Asme Section II a-2 Sa-484 Sa-484m

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SA 484 2007
  2007 SECTION II, PART A SA-484/SA-484M SPECIFICATION FOR GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FORSTAINLESS STEEL BARS, BILLETS, AND FORGINGS SA-484/SA-484M (Identical with ASTM Specification A 484/A 484M-98.) 1. Scope1.1  This specification covers general requirements thatshallapply tostainlesswrought steelbars, shapes,forgings,and billets or other semi-finished material (except wire) forforging, under the lastest revision of each of the followingASTM specifications: Specifications A 276, A 314, A 458,A 473, A 477, A 479/A 479M, A 564/A 564M, A 565,A 582/A 582M, A 638/A 638M, A 705/A 705M, andA 831/A 831M. 1.2  In case of conflicting requirements, the individualmaterial specification requirements take precedence. 1.3  The requirements for introduction of new materialsin specifications referencing this Specification of GeneralRequirements are given in Annex A1. 1.4  General requirements for flat products other thanbar are covered in Specification A 480/A 480M. 1.5  General requirements for wire products in coils arecovered in Specification A 555/A 555M. 1.6  The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI(metric) units are to be regarded separately as the standard;within the text and tables, the SI units are shown in [brack-ets]. The values stated in each system are not exact equiva-lents; therefore, each system must be used independentlyof the other. Combining values from the two systems mayresult in nonconformance with the specification. 1.7  Unless the order specifies an “M” designation, thematerial shall be furnished to inch-pound units. 2. Referenced Documents2.1  ASTM Standards: A 262 Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranu-lar Attack in Austenitic Stainless SteelsA 276 Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes 891 A 314 Specification for Stainless Steel Billets and Bars forForgingA 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Test-ing of Steel ProductsA 458 Specification for Hot-Worked, Hot-Cold-Workedand Cold-Worked Alloy Steel Bars for High Strengthat Elevated TemperaturesA 473 Specification for Stainless Steel ForgingsA 477 Specification for Hot-Worked, Hot-Cold-Workedand Cold-Worked Alloy Steel Forgings and Forging Bil-lets for High Strength at Elevated TemperaturesA 479/A 479M Specification for Stainless Steel Bars andShapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure VesselsA 480/A 480M Specification for General Requirementsfor Flat-Rolled Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate,Sheet, and StripA 555/A 555M Specification for General Requirementsfor Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Wire and WireRodsA 564/A 564MSpecificationforHot-RolledandCold-Fin-ished Age-Hardening Stainless Steel Bars and ShapesA 565 Specification for Martensitic Stainless Steel Bars,Forgings, and Forging Stock for High-TemperatureServiceA 582/A 582M Specification for Free-Machining StainlessSteel Bars, Hot-Rolled or Cold-FinishedA 638/A 638M Specification for Precipitation HardeningIron Base Superalloy Bars, Forgings, and Forging Stock for High-Temperature ServiceA 700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and LoadingMethods for Steel Products for Domestic ShipmentA 705/A 705M Specification for Age-Hardening StainlessSteel ForgingsA 751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology forChemical Analysis of Steel ProductsA 831/A 831M Specification for Stainless Steel Bars, Bil-lets, and Forgings for Use in Core Components Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 Not for Resale, 08/13/2007 15:26:30 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``,`,,```,``,,`,`,``,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---  SA-484/SA-484M 2007 SECTION II, PART A E 112 Test Methods for Determining the Average GrainSizeE 139 Practice for Conducting Creep, Creep-Rupture, andStress-Rupture Tests of Metallic Materials 2.2  Federal Standards: Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment (Civil Agencies)Fed. Std. No. 183 Continuous Marking of Iron and SteelProducts 2.3  Military Standards: MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and StorageMIL-STD-163 Preservationof Steel Productsfor Shipment(Storage and Overseas Shipment) 2.4  Other Standard: Primary Metals Bar Code Standard 3. Terminology3.1  Descriptions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 3.1.1  Bars, shapes, forgings, and billets or othersemi-finished material as used in this specification aredefined as follows: 