersum, 2006). Sri Lanka has the highest percentage of rural population amongthe Asian nations, which reached 85% in 2010 (World Bank, 2011).Kandyan homegardens play an important role both as a link toagricultural and natural landscapes and as a source of income inthe country ′ s midlands (Pushpakumara et al., 2010). Vietnam is the world ′ s second largest rice-exporting countryand has shown rapid economic growth as a socialist country withrelatively stable political conditions and  󿬂 exible economic policies.Agricultural production in Vietnam is expected to expand, butsuch a trend may cause signi 󿬁 cant changes in rural land use andtraditional bioproduction systems, including the VAC system.Moreover, it is known as a traditional integrated agriculture – aquaculture (IAA) system in Vietnam. This integrated farmingsystem has spread across the entire country.In addition, this study initiated a new research project toinvestigate a strategy for enhancing resilience to climate andecosystem changes utilizing traditional bioproduction systems inrural Asia. The project was supported by the Ministry of theEnvironment, Japan from 2011 to 2013, and selected Indonesia,Sri Lanka, and Vietnam as case studies. We know that homegardensystems also exist in areas other than Asia, but as a pilotcomparative study on homegarden systems, it was reasonable tostart with these three Asian countries. Table 2 lists their biophy-sical and socioeconomic features. 3. Results  3.1. Scale, structure, and diversity of homegarden systems This section summarizes the spatial scale, temporal scale,structure, and layout of homegarden systems. Both the scale andstructure of homegardens vary according to the physical, social,and ecological attributes of the area.  3.1.1. ScaleSpatial scale . In terms of land area, the spatial scale underhomegardens varies depending upon the climate, soil type, topo-graphy, rainfall, economic activity, and culture. Twenty percent of the total area in West Java is occupied by homegardens, whileabout 70% of households in the Kandy area have homegardens.Homegardens cover 20% of the total land area in Java overall(Wiersum, 1980; Terra, 1954), while they occupy 30 – 40% of thetotal cultivated area in Sri Lanka (Verheij,1982; Ensing et al.,1985). The area of individual homegardens varies from a few squaremeters to hectares. However, in general, small land managementunits commonly cover an average land area of 0.6 and 0.4 ha in Java and Kandy, respectively. The total area under gardens, averagesize, and range of area and pond areas for selected homegardensare shown in Table 3. It is dif  󿬁 cult to de 󿬁 ne a general scale of integrated homegardens in Vietnam because the VAC system hasspread irregularly across the country and land has been allocateddirectly by the government. The Mekong region has larger home-gardens, averaging 0.75 ha, than the northern part of Vietnam,which averages 0.14 ha. At 0.15 ha, pond sizes are the largest inMekong delta and are approximately 0.02 m 2 in the north (Trinhet al., 2003). In the northern Vietnam uplands, the garden arearanges from 0.01 to 1.5 ha and the  󿬁 shpond area ranges from 0.001to 0.015 ha, in comparison with the lowlands where they rangefrom 0.002 to 0.003 ha and  󿬁 shpond area is around 0.004 ha(Luu, 2001). Temporal scale . This refers to the time and labor spent inmanaging homegardens as a subsidiary activity along with theprimary activity of farming. In general, homegardens requireminimal labor, which is mostly provided by household memberswith  󿬂 exible schedules. Labor and time spent on homegardenschange regionally according to the area of homegarden, intensity of farming, number of family members, and the household ′ s primaryoccupation (Torquebiau, 1992). According to Stoler (1978), a max- imum of 8% of total working time is spent on homegardens, whichmight reach up to two persons per day in peak seasons (Ninez,1986). In Java, the labor requirement is comparable mainly inhomegardens, rice  󿬁 elds, and kebun talun (Christanty et al., 1986).In Kandy, apart from household members, labor is hired for skilledoperations ( Jacob and Alles, 1987) such as harvesting cash cropssuch as cloves, black pepper, and tea. Most VAC homegardeners arerelatively young (35 years on average) and family members main-tain these farming activities. For households, the average number of family members is 󿬁 ve and labors is 2.85 (Trinh et al., 2003). Table 4 shows the time spent and labor input in homegardens for selectedcountries.  