ASM Handbook W. Volume 6A Welding Fundamentals and Processes. Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee

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ASM Handbook, Volume 6A, Welding Fundamentals and Processes T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, and V. Acoff, editors Copyright 2011 ASM International All rights reserved. ASM Handbook
ASM Handbook, Volume 6A, Welding Fundamentals and Processes T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, and V. Acoff, editors Copyright 2011 ASM International All rights reserved. ASM Handbook W Volume 6A Welding Fundamentals and Processes Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Volume Editors Thomas J. Lienert, Los Alamos National Laboratory Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, The Ohio State University Thomas A. Siewert, National Institute of Standards and Technology (retired) Viola L. Acoff, The University of Alabama Division Editors Chris Conrady, ; John Elmer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jerry Gould, ; Patrick Hochanadel, Los Alamos National Laboratory Kenn Lachenberg, Sciaky Inc.; Leijun Li, Utah State University; Howard Ludewig, Caterpillar Inc. Bruce Madigan, Montana Tech of The University of Montana; Muralidhar Tumuluru, US Steel Corporation Norman Y. Zhou, University of Waterloo ASM International Staff Eileen DeGuire, Senior Content Developer; Steve Lampman, Content Developer Susan Sellers, Editorial Assistant; Ann Britton, Editorial Assistant Madrid Tramble, Senior Production Coordinator; Patty Conti, Production Coordinator Diane Whitelaw, Production Coordinator; Scott D. Henry, Senior Manager, Content Development Bonnie R. Sanders, Manager of Production Editorial Assistance Elizabeth Marquard Beverly Musgrove Buz Riley Materials Park, Ohio Copyright # 2011 by ASM International W All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, November 2011 This book is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information from worldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems. Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ASM International ASM Handbook Includes bibliographical references and indexes Contents: v.1. Properties and selection irons, steels, and high-performance alloys v.2. Properties and selection nonferrous alloys and specialpurpose materials [etc.] v.22b. Metals Process Simulation 1. Metals Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-work Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee. II. Metals Handbook. TA459.M SAN: ISBN-13: ISBN-10: ASM International W Materials Park, OH Printed in the United States of America Multiple copy reprints of individual articles are available from Technical Department, ASM International. Foreword From the efforts of volunteer editors, authors, and reviewers, this Volume 6A of the ASM Handbook series, provides updated and expanded coverage on the fundamentals and processes of welding technology, research, modeling and simulation. Welding and allied joining technologies are instrumental in the modern use of materials, and the many volunteers should be proud in this work to serve engineers, students, technicians, researchers, and others with authoritative, reliable reference information on welding fundamentals and processes. Coverage of joining technologies continues to grow in the ASM Handbook series, and this Volume is the first of several Volumes devoted to the many new developments of materials joining. In this Volume, new coverage reflects the continued growth of solid-state welding processes and the expanded use of computer modeling in the simulation of welding processes. Procedure development, quality control, and process improvements are also emphasized for arc, resistance, and directed-energy beam welding. ASM Handbooks are a cornerstone of ASM International, and this effort could not have been accomplished without the dedicated efforts of many volunteers. Our thanks are extended to the editors, listed on the title page, and the authors and reviewers given in the List of Contributors. We are grateful for the contribution of their time and expertise. Mark F. Smith President ASM International Stanley C. Theobald Managing Director ASM International iii Preface The ASM Handbook Volume 6A, Welding Fundamentals & Processes, represents the first of at least two volumes to be published on aspects of welding and joining. As indicated in the title, Volume 6A focuses on fundamental aspects of welding, and on the many welding processes. Volume 6B, planned for future publication, will concentrate on weldability and behavior of a range of alloys and materials. As with the last edition of this Volume, the Volume Editors recognized that the researchers, engineers, technicians and students that will use this handbook have different needs with regard to their level of understanding. Accordingly, the sections of this handbook fall into two major categories. The sections on fundamentals provide in-depth background on the scientific principles associated with welding, while the sections on the various welding processes take a more practical approach. The Volume Editors have also tried to present a comprehensive reference that can be of use to the diverse welding community. All sections of the handbook have been reviewed to be sure that they reflect the current status of the technology. Many sections have been expanded, such as the sections on fundamentals, high-energy density, solid-state welding and especially weld modeling. New processes and process variations developed since the last printing of this Volume have been incorporated, including friction stir welding, magnetic pulse welding, hybrid processes, direct metal deposition, penetration enhancing fluxes and ultrasonic additive manufacturing. A section on safe practices has also been added. We wish to thank our many colleagues who served as section editors and authors of the individual articles. This handbook would not have been possible without their efforts. Thomas J. Lienert, Los Alamos National