ASM Handbook W. Volume 4B Steel Heat Treating Technologies. Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee

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ASM Handbook W Volume 4B Steel Heat Treating Technologies Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Volume Editors Jon L. Dossett, FASM, Consultant George E. Totten, FASM,
ASM Handbook W Volume 4B Steel Heat Treating Technologies Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Volume Editors Jon L. Dossett, FASM, Consultant George E. Totten, FASM, Portland State University Division Editors Volker Schulze, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Thomas Lübben, Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (Foundation Institute of Materials Science) Jürgen Hoffmeister, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology ASM International Staff Steve Lampman, Content Developer Vicki Burt, Content Developer Amy Nolan, Content Developer Susan Sellers, Editorial Assistant Madrid Tramble, Manager of Production Kate Fornadel, Senior Production Coordinator Patty Conti, Production Coordinator Diane Whitelaw, Production Coordinator Karen Marken, Senior Managing Editor Scott D. Henry, Senior Manager, Content Development Editorial Assistance Ed Kubel Elizabeth Marquard Jo Hannah Leyda Scot Ryan Buz Riley Copyright # 2014 by ASM International W All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, September 2014 This Volume is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information from worldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems. Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PUR- POSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this Volume shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this Volume shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ASM International ASM Handbook Includes bibliographical references and indexes Contents: v.1. Properties and selection irons, steels, and high-performance alloys v.2. Properties and selection nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials [etc.] v.23. Materials for Medical Devices 1. Metals Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-work Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee. II. Metals Handbook. TA459.M SAN: ISBN-13: ISBN-10: ASM International W Materials Park, OH Printed in the United States of America Foreword ASM Handbook Volume 4B is the second of five volumes to be published on heat treatment. This significant expansion reflects the considerable economic and engineering importance of steel heat treatment and its varied methods, technologies, and applications. Expanded Handbook coverage of heat treatment also is fitting, given the 1913 origins of ASM International as the Steel Treaters Club, formed by Detroit blacksmith William Park Woodside. Volume 4B continues from the extensive coverage in Volume 4A, Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes. This Volume covers the equipment and technological aspects of steel heat treatment. This includes instrumentation for process control and the various operational parameters that influence the effective and economical production of heat treated steel parts. This Volume, like all Volumes of the ASM Handbook, is written, reviewed, and edited by recognized authorities. Their volunteer efforts give us a standard reference work of peer-consensus information that is authoritative, technically correct, understandable, and reliable. We thank the many volunteers for their contributions that help technically trained persons solve problems and undertake work with confidence. We are especially indebted to editors Jon Dossett, George Totten, Volker Schulze, Thomas Lübben, and Jürgen Hoffmeister. Roger A. Jones President, Heat Treating Society C. Ravi Ravindran President, ASM International Thomas S. Passek Managing Director, ASM International iii Preface This Handbook continues coverage from Volume 4A, Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes. As with the last edition of this Volume, the goal is to provide a comprehensive reference that can be of use to the diverse heat treating community that includes researchers, engineers, technicians, and students. Each has different needs with regard to their level of work and practice. This Volume covers the equipment, operational, and technological aspects of steel heat treatment. This includes instrumentation for process control and the various operational parameters that influence the effective and economical production of heat treated steel parts. The first article of this Volume introduces general aspects of process control. This article discusses survey methods to assess furnace temperature uniformity, which is one of the more critical variables in a heat treating operation. Other articles also describe cost estimating and the sources of problems during heat treatment, such as decarburization prior to or during heat treatment and cracking or distortion during quenching. Updates and new articles also cover modern furnaces, heat-resistant equipment, controls, atmosphere control, temperature measurement, quenchants, quenching systems, and agitation. In addition, this Volume also gives a modern engineering perspective to the important problem of distortion and the control of residual stresses. This key topic is central in preventing many problems during steel heat treating. The engineering science (including computer modeling and simulation) of residual stress and distortion has relevance and increasing promise in practical production, whether it is process improvement for captive heat treaters or more flexible reliable results for the job-shop demands of commercial operations. In this effort, we especially thank Volker Schulze, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, and Thomas Lübben, Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (Foundation Institute of Materials Science), for their editorial efforts on the subject of residual stress and distortion. As in any ASM Handbook effort, compromises in scope and effort must occur. For example, more coverage on systems for handling and Jon Dossett, FASM