3.1.2  Bars —   Straight lengths that are produced by:hot rolling, forging, extruding, etc. Also included are smallshapes with all dimensions under 5 in. [125 mm] and hot-rolled flats up to 10 in. [250 mm] inclusive in width and0.125 in. [3.00 mm] and over in thickness. Cold-finishedbars may be cold drawn, turned, ground or polished andare produced from straight length bars or from straightenedand cut rod or wire. Also, bars may be produced by cuttingfrom strip or plate, provided that the long direction of cutbars is parallel to the final rolling direction of the stripor plate. NOTE — All cold-reduced flat material under 0.1875 in. [5.00 mm] thick is classified as strip if 0.375 in. [9.50 mm] and over in width. 3.1.3  Forgings —   Parts produced by hot, mechanicalshaping of such products as bars and billets, or other semi-finished materials, with hammers, presses, and forgingmachines. 3.1.4  Billets —   A semi-finished product (producedon mills or by forging or continuous casting machines)that requires subsequent hot rolling or hot forging. Sizesare generally up to 36 in. 2 (230 cm 2 ) in cross sectionas squares or rectangles with width less than twice thethickness. 3.1.5  Blooms —   A semi-finished product (producedon mills or by continuous casting machines) that requiressubsequent hot rolling or hot forging. Sizes are generallyover 36 in. 2 (230 cm 2 ) in square or rectangular cross sec-tions with width less than twice the thickness. Rectangleswith width twice the thickness or greater are classed asslabs or sheet bars. 892 3.1.6  Slabs or Sheet Bars —   The products of a pri-mary mill such as blooming, slabbing or sheet bar mills,or continuous or pressure casting machines, which areshipped without further work other than cutting to lengthor surface conditioning used only for re-rolling into sheet,strip or plate. 3.2  The terms random lengths, multiple lengths, anddead or exact lengths are defined as follows: 3.2.1  Random Lengths —   A length range of not lessthan 24 in. [1 m]; for example, 10 to 12 ft [3 to 4 m], 14to 17 ft [4 to 5 m], or 15 to 20 ft [5 to 6 m]. 3.2.2  Multiple Lengths —   Frequently, fabricatingoperations will require small unit bar lengths. When suchis the case, a single bar containing a predetermined numberof such units may be specified. Such a bar is described asa multiple-length bar, and it is common to include in thespecified length an allowance of   1  ⁄  4  in. [6.5 mm] per unitto ensure cutting the required number of pieces. 3.2.3  Dead or Exact Length —   Bars specified to deador exact lengths may be either hot sheared or hot sawed.When greater accuracy in length or freedom from enddistortion is required, bars can be machine-cut aftermachine-straightening. The permissible variations inlength for dead or exact length bars are shown in tablesat the end of this specification. 4. Identification of Material4.1  For Civilian Procurement: 4.1.1  Bars and shapes shall be properly marked ortagged with the name of manufacturer, purchaser’s nameand order number, ASTM specification number, heat num-ber, grade or type, condition, and where appropriate thesize, length, and weight. Unless otherwise specified, themethod of marking is at the option of the manufacturer,and maybemadebyhot stamping, coldstamping, painting,or marking tags attached to the bundles, lifts, or boxes. 4.1.2  Forgings shall be legibly die stamped withthe manufacturer’s symbol or name, material specificationnumber, type, and heat identification. When die stampingis not permitted by the purchaser, electric pencil or electro-etching may be used. 4.2  For Government Procurement: 4.2.1  When specified in the contract or order, andfor direct procurement by or direct shipment to theGovern-ment, marking for shipment, in addition to any require-ments specified in the contract or order, shall be inaccordance with MIL-STD-129 for military agencies andin accordance with Fed. Std. No. 123 for civil agencies. 4.2.2  For Government procurement by the DefenseSupply Agency, bars and shapes shall be continuously Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 Not for Resale, 08/13/2007 15:26:30 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS  2007 SECTION II, PART A SA-484/SA-484M marked for identification in accordance with Fed. Std.No. 183. 