3.1.2. Structure of homegarden systems Homegarden gardens ’  vertical and horizontal structure changesdepending on the local communities ’  communal,  󿬁 nancial, cul-tural, and ecological attributes (Abdoellah et al., 2001). The Javanese and Kandyan homegardens represent complex horizontalzoning and vertical strati 󿬁 cation at different heights with a high H. Mohri et al. / Ecosystem Services 5 (2013) e124 – e136  e126  diversity of species, resulting in intimate plant association in avirtually closed canopy structure, on the other hand VAC systemhas a simpler vertical structure.  3.1.3. Vertical structure of homegarden systems In Javanese homegardens, the ground level is occupied bystarchy food plants, vegetables, and spices, followed by fruit treesand cash crops in the next layer, and tall trees such as coconut andtimber trees in the highest layer. Table 5 shows the verticalstructure and main species present at different levels of thehomegardens. Perera and Perera (1997a) study on the relativefrequency of occurrence suggests that in Kandyan homegardens,the highest canopy layer is dominated by jackfruit and coconuttrees, followed by areca nut,  󿬁 shtail palm, gliricidia, mango, andcloves in the next canopy, and coffee in the lower canopy. In theground layer, the species vary from one garden to another.However, recently it has been observed that the homegardenstructure can be affected by factors such as population density,socioeconomics, proximity to the market area, owners ’  preference,and management objectives. Horizontal structure of homegarden systems . A large number of species are randomly arranged without speci 󿬁 c geometrical pat-terns and are planted in order to achieve maximum space utiliza-tion and ful 󿬁 ll their light, water, and fertility requirements(Christanty et al., 1986). Apart from these factors, management-associated aspects are also important to determine the horizontalzoning in the front, back, and sides of the house. On the basis of a  Table 2 Biophysical and socioeconomic features of homegardens in the study areas. Characteristics Javanese homegardens Kandyan homegardens VAC systemLocation/country  Javanese/Indonesia Kandy/Sri Lanka Vietnam Local name  Pekarangan Kandyan gardens VAC system Population density (  person/km 2 ) 700 a 500 – 699 199 – 949 e Eco-zone  Humid; medium altitude andlowlandsHumid; medium altitude Red River delta: Tropical tosubtropical, midlands:tropical and subtropical,lowlands: tropical, Mekongdelta: Tropical Rainfall ( mm ) 1800 – 2400 2000 – 2500 1388 – 1900  Altitude range ( m amsl ) 0 – 600 a 400 – 1000 1 – 80  Annual mean temperature ( 1 C  ) 22 – 29 24 – 26 26 – 29.5 Relative humidity (  %  ) Average 75 65 – 80 (day) and 75 – 90 (night) 82 Number of vertical strata  5 a 3 – 5 N/A Dominant soil type  Reddish brown to brown latosols Reddish brown latosol to immaturebrown loamNorth: Loam and sandy loam,Central: Bazan, South: Alluvialclay, Mekong delta: Clay Slope of land (  %  ) Varied 10 – 40 Varied Land tenure  Privately owned b Mainly privately owned Privately owned (allocated bygovernment) Classi  󿬁 cation  Traditional and commercial Traditional, commercial, mixed Market orientation  Subsistence/commercial Commercial with subsidiarysubsistenceSubsistence/commercial Net income/family  6.6 – 55.7% of family income andaverage of 21.1% depending onsize, family needs, andcomposition of homegardens c 30 – 50% of family income d 30 – 60% of family income a Fernandes and Nair (1986). b Wiersum (1982). c Soemarwoto (1987). d Pushpakumara et al. (2010). e General Statistics Of  󿬁 ce of Vietnam (2013).  Table 3 Total area under homegardens, mean management unit, and range of management unit in homegarden systems.  