ASM Handbook - Beryllium and Beryllium Alloys-ASM International (2010)

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  Beryllium and Beryllium Alloys Approved for addition to the ASM Handbook by the ASM International Handbook Committee Kenneth A. Walsh Deceased  Edited by Edgar E. Vidal Brush Wellman, Inc. Alfred Goldberg Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Edward N.C. Dalder Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory David L. Olson Colorado School of Mines Brajendra Mishra Colorado School of Mines Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org    Preface to Beryllium Chemistry and Processing With the downturn in beryllium production due to changes in the international political, environmental, health and safety issues, there has been a curtailment in beryllium research and development and a significant loss in beryllium intellectual capacity. Dr. Walsh, knowing that  beryllium exhibits unique and advantageous properties as a primary material and as an alloying addition, foresaw that beryllium offers significant advantages that can not be ignored if technology is to advance. Dr. Walsh envisioned a book, which would serve the function as an instructional tool to educate a scientist and engineer as to the chemistry and chemical and metallurgical processing of beryllium. This book should serve as a textbook for a short course or  be complete enough to be used by an individual in self-education. This book is, also, to serve as an archive of the tremendous amount of generated knowledge, which does not need to be rediscovered. And finally, this book should offer the user a one stop resource for the necessary chemical and physical data that is often required by practitioners of the chemistry and/or chemical  processing of beryllium. Dr. Walsh was concerned about the education of young engineers and wanted them to be fully prepared with both beryllium science and technology, but, also, to have cognizance about the health issues and the proper practices to handle and process beryllium ore, metals, chemicals and waste. The book is presented in the manner of an introduction of what beryllium is, its history, and its chemical and physical properties. The mineralogy of beryllium, the preferred sources, and the global source of ore bodies are presented. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Manufacturing processes of alloying, casting, powder metallurgy processing, forming, metal removal, joining, and others are introduced. The industrially interesting alloys are also identified and specified for their content and applications. The physical metallurgy chapter is offered to bring some conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of  beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its alloys both in aqueous and high temperature condition are presented. The health issues are thoroughly presented in one chapter written by experienced professionals. Another chapter is offered to describe the various requirements to handle beryllium in the workplace and the established practices that are available to meet these continuing requirements. A thorough list of references will assist the user of this book in further investigation. Contributors to this book come from industry, the academic world, and national laboratories. Each group provides their insight on beryllium technology. We would like to extend a special note of appreciation for the port of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in this  project. David L. Olson Colorado School of Mines Edgar E. Vidal Brush Wellman, Inc. January 2009  Preface to ASM Handbooks Online The ASM Handbook Editorial Board and ASM Handbook Committee are pleased to update the online product with content from  Beryllium Chemistry and Processing,  ASM International, 2009. Suggestions for additional or revised content should be directed to The Handbook Editorial Board at: HEB@collab.asminternational.org ASM Handbook Committee Copyright © 2010 ASM International®. All Rights Reserved.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Editors of Beryllium Chemistry and Processing Contributing Editors Preface to Beryllium Chemistry and Processing Preface to ASM Handbooks Online SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction to Beryllium 1 2. History of Beryllium 4 SECTION 2. PRODUCTION AND RECYCLING 3. Sources of Beryllium 11 4. Thermodynamics of Extraction 16 5. Mineral Processing for Beryllium 23 6. Extractive Metallurgy 26 7. Beryllium Waste Recycling 39 SECTION 3. CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICAL METALLURGY 8. Chemistry of Beryllium 43 9. Analytical Chemistry of Beryllium 51 10. Physical Metallurgy of Beryllium 56 11. Alloying of Beryllium 64 12. Beryllium Compounds 74 13. Beryllium Intermetallic Compounds 82 14. Amorphous Alloys That Contain Beryllium 91 SECTION 4. PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM AND ITS ALLOYS 15. Physical and Nuclear Properties of Beryllium 94 16. Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and its Alloys 115 17. Aqueous Corrosion of Beryllium and Beryllium Alloys 141 18. High-Temperature Corrosion of Beryllium and Beryllium Alloys 156
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