Asme Section II a Sa-395

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SA 395 2007
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  2007 SECTION II, PART A SA-395 SPECIFICATION FOR FERRITIC DUCTILE IRONPRESSURE-RETAINING CASTINGS FOR USE ATELEVATED TEMPERATURES SA-395 [Identical with ASTM Specification A 395-88 (Reapproved 1993)   1 .] 1. Scope1.1  This specification covers ductile iron castings forpressure-retaining parts for use at elevated temperatures(Note 1). 1.2  Valves, flanges, pipe fittings, pumps, and otherpiping components are generally manufactured in advanceand supplied from stock by the manufacturer, jobber, ordealer. 1.3  For supplemental casting requirements Specifica-tion A 834 may be utilized. 1.4  The values stated within this specification are ininch/pound units. A separate Specification A 395M is themetric companion to this specification. The text in both isidentical. NOTE 1 — For service other than as specified in this section, referenceshould be made to Specification A 536 for Ductile Iron Castings. 2. Referenced Documents2.1  ASTM Standards: A 247 Test Method for Evaluating the Microstructure of Graphite in Iron CastingsA 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Test-ing of Steel ProductsA 395M Specification for Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures(Metric)A 536 Specification for Ductile Iron CastingsA 732/A 732M Specification for Castings, Investment,Carbon and Low Alloy Steel for General Application,andCobaltAlloyforHighStrengthatElevatedTempera-turesA 834 Specification for Common Requirements for IronCastings for General Industrial Use 735 E 8 Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic MaterialsE 10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Mate-rialsE 30 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Steel, CastIron, Open-Hearth Iron, and Wrought IronE 59 Test Method of Sampling Steel and Iron for Determi-nation of Chemical CompositionE 186 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to4 1  ⁄  2  in. (51 to 114 mm)) Steel CastingsE 280 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (4 1  ⁄  2  to12 in. (114 to 305 mm)) Steel CastingsE 446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings up to 2 in.(51 mm) in ThicknessE 689 Reference Radiographs for Ductile Iron Castings 2.2  Manufacturer’s Standardization Society of theValve and Fittings Industry Standard: SP 25 (1964 edition) Standard Marking Systems forValves, Flanges, Pipe Fittings, and Unions 3. Ordering Information3.1  Orders for material under this specification shallinclude the following applicable information: 3.1.1  Drawing, catalog number or part identifica-tions, 3.1.2  Quantity (weight or number of pieces), 3.1.3  ASTM designation and year of issue, 3.1.4  Heat treating requirements (see 4.2.1), 3.1.5  Pressure test requirements (see 6.4.2), 3.1.6  Test samples from castings (see 9.1.1 and10.1.1), 3.1.7  Test coupons size (see 9.2), 3.1.8  Metallographic option (see 10.1.1), Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 Not for Resale, 08/13/2007 15:21:07 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --` `   ,`   ,  ,` ` `   ,` `   ,  ,`   ,`   ,` `   ,`   ,` ` `   ,  ,  ,-` -`   ,  ,`   ,  ,`   ,`   ,  ,` ---  SA-395 2007 SECTION II, PART A 3.1.9  Place of inspection (see 14.1), 3.1.10  Certification requirements (see 15.1), 3.1.11  Identification marking (see 16.2), and 3.1.12  Supplemental Requirements (see 1.3 and S1). 4. Materials and Manufacture4.1  The melting method and the nodularizing practiceshall be optional with the foundry. 4.2  Except as provided in 4.2.1, all castings shall begiven a ferritizing heat treatment that produces essentiallya ferritic structure that contains no massive carbides. 4.2.1  When specified in the purchase order, castingsmay be provided in an as cast condition provided theycomply with the requirements of 6.1 and 6.2.1. 4.2.2  Castingssuppliedinaccordancewith4.2.1maybe stress relieved by agreement between the manufacturerand purchaser. 5. Chemical Requirements5.1  The casting shall conform to the following require-ments for chemical composition (Note 2): Total carbon, min,% 3.00Silicon, max,% 2.50Phosphorus, max,% 0.08 5.1.1  The chemical analysis for total carbon shall bemade on chilled cast pencil type specimens or from thinwafers approximately  1  /  32  in. thick cut from test coupons.Drillings are not reliable because of the probable loss of graphite. 5.1.2  For each reduction of 0.01% below the maxi-mum specified phosphorus content, an increase of 0.08%silicon above the specified maximum will be permitted upto a maximum of 2.75%. NOTE 2 — Silicon contents above 2.75%, or phosphorus contents above0.08% have a tendency to lower the impact resistance of the material. If the carbon content is below 3.00%, excess cementite may form duringcooling and if this is not removed during heat treatment, the impactresistance of the material may be lowered. 6. Requirements6.1  Tensile:  The ductile iron as represented by the testspecimens shall conform to the following requirements fortensile properties: Tensile strength, min, MPa 60 000 psiYield strength, min, MPa 40 000 psiElongation in % min, % 18 736 6.2  Hardness: 6.2.1  Thehardnessof thecastingsandtest specimensshall be within the following limits: HB, 3000 kgf load 143-187 6.3  Microstructure: 6.3.1  The microstructure of the separately cast testcoupon or the casting shall be essentially ferritic and con-tain no massive carbides, and have a minimum of 90%Type I and Type II Graphite as in Fig. 7 or Plate I of TestMethod A 247. 