Consultant Dr. George Totten, FASM Editor President, G.E. Totten & Associates, LLC Seattle, Washington, USA filtering quenchants could have been included. General equipment design and maintenance also could have been covered in more detail. In addition, some topics (such as the Appendix on Heat Transfer Equations ) may be beyond the scope of typical heat treaters, who can successfully rely on practical rules of thumb for determining heating and cooling schedules. Nonetheless, the underlying can provide a foundation in analyzing unexpected circumstances. Finally, we extend our thanks to the authors and reviewers who have taken the time to make this publication possible. It would have been impossible without them. iv Policy on Units of Measure By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adopted the practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to present data in metric units based primarily on Système International d Unités (SI), with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S. units. The decision to use SI as the primary system of units was based on the aforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread use of metric units throughout the world. For the most part, numerical engineering data in the text and in tables are presented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in parentheses (text) or adjoining columns (tables). For example, pressure, stress, and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with a suitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per square inch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kips per square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi = 1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg 10 3 ) has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientific data are presented in SI units only. To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on artwork. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations are presented in both SI-based and customary U.S. units. On graphs and charts, grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left and bottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. units appear along the top and right edges. Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writing group may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dual units, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yield strength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S. units would be presented in dual units, but the sheet thickness specified in that specification might be presented only in inches. Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which the standard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the units of that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented. Some statistical data may also be presented in only the original units used in the analysis. Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with IEEE/ ASTM SI-10, with attention given to the number of significant digits in the original data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570 F contains three significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would be given as 855 C; the exact conversion to C would not be appropriate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precise temperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate to report the temperature as C or F. In some instances (especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in C and F are alternatives rather than conversions. The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains several exceptions to strict conformance to IEEE/ASTM SI-10; in each instance, the exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of the Handbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm 3 rather than kg/m 3 as the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume). SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in units formed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the units preceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following the virgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses are required to prevent ambiguity. v List of Contributors and Reviewers Eric Boltz United Process Controls Lauralice C.F. Canale Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos Madhu Chatterjee Bodycote Brigitte Clausen Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik Rafael Colás Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Jon L. Dossett Consultant Imre Felde Obuda University B. Lynn Ferguson Deformation Control Technology, Inc. Real Fradette Solar Atmospheres Weimin Gao Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University Janez Grum University of Ljublijana David Guisbert QA-Metallurgical Service LLC Richard E. Haimbaugh Consultant Bernardo Hernández-Morales Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Peter Hodgson Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University Franz Hoffmann Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik Jürgen Hoffmeister Karlsruhe Institute of Technology William R. Jones Solar Atmospheres John R. (Chip) Keough Applied Process Inc. Jörg Kleff ZF Friedrichshafen AG Lingxue Kong Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University Maciej Korecki Seco/Warwick S.A. W. James Laird, Jr. Park Thermal International Corporation Thomas Lübben Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik Xinmin Luo Jiangsu University John Lutz AFC-Holcroft D. Scott MacKenzie Houghton International Rafael David Mercado-Solis Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Philip Mikula TRW Automotive Jim Oakes Super Systems Inc. Virginia Osterman Solar Atmospheres R.L.S. Otero Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil W.R. Otero Tecumseh do Brasil Ltda., Brazil Thomas Philips Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Frank Pietracupa United Process Controls Ralph Poor Surface Combustion K. Narayan Prabhu National Institute of Technology Karnataka G. Ramesh National Institute of Technology Karnataka vi Officers and Trustees of ASM International ( ) C. Ravi