ASM. Better Metrics for Improving Human Reliability in Process Safety. Dr. Peter T. Bullemer. Abnormal Situation Management Consortium May 27 th, PDF

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 22
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Computers & Electronics

Published:

Views: 5 | Pages: 22

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
Better Metrics for Improving Human Reliability in Process Safety Dr. Peter T. Bullemer Human Centered Solutions Abnormal Situation Management Consortium May 27 th, th Process Plant Safety Symposium
Transcript
Better Metrics for Improving Human Reliability in Process Safety Dr. Peter T. Bullemer Human Centered Solutions Abnormal Situation Management Consortium May 27 th, th Process Plant Safety Symposium th Global Congress on Process Safety Tampa, FL USA 5 th Page 1 Abstract Current incident reporting systems do not effectively capture the influence of human reliability on process safety performance. Historical and cultural factors have led to the development of reporting systems with an emphasis on reporting of incidents that have equipment reliability causes and personal safety impacts. A root cause analysis of 30 public and private incident reports supports the need to establish a reporting and analysis method that establishes a plant s operations failure. This paper cites an approach developed in the aviation industry to reduce impact of human reliability as an example of an approach appropriate also for the process industries. An alternative conceptual framework for the process industry illustrates specific types of metrics that can help identify opportunities to improve human reliability and process safety performance. Page 2 Presenter Dr. Peter Bullemer Senior partner, North American, human factors consulting group Specializes in human performance in process industry operations Technical Contributor to the Abnormal Situation Management (ASM ) Consortium since 1994 Page 3 Human Centered Solutions Helping People Perform Abnormal Situation Management ASM A Joint Research and Development Consortium Founded in 1994 Creating a new paradigm for the operation of complex industrial plants, with solution concepts that improve Operations ability to prevent and respond to abnormal situations. Human Centered Solutions Helping People Perform Page 4 Message Most incident reporting approaches do NOT effectively capture the influence of human reliability on abnormal situation management (ASM) and process safety management (PSM) performance Establishing effective ASM and PSM metrics can improve the understanding of how systemic human reliability failures are associated with operations practices influences Page 5 Overview Factors that influence human reliability What is the typical practice today? Aviation industry incident reporting example Potential approach for Process Industries Concluding comments Page 6 What is an Abnormal Situation? An industrial process is being disturbed and the automated control system can not cope... Consequently, the operations team must intervene to supplement the control system. Impacts profitability in multiple ways: Product Quality Equipment Damage Loss of Life Job Satisfaction Product Thruput Personal Injury Page 7 ASM Relation to PSM ASM Process Safety Incidents Safety Pyramid Illustration Major Incidents Incidents above threshold for Process Safety Incident Abnormal Situation Incidents Effective Operations Practices Minor Incidents Incidents below impact threshold for PS Incident Near Miss System Failures that could lead to an incident Unsafe Behaviors Insufficient Operating Discipline Illustration based on: CCPS Process Safety Leading and Lagging Metrics. Page 8 Alarm System Relevance Critical Process Alarms indicate abnormal situation events. & are potential triggers for near-miss process safety events Illustration of the difference between an effectively designed alarm system and an ineffectively designed alarm system (excerpt from EEMUA, 2007) In an effectively rationalized alarm system, the count of alarms represents the count of transitions into the upset region. Page 9 Operator Interface Design Automation Influential Solution Elements Key ASM Operations Practice Areas Organizational Structure Leadership Communications Workplace Design Training Procedures Does your incident reporting system allow you to identify the influence of these solution elements on human reliability? Page 10 Incident Reporting Typical Practice Today Current incident reporting systems have evolved within the safety departments Outcome metrics tend to emphasize personnel safety and impact on injuries and lost work days Causal metrics tend to focus on equipment reliability Operations interested in capturing production related events are evolving separate reporting systems, Often with separate causal factors All cause factors tend to lack description at level of solution elements Page 11 Why do we care? Organizations lack common understanding of sources and impact of abnormal situations related to production losses and process safety risk Better understanding of abnormal situations indicate opportunities to improve both equipment, process and human reliability Improved human reliability reduces exposure to process safety incidents Page 12 ASM Incident Analysis Study ASM Common Operations Failures Top 10 