5. Materials and Manufacture5.1  The material may be furnished in one of the condi-tions detailed in the applicable material specification, thatis, hot-worked, extruded or forged, forged and machined,annealed, cold-worked or heat-treated (normalized andtempered, or quenched and tempered), etc. 5.2  The types of finish procurable are as follows: 5.2.1  Hot-Finished Bars —   Hot-finished bars arecommonly produced by hot rolling, forging, pressing,extruding, etc. ingots, bloomsor billetsto final dimensions.Hot-finished bars may be subject to various operationsincluding annealing or other heat treating, cleaning bypickling, blast cleaning or other methods of descaling,rough turning and machine straightening. At the option of the producer, hot-finished bar may be subject to centerlessgrinding, polishing, etc., to provide closer tolerances orimproved surface condition. 5.2.2  Bars Cut from Strip or Plate —   Two surfacesdescaled or pickled, two cut surfaces, except when heattreated after cutting, in which case, all surfaces will bedescaled or pickled. 5.2.3  Cold-Finished Bars —   Cold-finished bars areproduced from hot-finished bars by means of additionaloperations, for example, cold drawing, centerless grinding,polishing, etc., to provide closer tolerances, improved sur-face condition or higher strength levels. 5.2.4  Bars and Billets or Other Semi-Finished Mate-rial for Reforging —   Material may be conditioned toremove injurious surface defects provided the depth of conditioning does not exceed that which affects the surfacecondition or dimensions of the article to be forged fromthe bar on billet. 5.2.5  Shapes —   Descaled by machining, grinding,or pickling.  Shapes may be subjected to either Class Aor Class C surface preparation as specified on the purchaseorder. Class A consists of grinding for the removal of imperfections of a hazardous nature such as fins, tears, and jagged edges, provided the underweight tolerance is notexceeded and the maximum depth of grinding at any onepoint does not exceed 10% of the thickness of the section.Class C consists of grinding for the removal of all visiblesurface imperfections, provided the underweight toleranceis not exceeded and the maximum depth of grinding at anyone point does not exceed 10% of the thickness of thesection. 5.2.6  Forgings—   Descaled by machining, blastingor pickling, unless otherwise specified. 893 6. Chemical Composition6.1  Heat or Cast Analysis —   The chemical analysisof each heat shall be determined in accordance with theapplicable material specification and Test Methods, Prac-tices, and Terminology A 751. 6.2  Product Analysis —   Whenrequired, aproduct anal-ysis shall be determined in accordance with Test Methods,Practices, and Terminology A 751. The chemical composi-tion thus determined shall conform to the tolerances shownin Table 1. 6.3  The steel shall not contain an unspecified elementfor the ordered grade to the extent that the steel conformsto the requirements of another grade in the referencingproduct specification, and any of the product specificationswithin the scope of this general specification, for whichthat element has a specified minimum. 7. Permissible Variations in Dimensions7.1  Unless otherwise specified on the purchase order,the material shall conform to the permissible variations indimensions as specified in the following: 7.1.1  Bars —   Tables 2 through 11. 7.1.2  Shapes —   Tables 12 through 18 and Figs. 1and 2. 7.1.3  Forgings —   As specified in the purchase order,or in prints or sketches accompanying the purchase order. 7.1.4  Billets or Other Semi-Finished Material for  Reforging—  Billetsandbarsshallconformtotheshapeanddimensions specified by the purchaser within a permissiblevariation of ±5%. 8. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance8.1  The material shall be of uniform quality consistentwith good manufacturing and inspection practices. Imper-fections that may be present shall be of such a nature ordegree for the type and quality ordered, that they will notadversely affect the forming, machining, or fabrication of finished parts. 9. Lot Size9.1  A lot for product analysis shall consist of all bars,shapes, and forgings made from the same heat. 9.2  Forothertestsrequiredbytheproductspecification,a lot shall consist of all bar products of the same size, orforgings weighing less than 1000 lb [500 kg] each, fromthe same heat, and produced under the same processingconditions. All austenitic, ferritic, and free-machiningstainlesssteels,aswellasmartensiticgradeswhenannealed Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 Not for Resale, 08/13/2007 15:26:30 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``,`,,```,``,,`,`,``,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---  SA-484/SA-484M 2007 SECTION II, PART A to Condition A and precipitation or age-hardening gradeswhen solution treated, may be heat treated in more thanone charge in the same furnace or in several furnaces,utilizingcontrolledprocessingandequipment.