Area Javanese homegardens Kandyan homegardens VAC Total area under homegarden of cultivated area  (  %  )20% c 30 – 40% d North: 27%, Central: 70%, South:34%, Mekong Delta: 47% e Mean management unit   ( ha ) 0.6 a 1.0 a /0.4 b North: 0.14, Central: 0.27, South:0.28, Mekong Delta: 0.75 e Range of management unit   ( ha ) 0.01 – 3.0 a 0.4 – 2.2 a /0.05 – 2.5 b North: 0.05 – 0.32, Central: 0.02 – 1.0, South: 0.08 – 0.72, Mekongdelta: 0.2 – 2.2 e Pond area  ( m 2 ) NA NA North: 220, Central: 350, South:72, Mekong Delta: 1500 a Fernandes and Nair (1986). b Pushpakumara et al. (2010). c Wiersum (1980), Terra (1954), Verheij (1982). d Ensing et al. (1985). e Trinh et al. (2003), Luu (2001). H. Mohri et al. / Ecosystem Services 5 (2013) e124 – e136   e127  literature review and  󿬁 eld observations, we have drawn an aerialview for each sample layout (Figs. 1 – 3).In Kandyan homegardens, the horizontal zoning of planting israndom, without any speci 󿬁 c pattern or arrangement, but asigni 󿬁 cant correlation exists between different species with treespecies dominating (McConnell, 2003). Layouts of the VAC systemshow a combination of garden, pond, and livestock pens, althoughthe components are diversi 󿬁 ed according to topological condi-tions, culture, and economy. According to (Trinh et al., 2003), thereare four basic types of VAC systems in Vietnam: the homegarden  Table 4 Time spent, cutting and harvesting cycle, labor spent, and division of labor in homegarden systems. Time scale Javanese homegardens Kandyan homegardens VAC Time spent on homegardens  1 h/week/100 m 󰂲  a 57 man days/year c 220 days/year h Cutting/Harvesting cycle  Irregular work schedule b Continuous harvest depending onthe output from different cropsContinuous harvest Labor spent   Small amount of time and familylabor spent during free timeafter work d Relatively small amount of labor byhousehold members f  Household commercially managesVAC spent more time. Lesslabor and capital on thehomegarden in householdsthat have other incomesources Division of labor   Land preparation & cultivation of tree crops by men, cultivation of annual crops by women.Harvesting is done by allhousehold members, butmarketing is predominantly amale activity e Equal division of labor betweenmales and females with fewactivities being exclusively thedomain of either sex g Usually, family members managethe farming activities a Stoler (1978). b Christanty (1985). c Torquebiou (1992). d Laumans and Kasijadi (1985). e Christanty et al. (1986), Laumans and Kasijadi (1985), Matahelumual and Verheul (1987). f  Pushpa kumara et al. (2010). g  Jayawardena and Jayathilake (1998). h Trinh et al. (2003).  Table 5 Vertical strati 󿬁 cation in homegarden systems. Stratum Height in meters  ( m )  Javanese homegardens Kandyan homegardens VAC Level  1 -ground level  o 3 Starchy food plants,vegetables, andspices- Languas,ganyong,xanthosoma,cassava, sweetpotatoes, taro,chili peppers,eggplant, spinach,and wing beanVegetables, medicines, spices, fruits trees,subsistence, and cash crops- Okra,eggplant, beans, tea, cassava, ginger,turmeric, anthurium, pineapple, andchili peppersFlowers, medicinalplants, herbs, spices,fruits, plants in thepond (or on thebanker), andvegetables Level  2 -lower stratum  3 – 10 Fruit trees and cashcrops-Bananas,papayas, mango, jakfruit, and otherfruit trees;Soursop, jakfruit,pisitan guava, andmountain apple;or other cashcrops such asclovesMedicines, food staple, subsistence, andcash crops-Vanilla, banana/plantain,cacao, coffee, passion fruit, betel vineFruits trees-  Lucumamamosa , orange,tangerine, grapefruit,longan, rambutan,kapok, and waterapple; bamboo,cashew,  AcaciaaneunaLevel  3 -lower-middlestratum 10 – 15 Other trees forbuilding materialand fuel wood-coconut trees andother trees (e.g.,Albizia)Subsistence food staple, seasonal fruits andcash crop- papaya, pepper, avocado,mangosteen, breadfruit, rambutan,citrusCoconut, areca, bamboo,eucalypts, cajeput,and  CaplophylluminophyllumLevel  4 -upper-middlestratum 15 – 25 Fruits, timber, medicines, cash crops-mango, bamboo, areca palm, nutmeg,clove, rubber, wild breadfruit, kitul palm Level  5 -upper stratum  25 – 30 Timber, cash crops,  󿬁 ber and oil seed crops-durien, talipot palm, jak, coconut palm,kapok, pepperChristanty et al. (1986), McConnell (2003), Trinh et al. (2003), An (1997). H. Mohri et al. / Ecosystem Services 5 (2013) e124 – e136  e128
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