Laboratory Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, The Ohio State University Thomas A. Siewert, NIST (retired) Viola L. Acoff, The University of Alabama v Policy on Units of Measure By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adopted the practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to present data in metric units based primarily on Système International d Unités (SI), with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S. units. The decision to use SI as the primary system of units was based on the aforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread use of metric units throughout the world. For the most part, numerical engineering data in the text and in tables are presented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in parentheses (text) or adjoining columns (tables). For example, pressure, stress, and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with a suitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per square inch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kips per square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi = 1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg 10 3 ) has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientific data are presented in SI units only. To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on artwork. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations are presented in both SI-based and customary U.S. units. On graphs and charts, grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left and bottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. units appear along the top and right edges. Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writing group may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dual units, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yield strength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S. units would be presented in dual units, but the sheet thickness specified in that specification might be presented only in inches. Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which the standard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the units of that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented. Some statistical data may also be presented in only the original units used in the analysis. Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with IEEE/ ASTM SI-10, with attention given to the number of significant digits in the original data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570 F contains three significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would be given as 855 C; the exact conversion to C would not be appropriate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precise temperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate to report the temperature as C or F. In some instances (especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in C and F are alternatives rather than conversions. The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains several exceptions to strict conformance to IEEE/ASTM SI-10; in each instance, the exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of the Handbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm 3 rather than kg/m 3 as the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume). SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in units formed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the units preceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following the virgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses are required to prevent ambiguity. vi Officers and Trustees of ASM International ( ) Mark F. Smith President and Trustee National Laboratories Christopher C. Berndt Vice-President and Trustee Swinburne University of Technology Frederick J. Lisy Immediate Past President and Trustee Orbital Research Incorporated Stanley C. Theobald Managing Director & Secretary ASM International Robert J. Fulton Treasurer and Trustee Hoeganaes Corporation (retired) Riad I. Asfahani United States Steel Corporation Mufit Akinc Iowa State University Sunniva R. Collins Swagelok Diana Essock Metamark Inc. David U. Furrer Pratt & Whitney Robert Hill, Jr. President Solar Atmospheres, Inc. Richard Knight Drexel University John J. Letcavits AEP Vilupanur A. Ravi California State Polytechnic University Student Board Members Kathryn (Katie) S. Czaja University of Connecticut Emily J. Kuster Iowa State University Indranil Lahiri Florida International University Members of the ASM Handbook Committee ( ) Craig D. Clauser Chair 2010 Member 2005 Craig Clauser Engineering Consulting Incorporated Joseph W. Newkirk Vice Chair 2010 Member 2005 Missouri University of Science and Technology Kent L. Johnson Immediate Past Chair 2010 Member 1999 Materials Consulting and Engineering, Ltd. Viola L. Acoff (2005 ) University of Alabama Scott W. Beckwith (2010 ) BTG Composites Inc Rodney R. Boyer (2010 ) Boeing Company Lichun Leigh Chen (2002 ) Umicore Technical Materials North America Sarup K. Chopra (2007 ) Consultant Craig V. Darragh (1989 ) The Timken Company (ret.) Jon L. Dossett (2006 ) Consultant Alan P. Druschitz (2009 ) University of Alabama-Birmingham Gerald S. Frankel (2010 ) The Ohio State University David U. Furrer (2006 ) Pratt & Whitney Larry D. Hanke (1994 ) Materials Evaluation and Engineering Inc Jeffrey A. Hawk (1997 ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Kang N. Lee (2010 ) Rolls Royce Corporation Dale E. Newbury (2010 ) National Inst. of Standards Robert P. O Shea, Jr. (2008 ) Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants Toby V. Padfield (2004 ) ZF Sachs Automotive of America Cynthia A. Powell (2009 ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Thomas E. Prucha (2010 ) American Foundry Society Prasan K. Samal (2010 ) North American Höganäs Jeffrey S. Smith (2009 ) Material Processing Technology LLC George Vander Voort (1997 ) Consultant, Struers Michael K. West (2008 ) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Chairs