Operations Failures Hazard analysis/ communication First-line leadership Continuous improvement Safety culture Initial and refresher training Task communications Comprehensive MOC Cross functional communication Compliance with procedures Design guidelines and standards Other failure modes TOTAL # % 79 15% 65 12% 60 11% 36 7% 30 6% 29 5% 28 5% 23 4% 15 3% 14 3% % 539 Page incidents were analyzed using TapRoot incident investigation methodology USA Non USA Total Public Site Total Top 10 covered 70% of identified operations practice failures Aviation Industry ASM Problem Statement 70-80% of accidents were attributed to human error Accident reporting system was not built around conceptual framework of human error Hence accident data bases do not enable human reliability analysis making intervention strategies onerous Shappell, S.A. & Wiegmann, D.A. (2001) Applying Reason: the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS). Human Factors and Aerospace Safety 1(1), p Page 14 What can be done? ASM Human Factors Analysis & Classification System (HFACS) Aviation Industry Example 4 levels of failures to identify systemic problems Currently deployed for FAA, NASA, all four branches of US Military & Canadian forces for incident reporting & investigation Figure from Shappell & Wiegmann, 2001 Page 15 Aviation Study Basis ASM James Reason Swiss Cheese Model Reason s model has 3 types of proactive process metrics to assess organizational factors that influence resistance to losses: Unsafe acts active failures (immediate causes) resulting from unintentional human error or individual violations of rules and regulations. Local workplace factors latent failures (basic causes) resulting from substandard work conditions or substandard mental or physical states. Organizational factors latent failures (basic causes) resulting from ineffective plant leadership, management systems and work processes. Reason, J. (1997). Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Page 16 Aviation Industry Example ASM Unsafe Supervision Category Inadequate Supervision Failed to Correct Known Problem Failed to provide guidance Failed to correct document in error Failed to provide operational doctrine Failed to identify an at-risk aviator Failed to provide oversight Failed to initiate corrective actions Failed to track qualifications Failed to report unsafe tendencies Failed to track performance Inappropriate Operations Plans Failed to provide correct data Failed to provide adequate brief time Improper manning Mission not compliant with regulations Provided inadequate time for crew rest Supervisory Violations Authorized unnecessary violations Failed to enforce rules and regulations Authorized unqualified crew for flight Shappell, S.A. & Wiegmann, D.A. (2001). Applying Reason: the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS). Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, 1(1), p Page 17 ASM Cause-Effect Framework ASM ASM Research Project developed framework for Process Industries Literature Review Human performance & reliability Incident investigation & reporting Quantifying cost/benefits Past ASM metrics work case studies ASM Cause-Effect Framework Unsafe Acts System Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Individual Human Performance Organizational Organizational Unsafe Supervision Supervisory Equipment & Process Performance Conceptual model has not yet been put into practice Page 18 Plant Performance Organizational Policy Structure People Culture System Experiential Learning Communications Knowledge & Skill Development Procedures Workplace Environment Process Equipment Control & Information Systems Management of Change ASM Cause-Effect Framework Influence & Performance Categories Supervisory Oversight Operations Planning Individual Personal Readiness Mental State Human Performance Orienting Breakdown Evaluating Breakdown Problem Physiological Acting Resolution State Breakdown Activity Human Assessing Authorization Capacity Breakdown Interpersonal Interaction Equipment & Process Performance Component Failure Corrosion Fault Undesirable Chemical Reaction ASM Effective Operations Practice Categories Organizational Supervisory Individual Human Performance Equipment & Process Performance Plant Performance Plant Performance Production Cost Operating Cost Capital Expenditure Loss Incidents Employee Satisfaction Customer Satisfaction Each category has descriptive indicators for identification Page 19 System Causes Effects Procedure Category ASM Proposed Root Cause Indicators 1. Inconvenient or no access from job location 2. Inappropriate format for conditions of use 3. Unclear instructions 4. Incomplete instructions 5. Inaccurate instructions 6. Insufficient warning of hazards 7. Incomplete coverage 8. Lack effective method to handle procedural deviations 9. Error in performance support or job aid application Page 20 Conclusion Current incident reporting approaches do NOT effectively capture the influence of human reliability on abnormal situation management and process safety performance Establishing integrated ASM & PSM metrics can improve the understanding of how systemic human reliability failures are associated with operations practices influences Page 21 Q & A Thanks you! Questions and/or Comments? Page 22
Recommended
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks