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ASM Handbook, Volume 1, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High Performance Alloys Section: Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys Elevated-Temperature Properties of Stainless Steels STAINLESS STEELS are widely used at elevated temperatures when carbon and low-alloy steels do not provide adequate corrosion resistance and/or sufficient strength at these temperatures. Carbon and low-alloy steels are generally more economical than stainless steels and are often used in applicatio
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  ASM Handbook, Volume 1, Properties and Selection: Irons,Steels, and High Performance AlloysSection:Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys Elevated-Temperature Properties of Stainless Steels STAINLESS STEELS are widely used at elevated temperatures when carbon and low-alloy steels do not provide adequatecorrosion resistance and/or sufficient strength at these temperatures. Carbon and low-alloy steels are generally more economicalthan stainless steels and are often used in applications with temperatures below about 370  C (700  F). Several low-alloy steelswith moderate chromium contents (between 1 and 10%) and improved high-temperature strength are also widely used at elevatedtemperatures above 370  C (700  F). These steels include the creep-resistant chromium-molybdenum ferritic steels discussed inthe article Elevated-Temperature Properties of Ferritic Steels in this Volume. Carbon steels may even be suitable for temperatures above 370  C (700  F), if high strength and oxidation are not concerns.This article deals with the wrought stainless steels used for high-temperature applications (see the article Cast StainlessSteels  in this Volume for the elevated-temperature properties of cast stainless steels). Corrosion resistance is often the firstcriterion used to select stainless steel for a particular application. However, strength is also a significant factor in a majority of elevated-temperature applications and may even be the key factor governing the choice of a stainless steel. The stainless steelsused in applications in which high-temperature strength is important are sometimes referred to as heat-resistant steels.Table 1 gives some typical compositions of wrought heat-resistant stainless steels, which are grouped into ferritic, martensitic,austenitic, and precipitation-hardening grades. Of these steels, the austenitic grades offer the highest strength at high temperatures(Fig. 1 ). The precipitation-hardening steels have the highest strength at lower temperatures (Fig. 1 ), but they weaken considerably at temperatures above about 425  C (800  F). Table 1 Nominal compositions of wrought iron-base heat-resistant alloys DesignationUNSnumberComposition, %CCrNiMoNNbTiOtherFerritic stainless steels 405S405000.15max13.0...............0.2 Al406...0.15max13.0...............4.0 Al409S409000.08max11.00.5 max.........6    C min...429S429000.12max15..................430S430000.12max16.0..................434S434000.12max17.0...1.0............439S430350.07max18.25............12    C min1.10 Ti max18 SR...0.0518.0............0.40 max2.0 Al max18Cr-2MoS44400...18.5...2.0...(a)(a)0.8 (Ti + Nb) max446S446000.20max25.0......0.25.........E-Brite 26-1S446270.01max26.0...1.00.015max0.1......26-1TiS446260.0426.0...1.0......10    C min...29Cr-4MoS447000.01max29.0...4.00.02 max......... Quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steels ASM Handbook, Volume 1, Properties and Selection: Irons,Steels, and High Performance AlloysSection:Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys Elevated-Temperature Properties of Stainless Steels STAINLESS STEELS are widely used at elevated temperatures when carbon and low-alloy steels do not provide adequatecorrosion resistance and/or sufficient strength at these temperatures. Carbon and low-alloy steels are generally more economicalthan stainless steels and are often used in applications with temperatures below about 370  C (700  F). Several low-alloy steelswith moderate chromium contents (between 1 and 10%) and improved high-temperature strength are also widely used at elevatedtemperatures above 370  C (700  F). These steels include the creep-resistant chromium-molybdenum ferritic steels discussed inthe article Elevated-Temperature Properties of Ferritic Steels in this Volume. Carbon steels may even be suitable for temperatures above 370  C (700  F), if high strength and oxidation are not concerns.This article deals with the wrought stainless steels used for high-temperature applications (see the article Cast StainlessSteels  in this Volume for the elevated-temperature properties of cast stainless steels). Corrosion resistance is often the