6.4  Pressure Test Requirements: 6.4.1  Each pressure retaining casting shall be testedaftermachiningtothetestpressurespecifiedbytheapplica-ble standard of ANSI, ASME Boiler and Pressure VesselCode, or other pertinent code, and shall show no leaks. 6.4.2  Castings ordered under this specification notcovered by ANSI standards and ASME Pressure VesselCode, and castings for special service applications, shallbe tested to such pressures as may be agreed upon by themanufacturer and the purchaser. 6.4.3  It is realized that the foundry may be unableto perform the hydrostatic test prior to shipment, or thatthe purchaser may wish to defer testing until additionalwork or machining has been performed on the casting.Castings ordered in the rough state for final machiningby the purchaser may be tested hydrostatically prior toshipment by the manufacturer at pressures to be agreedupon with thepurchaser. However, thefoundry isresponsi-ble for the satisfactory performance of the castings underthe final hydrostatic test. 7. Workmanship and Finish7.1  The surface of the casting shall be examined visu-ally and shall be free from adhering sand, scale, cracks,and hot tears. Any other surface discontinuities shall meetvisual acceptance standards specified in the order. 8. Repair8.1  Castings for valves, flanges, pipe fittings, pumps,and other piping components ordered under applicableANSI standards shall not be repaired by plugging, welding,brazing, or impregnation. 8.2  Castings not covered in 8.1 which leak on hydro-static tests may be repaired by plugging, provided thefollowing requirements are met: 8.2.1  No welding or brazing is permitted. 8.2.2  The diameter of the plug shall not exceed thediameter of a standard 2 in. pipe plug. Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 Not for Resale, 08/13/2007 15:21:07 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS  2007 SECTION II, PART A SA-395 8.2.3  The plugs, where practical, shall conform inall dimensions to the standard ISO  3  ⁄  8  plugs. In addition,they shall have full thread engagement corresponding tothe thickness in the repaired section. Where a tapered plugis impractical because of the excess wall thickness in termsof plug diameter and coincident thread engagement, othertypes of plugs may be used provided both full engagementand effective sealing against pressure are obtained. Wherepossible,theendsoftheplugshouldbegroundsmoothafterinstallation to conform to theinsideand outsidecontoursof the wall of the pressure vessel or pressure part. 8.2.4  The material from which the plug is manufac-tured shall conform in all respects to the materials specifi-cations which apply to the pressure vessel or pressure part. 8.2.5  The area adjacent to the drilled hole shall beexamined by radiography, and shall meet the Level 3acceptance requirements of Reference Radiographs E 689and supporting Reference Radiographs E 446, E 186, orE 280 as applicable and defined in accordance with Refer-ence Radiographs E 689. 8.2.6  Thethicknessofanyrepairedsectioninrelationto the size of the plug used shall not be less than that givenin Table 1. 8.2.7  The minimum radius of repaired sections of cylinders or cones in relation to the size of plug used shallnot be less than that given in Table 2. 8.2.8  A repaired area may consist of a maximum of three plugs with a spacing such that the ligaments betweenadjacent plugs shall not be less than listed in Table 3. Otherdefective areas may also be repaired by plugging providedthe minimum ligament between plugs in adjacent areas isnot less than twice the distance from the nearest plug, thevalues for which are listed in Table 3. 8.3  Surface imperfections in castings other than valves,flanges, pipe fittings, pumps, and other piping componentsmay be repaired by plugging provided the depth of theplug is not greater than 20% of the thickness of the castingsection and the diameter of the plug is not greater than itslength. Repair of surface defects may not be done on pres-sure containing portions of castings. The plug need not bethreaded. The conditions of 8.2.1 and 8.2.4 shall also besatisfied. 9. Test Coupon9.1  The separately cast test coupons from which thetension test specimen is machined shall be cast to the sizeand shape shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2, or Fig. 4. Sectioningprocedure for removing test specimens from Y-blocks isshown in Fig. 3. 9.1.1  Test samples may be removed from castingsat locations designated on a drawing or as agreed to bymanufacturer and purchaser. 737 9.1.2  Test bars removed from castings shall conformto Fig. 5. The testing diameter shall be  1  ⁄  2  in. if possible.Smaller diameters shall be utilized if necessary. 9.2  The test coupon size shall be as mutually agreedupon between the manufacturer and purchaser. In theabsenceof agreement, it shall betheoption of themanufac-turer. 9.3  The test coupons shall be cast in molds made of suitable core sand having a minimum wall thickness of 1 1  ⁄  2  in. for the  1  ⁄  2  in., 1 in. sizes, and 3 in. for the 3 in.size. The coupons shall be left in the mold until they havechanged to a black color (approximately 900°F or less).The keel block as shown in Fig. 1 or the modified keelblock produced from the mold shown in Fig. 4 may besubstituted for the 1 in. block shown in Fig. 2. 9.4  When investment castings are made to this specifi-cation, the manufacturer may use test specimens cast tosizeincorporatedinthemoldwiththecastingsorseparatelycast to size using the same type of mold and the samethermal conditions that are used to produce the castings.These test specimens shall be made to the dimensionsshown in Fig. 1 of Specification A 732 or Figs. 5 and 6of Test Methods and Definitions A 370. 