(SeeAppen-dix.) However, when heat treating martensitic stainlesssteels to Condition T or H and when age hardening theprecipitation hardening stainless steels, a lot shall consistof the same size, same heat, and the same heat treat chargein a batch-type furnace or under the same conditions in acontinuous furnace. 9.2.1  For forgings weighing from 1000 lb [500 kg]to 5000 lb [2500 kg] each, a lot shall consist of one sizeclassification from each heat and each heat-treating charge.Where continuous heat-treating furnaces are used, a lotshall consist of one size classification from each heat, heattreated in an 8-h (or less) period. 9.2.2  For all classes of forgings weighing from 5000to 7000 lb [2300 to 3200 kg], each unit shall be considereda lot. 9.2.3  For all classes of forgings weighing more than7000 lb [3200 kg], each unit shall be considered a doublelot, and two tension tests shall be required, one from eachend of eachforging. In thecaseof ringforgings, thetensiontest specimensshall beremoved from each of two locationson the periphery, approximately 180° apart, or insofar aspracticable from opposite ends of the forging. 10. Number of Tests and Retests10.1  Unless specified otherwise in the product specifi-cation, one sample per heat shall be selected for chemicalanalysis and one mechanical test sample shall be selectedfrom each lot of bars and shapes and from each lot of forgings. Tension tests of bars and shapes shall be madein the longitudinal direction. Hardness tests on bars shallbe conducted midway between the center and surface of the product. Tension tests on forgings shall be preparedfromsuitableprolongations,orat theoptionof thesupplier,excess forgings may be provided for test. All tests shallconform to the chemical and mechanical requirements of the material specification. 10.2  One intergranular corrosion test, when required,and one grain size test, when required, shall be made fromeach lot. It is often convenient to obtain test material fromthe specimen selected for mechanical testing. 10.3  If any test specimen shows defective machiningor flaws, it may be discarded and another specimen substi-tuted. 10.4  If the results of any test lot are not in conformancewith the requirements of this specification and the applica-ble product specification, a retest sample of two specimens 894 may be tested to replace each failed specimen of the srci-nal sample. If one of the retest specimens fails, the lotshall be rejected. 11. Retreatment11.1  Where failure of any lot is due to inadequate heattreatment, thematerial may be reheat-treated and resubmit-ted for test. 12. Test Methods12.1  The properties enumerated in applicable specifi-cations shall be determined in accordance with the follow-ing ASTM methods: 12.1.1  Chemical Analysis —   Test Methods, Prac-tices, and Terminology A 751. 12.1.2  Tension Tests —   Test Methods and Defini-tions A 370. When identified as such, transverse testing ispermitted. 12.1.3  Stress Rupture —   Practice E 139. 12.1.4  Brinell Hardness —   Test Methods and Defi-nitions A 370. 12.1.5  Rockwell Hardness —   Test Methods andDefinitions A 370. 12.1.6  Intergranular Corrosion  (when required) —Practice E of Practices A 262. 12.1.7  Grain Size  (when required) — Test MethodsE 112. 12.1.8  Charpy V-Notch Impact Test —   Test Methodsand Definitions A 370. 13. Inspection13.1  For Civilian Procurement —   Inspection of thematerial shall be as agreed upon between the purchaserand the supplier as part of the purchase contract. 13.2  For Government Procurement —   Unless other-wise specified in the contract or purchase order:  (1)  theseller is responsible for the performance of all inspectionand test requirements in this specification,  (2)  the sellermay use his own or other suitable facilities for the perform-ance of the inspection and testing, and  (3)  the purchasershall have the right to perform any of the inspection andtests set forth in this specification. The manufacturer shallafford the purchaser’s inspector all reasonable facilitiesnecessary to satisfy him that the material is being furnishedin accordance with the specification. Inspection by thepurchaser shall not interfere unnecessarily with the manu-facturer. Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 Not for Resale, 08/13/2007 15:26:30 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --` `   ,`   ,  ,` ` `   ,` `   ,  ,`   ,`   ,` `   ,`   ,` ` `   ,  ,  ,-` -`   ,  ,`   ,  ,`   ,`   ,  ,` ---
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