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Differential Equations A solution of a differential equation is a function that, along with its derivatives, satisfies the DE. Example: Show that is the solution of the differential equation with initial condition.

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- 1 Announcements Topics: -Review of Differential Equations and Integration Techniques (7.1, 7.2, and 7.5) To Do: -Review sections 7.1, 7.2, and 7.5 in the textbook -Work on Assignment 1 (posted on webpage)
- 2 Differential Equations A differential equation (DE) is an equation that involves an unknown function and one or more of its derivatives. Examples:
- 3 Differential Equations A solution of a differential equation is a function that, along with its derivatives, satisfies the DE. Example: Show that is the solution of the differential equation with initial condition.
- 4 Differential Equations In general, a differential equation has a whole family of solutions. Example: Find the general solution of the DE
- 5 Differential Equations An initial value problem (IVP) provides an initial condition so you can find a particular solution. Example: Find the unique solution of the IVP
- 6 Modeling: Verbal Descriptions IVPs Example: Write a differential equation and an initial condition to describe the following events. (a) The relative rate of change of the population of wild foxes in an ecosystem is 0.75 baby foxes per fox per month. Initially, the population is 74 thousand. (b) The rate of change of the thickness of the ice on a lake is inversely proportional to the square root of its thickness. Initially, the ice is 3 mm thick.
- 7 Solutions for General DEs Algebraic Solutions an explicit formula or algorithm for the solution (often, impossible to find) Geometric Solutions a sketch of the solution obtained from analyzing the DE Numeric Solutions an approximation of the solution using technology and and some estimation method, such as Euler’s method
- 8 Algebraic Solutions Example 1: Find the general solution of the pure-time DE Example 2: Find the general solution of the pure-time DE
- 9 Algebraic Solutions Example 3: Find the solution of the autonomous DE with initial condition
- 10 Geometric Solutions Example: Sketch the graph of the solution to the DE given an initial condition of
- 11 Euler’s Method Algorithm: Algorithm In Words: next time step = previous time step + step size next approximation = previous approximation + rate of change of the function x step size
- 12 Example Consider the IVP Approximate P(1) using Euler’s method and a step size of h=0.5. Note: We are not able to find an exact solution for this IVP.
- 13 Example Calculations: t n = t n-1 + hP n = approx. value of solution at t n t 0 = 0P 0 = 5 Table of Approximate Values for the Solution P(t) of the IVP
- 14 Example Graph of Approximate Solution: Plot points and connect with straight line segments. t n = t n-1 + hP n = approx. value of solution at t n t 0 = 0P 0 = 5 t 1 = 0.5P 1 = 5.5 t 2 = 1P 2 = 5.9
- 15 Qualitative Analysis of a DE We can analyze DEs qualitatively to determine important qualities or characteristics of the solutions without explicitly solving for one. Often this is all that is necessary to answer a given question or problem.
- 16 Qualitative Analysis of a DE Example: Consider the following autonomous DE describing the growth of a certain population. When is the population constant? When is the population increasing? When is it decreasing?

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