9.5  Separately cast test coupons shall be poured imme-diately after the castings and shall represent the metaltreated with the nodularizing agent, and be identified withthe castings they represent. 9.6  The manufacturer shall cast a sufficient number of test coupons to provide for each ferritizing anneal. Thetest coupons shall be heat treated with the castings theyrepresent. Sectioning of the test coupons prior to heat treat-ing is not permitted. 9.7  The metallographic examination shall be made ona test lug from the recommended test coupon shown inFig. 6 or from a casting. The test coupon shall representthe metal treated with the nodularizing agent. 10. Number of Tests and Retests10.1  One tension test shall be made from sections cutfrom the test coupons (Fig. 3) for each ladle treated withthe nodularizing agent. 10.1.1  Unless otherwise stated in the contract ororder for castings, a metallographic examination may besubstituted for the tension test when separately cast testcoupons are used. When the microstructure option is used,a minimum of one tension test is required from each day’smelt and for each heat treatment (see 10.2). 10.2  If any tension test specimen shows obviousdefects, another from the same coupon, or from anothercoupon representing the same metal and the same anneal Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 Not for Resale, 08/13/2007 15:21:07 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS  SA-395 2007 SECTION II, PART A charge, may be tested. If an apparently sound test specimenfails to conform to this specification, castings may be re-annealed and two retests made. If either retest fails toconform to this specification, the castings they representshall be rejected. 11. Tension Test Specimen Preparation11.1  The standard machined  1  ⁄  2  in. round tension testspecimen with 2 in. gauge length as shown in Fig. 5 shallbe used except where the  1  ⁄  2  in. Y-block test coupon isrequired. In this case, either of the small size specimens,0.375 or 0.250 in. round as shown in Fig. 5 shall be used. 12. Test Methods12.1  Chemical analysis shall be made in accordancewith the following methods: Test Methods E 59 or E 30. 12.2  Thechemicalcompositionmayalsobedeterminedby spectrographic methods but should a dispute arise con-cerning the chemical composition, the methods specifiedin 12.1 shall be used as the umpire methods. 12.3  The yield strength shall be determined in accor-dance with Test Methods E 8 using one of the followingmethods: 12.3.1  The 0.2% off-set method, or 12.3.2  Extension under load method where the yieldstrength may be determined as the stress producing anelongation under load of 0.375%; that is, 0.0075 in. in agauge length of 2 in. 12.4  The hardness of the ductile iron as representedby the test specimens and castings shall be determined inaccordance with Test Method E 10. 12.5  The percentage of each graphite type shall bedetermined by manual counting, semi-automatic or auto-matic image analysis methods. The sum of all graphitetypes shall total to 100%. 13. Records13.1  Records of the chemical composition, mechanicalproperties, and metallographic examination, when applica-ble, shall be systematically made and maintained. 738 14. Inspection14.1  Unless otherwise specified in the contract or pur-chase order, the manufacturer shall be responsible for car-rying out all the tests and inspection required by thisspecification. 14.2  The inspector representing the purchaser shallhave entry at all times, while work on the contract of thepurchaserisbeingperformed,toallpartsofthemanufactur-er’s works which concern the manufacture of the materialordered. The manufacturer shall afford the inspector allreasonable facilitiesto satisfy him that the material is beingfurnished in accordance with these specifications. Unlessotherwise specified, all tests and inspection shall be madeat the place of manufacture or by an approved independentlaboratory prior to shipment, and shall be so conducted asnot to interfere unnecessarily with the operation of theworks. 15. Certification15.1  When agreed upon in writing by the purchaserand the supplier, a certification shall be made on the basisof acceptance of the material. This shall consist of a copyof the manufacturer’s test report or a statement by thesupplier accompanied by a copy of the test results, thatthe material has been sampled, tested, and inspected inaccordance with the provisions of this specification. Eachcertification so furnished shall be signed by an authorizedagent of the supplier or manufacturer. 16. Product Marking16.1  Casting for valves, flanges, pipe fittings, andunions shall be marked for material identification in accor-dance with paragraph 9.6 of the Standard Marking Systemfor Valves, Flanges, Pipe Fittings, and Unions, SP-25. 16.2  Castings other than valves, flanges, pipe fittings,and unions shall be identified subject to agreement by themanufacturer and the purchaser. 16.3  Marking shall be in such a position as not to injurethe usefulness of the castings. 17. Keywords17.1  casting; ductile iron; mechanical properties; pres-sure-retaining; pressure test; tensile strength; tension test-ing; yield strength Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 Not for Resale, 08/13/2007 15:21:07 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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