firstcriterion used to select stainless steel for a particular application. However, strength is also a significant factor in a majority of elevated-temperature applications and may even be the key factor governing the choice of a stainless steel. The stainless steelsused in applications in which high-temperature strength is important are sometimes referred to as heat-resistant steels.Table 1 gives some typical compositions of wrought heat-resistant stainless steels, which are grouped into ferritic, martensitic,austenitic, and precipitation-hardening grades. Of these steels, the austenitic grades offer the highest strength at high temperatures(Fig. 1 ). The precipitation-hardening steels have the highest strength at lower temperatures (Fig. 1 ), but they weaken considerably at temperatures above about 425  C (800  F). Table 1 Nominal compositions of wrought iron-base heat-resistant alloys DesignationUNSnumberComposition, %CCrNiMoNNbTiOtherFerritic stainless steels 405S405000.15max13.0...............0.2 Al406...0.15max13.0...............4.0 Al409S409000.08max11.00.5 max.........6    C min...429S429000.12max15..................430S430000.12max16.0..................434S434000.12max17.0...1.0............439S430350.07max18.25............12    C min1.10 Ti max18 SR...0.0518.0............0.40 max2.0 Al max18Cr-2MoS44400...18.5...2.0...(a)(a)0.8 (Ti + Nb) max446S446000.20max25.0......0.25.........E-Brite 26-1S446270.01max26.0...1.00.015max0.1......26-1TiS446260.0426.0...1.0......10    C min...29Cr-4MoS447000.01max29.0...4.00.02 max......... Quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steels  403S403000.15max12.0..................410S410000.15max12.5..................410CbS410400.15max12.5.........0.12......416S416000.15max13.0...0.6(b).........0.15 min S422S422000.2012.50.751.0.........1.0 W, 0.22 VH-46...0.1210.750.500.850.070.30...0.20 VMoly Ascoloy...0.1412.02.41.800.05......0.35 VGreek AscoloyS418000.1513.02.0............3.0 WJethete M-152...0.1212.02.51.7.........0.30 VAlmar 363...0.0511.54.5.........10    C min...431S431000.20max16.02.0...............LapelloyS423000.3011.5...2.75.........0.25 V Precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels Custom 450...0.05max15.56.00.75...8    C min...1.5 CuCustom 455...0.0311.758.5......0.301.22.25 Cu15-5 PHS155000.0715.04.5......0.30...3.5 Cu17-4PHS174000.0416.54.25......0.25...3.6 CuPH 13-8 MoS138000.0512.58.02.25.........1.1 Al Precipitation-hardening semiaustenitic stainless steels AM-350S350000.1016.54.252.750.10.........AM-355S355000.1315.54.252.750.10.........17-7 PHS177000.0717.07.0............1.15 AlPH 15-7 MoS157000.0715.07.02.25.........1.15 Al Austenitic stainless steels 304S304000.08max19.010.0...............304HS304090.04  0.1019.010.0...............304LS304030.03max19.010.0...............304NS304510.08max19.09.25...0.13.........309S309000.30max23.013.0...............309HS309090.04  0.1023.013.0...............310S310000.25max25.020.0...............310HS310090.04  0.1025.020.0...............316S316000.08max17.012.02.5............316LS316030.03max17.012.02.5............316NS316510.08max17.012.02.50.13.........316HS316090.04  0.1017.012.02.5............403S403000.15max12.0..................410S410000.15max12.5..................410CbS410400.15max12.5.........0.12......416S416000.15max13.0...0.6(b).........0.15 min S422S422000.2012.50.751.0.........1.0 W, 0.22 VH-46...0.1210.750.500.850.070.30...0.20 VMoly Ascoloy...0.1412.02.41.800.05......0.35 VGreek AscoloyS418000.1513.02.0............3.0 WJethete M-152...0.1212.02.51.7.........0.30 VAlmar 363...0.0511.54.5.........10    C min...431S431000.20max16.02.0...............LapelloyS423000.3011.5...2.75.........0.25 V Precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels Custom 450...0.05max15.56.00.75...8    C min...1.5 CuCustom 455...0.0311.758.5......0.301.22.25 Cu15-5 PHS155000.0715.04.5......0.30...3.5 Cu17-4PHS174000.0416.54.25......0.25...3.6 CuPH 13-8 MoS138000.0512.58.02.25.........1.1 Al Precipitation-hardening semiaustenitic stainless steels AM-350S350000.1016.54.252.750.10.........AM-355S355000.1315.54.252.750.10.........17-7 PHS177000.0717.07.0............1.15 AlPH 15-7 MoS157000.0715.07.02.25.........1.15 Al Austenitic stainless steels 304S304000.08max19.010.0...............304HS304090.04  0.1019.010.0...............304LS304030.03max19.010.0...............304NS304510.08max19.09.25...0.13.........309S309000.30max23.013.0...............309HS309090.04  0.1023.013.0...............310S310000.25max25.020.0...............310HS310090.04  0.1025.020.0...............316S316000.08max17.012.02.5............316LS316030.03max17.012.02.5............316NS316510.08max17.012.02.50.13.........316HS316090.04  0.1017.012.02.5............
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