of the ASM Handbook Committee J.F. Harper ( ) (Member ) W.J. Merten ( ) (Member ) L.B. Case ( ) (Member ) C.H. Herty, Jr. ( ) (Member ) J.P. Gill (1937) (Member ) R.L. Dowdell ( ) (Member ) G.V. Luerssen ( ) (Member ) J.B. Johnson ( ) (Member ) E.O. Dixon ( ) (Member ) N.E. Promisel ( ) (Member ) R.W.E. Leiter ( ) (Member , ) D.J. Wright ( ) (Member ) J.D. Graham ( ) (Member ) W.A. Stadtler ( ) (Member ) G.J. Shubat ( ) (Member ) R. Ward ( ) (Member ) G.N. Maniar ( ) (Member ) M.G.H. Wells (1981) (Member ) J.L. McCall (1982) (Member ) L.J. Korb (1983) (Member ) T.D. Cooper ( ) (Member ) D.D. Huffman ( ) (Member ) vii D.L. Olson ( ) (Member , ) R.J. Austin ( ) (Member ) W.L. Mankins ( ) (Member 1989 ) M.M. Gauthier ( ) (Member ) C.V. Darragh ( ) (Member 1989 ) Henry E. Fairman ( ) (Member ) Jeffrey A. Hawk ( ) (Member 1997 ) Larry D. Hanke ( ) (Member 1994 ) Kent L. Johnson ( ) (Member 1999 ) Craig D. Clauser (2010 )( Member 2005 ) List of Contributors Lee Allgood The Lincoln Electric Company Mahyar Asadi Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Sudarsanam Suresh Babu The Ohio State University John Banker Dynamic Materials Corporation Niels Bay Technical University of Denmark O.W. Blodgett The Lincoln Electric Company S.D. Brandi Escola de Politecnica da USP, São Paulo, Brazil P. Burgardt Los Alamos National Laboratory Charles Caristan Air Liquide Industrial U.S. LP Harvey R. Castner Anil Chaudhary Applied Optimization Kevin J. Colligan Concurrent Technologies Corporation Chris Conrardy George E. Cook Vanderbilt University Glenn Daehn The Ohio State University Amitava De Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India P.S. De Missouri University of Science and Technology Tarasankar DebRoy Pennsylvania State University David R. DeLapp Vanderbilt University Janet Devine Sonobond Ultrasonics Inc. David Dewees Equity Engineering Group Ray Dixon Consultant John N. DuPont Lehigh University Thomas W. Eagar Massachusetts Institute of Technology J.W. Elmer Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory David Farson The Ohio State University E. Friedman Westinghouse Electric Corporation Sean Gleeson S.S. Glickstein Westinghouse Electric Corporation John Goldak Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Jerry E. Gould Karl Graff Oystein Grong Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Ian D. Harris D.A. Hartman Manufacturing Behavioral Science P.W. Hochanadel Los Alamos National Laboratory J. Ernesto Indacochea University of Illinois At Chicago J. Imbert University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada Kent Johnson Materials Consulting and Engineering, Ltd. Lennart Karlsson Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden D.D. Kautz Los Alamos National Laboratory Menachem Kimchi Gerald A. Knorovsky Sandia National Laboratories Steve Knostman Hobart Brothers Sachin D. Kore Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India Paul S. Korinko Savannah River National Laboratory Sindo Kou University of Wisconsin Igor V. Krivtsun E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine Amit Kumar Exxon Mobil Upstream Research Company N. Kumar Missouri University of Science and Technology Muneharu Kutsuna Advanced Laser Technology Research Center Co. Ltd. K. Lachenberg Sciaky Inc. Samuel G. Lambrakos Naval Research Laboratory Leijun Li Utah State University Victor Li Portland State University Thomas Lieb LAI International T.J. Lienert Los Alamos National Laboratory John C. Lippold The Ohio State University Stephen Liu Colorado School of Mines viii Mehran Maalekian The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Donald F. Maatz, Jr. RoMan Engineering Services Bruce Madigan Montana Tech, The University of Montana R. P. Martukanitz Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Robert Matteson Taylor-Winfield Technologies Inc. J. Mazumder Univeristy of Michigan Aaron D. Mazzeo Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael T. Merlo RevWires LLC, A Heico Wire Group Company Robert W. Messler, Jr. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute P. Michaleris Pennsylvania State University J.O. Milewski Los Alamos National Laboratory R.S. Mishra Missouri University of Science and Technology William Mohr Pierre Montmitonnet Ecole des Mines Tom Morrissett RoMan Engineering Services Ole Runar Myhr Hydro Aluminium, Raufoss, Norway Jeong Na Kotobu Nagai National Institute of Metals (Japan) T.A. Palmer Pennsylvania State University Randolph Paura Dynamic Laser Solutions Warren Peterson Curtis Prothe Dynamic Materials Corporation Joseph Puskar Sandia Rohit Rai Pennsylvania State University Roger Reed University of Birmingham Charles V. Robino Sandia Michael Santella Sandia C. Schwenk BAM - Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany Hugh Shercliff Cambridge University Thomas Siewert NIST (retired) Carl D. Sorenson Brigham Young University Tim Stotler J.Q. Su Missouri University of Science and Technology R.D. Thomas, Jr. R.D. Thomas and Company Evgueni Todorov Chon L. Tsai United Ship Design and Development Center, Taipei Murali D. Tumuluru United States Steel Corporation Brian M. Victor John. M Vitek Oak Ridge National Laboratory Wesley Wang Esab Welding & Cutting Products Tim Webber IPG Photonics Perry White M. Worswick University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada Yu-Ping Yang Chunbo (Sam) Zhang Utah State University Hongyan Zhang University of Toledo Wei Zhang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Y.M. Zhang University of Kentucky and Adaptive Intelligent Systems LLC Norman Y. Zhou University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada ix Contents Fundamentals of Welding An Overview of Joining Processes Robert W. Messler, Jr.,... 3 Need for Joining Forces and Interactions in Materials Joining Mechanical Joining Fastening and Integral Attachment Adhesive Bonding Welding Brazing and Soldering Variant and Hybrid Processes General Design Aspects Summary Overview of Welding P
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