Ravindran President Ryerson University Sunniva R. Collins Vice President Case Western Reserve University Gernant E. Maurer Immediate Past President Carpenter Technology Corporation Thomas Passek Managing Director ASM International Robert Fulton Treasurer Hoeganaes Corporation (Retired) Iver Anderson Ames Laboratory Jacqueline M. Earle Caterpillar, Inc. John R. Keough Applied Process, Inc. Mitchell Dorfman Sulzer Metco (US), Inc. James C. Foley Los Alamos National Laboratory Jeffrey A. Hawk National Energy Technology Laboratory Members of the ASM Handbook Committee ( ) William J. Lenling Thermal Spray Technologies Inc. Linda S. Schadler Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Zi-Kui Liu The Pennsylvania State University Student Board Members Jessica A. Booth Case Western Reserve University Karly N. Chester Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Raymond T. Hickey Lehigh University Joseph Newkirk, Chair Missouri University of Science & Technology George Vander Voort, Vice Chair Vander Voort Consulting L.L.C. Craig Clauser, Immediate Past Chair Craig Clauser Engineering Consulting David Alman National Energy Technology Laboratory Scott Beckwith SAMPE Rodney Boyer RBTi Consulting Narendra Dahotre University of North Texas Jon Dossett Consultant Alan Druschitz Virginia Tech Jeffrey Hawk U.S. Department of Energy Steven Heifner Sypris Technologies Incorporated Paul Jablonski U.S. Department of Energy Kent Johnson Applied Materials John Keough Applied Process Incorporated Li Ling Shanghai University Brett Miller IMR Metallurgical Services Erik Mueller National Transportation Safety Board Thomas Prucha American Foundry Society Prasan Samal Consultant Roch Shipley Professional Analysis Consulting Inc Manas Shirgaokar Ellwood National Crankshaft Jeffery Smith Material Processing Technology Llc Jaimie Tiley US Air Force Research Lab George Totten G.E. Totten & Associates LLC Michael West South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Charles White Kettering University Chairs of the ASM Handbook Committee J.F. Harper ( ) (Member ) W.J. Merten ( ) (Member ) L.B. Case ( ) (Member ) C.H. Herty, Jr. ( ) (Member ) J.P. Gill (1937) (Member ) R.L. Dowdell ( ) (Member ) G.V. Luerssen ( ) (Member ) J.B. Johnson ( ) (Member ) E.O. Dixon ( ) (Member ) N.E. Promisel ( ) (Member ) R.W.E. Leiter ( ) (Member , ) D.J. Wright ( ) (Member ) J.D. Graham ( ) (Member ) W.A. Stadtler ( ) (Member ) G.J. Shubat ( ) (Member ) R. Ward ( ) (Member ) G.N. Maniar ( ) (Member ) M.G.H. Wells (1981) (Member ) J.L. McCall (1982) (Member ) L.J. Korb (1983) (Member ) T.D. Cooper ( ) (Member ) D.D. Huffman ( ) (Member ) D.L. Olson ( ) (Member , ) R.J. Austin ( ) (Member ) W.L. Mankins ( ) (Member 1989 ) M.M. Gauthier ( ) (Member ) C.V. Darragh ( ) (Member 1989 ) Henry E. Fairman ( ) (Member ) Jeffrey A. Hawk ( ) (Member 1997 ) Larry D. Hanke ( ) (Member 1994 ) Kent L. Johnson ( ) (Member 1999 ) Craig D. Clauser ( )( Member 2005 ) Joseph W. Newkirk (2012 ) (Member 2005 ) vii Contents Introduction Steel Heat Treating Process Control An Introduction Time-Temperature Profiles Temperature Uniformity Surveys Furnace Atmospheres Quenching Parameters Process and Product Capabilities Design of Experiments Test Coupons Mechanical Motion Components Calculation of Heat Treating Costs J.L. Dossett Introduction Operational Details Cost Separation Collecting Use/Cost Data Cost Component Allocations Determining the Cost of Endothermic Generator Gas Summary Problems Associated with Heat Treating Lauralice C.F. Canale, Jan Vatavuk, George E. Totten, and Xinmin Luo Phase Transformations During Heating and Cooling Cooling and Steel Metallurgical Transformation Tempering (Drawing) Effect of Materials and Process Design on Distortion Quenching Machining Grinding Retained Austenite Nonmetallic Inclusions Alloy Depletion High-Temperature Transformation Products Decarburization Carbides Influential Microstructural Features Shot Peening Final Comments Steel Decarburization Mechanisms, Models, Prevention, Correction, and Effects on Component Life Roger N. Wright General Chemical Reactions Diffusion-Based Models The Role of Ferrite in Decarburization Isothermal Phase Transformations during Decarburization Impact of Alloying on Vulnerability to Decarburization Impact of Decarburization on the Properties of Steels and Cast Irons Technological Operations (Process Stages) That Potentially Can Cause Decarburization Representative Decarburization Data Practical Implications for Induction Hardening Heat Treatment Systems and Controls Types of Heat Treating Furnaces Alexey Sverdlin Batch-Type Furnaces Continuous-Type Furnaces Recuperation or Regeneration Temperature Uniformity Insulation of Heat Treating Furnaces Furnace Safety Furnace Atmospheres for Heat Treating Ralph Poor, Steve Ruoff, and Thomas Philips Practical Flow Formula Fundamentals of Gases Principal Gases and Vapors Furnace Atmosphere Gas Reactions Classifications of Prepared Atmospheres Furnace Atmosphere Hazards Generated Exothermic-Based Atmospheres Generated Endothermic-Based Atmospheres Generated Exothermic-Endothermic-Based Atmospheres Generated Dissociated-Ammonia-Based Atmospheres Industrial Gas Nitrogen-Base Atmospheres Argon Atmospheres Hydrogen Atmospheres Atmospheres for Backfilling, Partial Pressure Operation, and Quenching in Vacuum Evaluating Atmosphere Requirements Furnace Atmosphere Controls in Heat Treating Jim Oakes and John Lutz Fundamentals of Heat Treating Atmospheres Carbon Potential Control Furnace Atmosphere Control Supply Atmosphere Control Control of Input Gas Laboratory Analysis of Gas Composition Sampling of Atmospheres for Analysis Sampling of Atmospheres for Control Analyzers Analyzer Recommendations Temperature Control in Heat Treating Peter Sherwin Factors Affecting Temperature Control Temperature-Control Instrumentation Temperature Scales Thermocouples Thermocouple Practices Resistance Temperature Detectors Noncontact Temperature Sensors Measurement and Control Instruments Energy-Flow Regulators SAE-AMS 2750 Specification Furnace Controls Jason W
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