Announcements & Agenda (03/02/07)

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Announcements & Agenda (03/02/07). Welcome Visitors! Please make yourselves comfortable; we will start with a quiz  Mid-term grades are only based on lecture I will give you detailed grade sheets on Monday Note: most of MT grade was based on Exam 1 You should read Ch 11/12 this weekend!
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Announcements& Agenda(03/02/07)
  • Welcome Visitors! Please make yourselves comfortable; we will start with a quiz 
  • Mid-term grades are only based on lecture
  • I will give you detailed grade sheets on Monday
  • Note: most of MT grade was based on Exam 1
  • You should read Ch 11/12 this weekend!
  • Today
  • Functional groups in organic chemistry (10.5)
  • Unsaturated compounds (11.1)
  • Cis-trans isomers (11.2)
  • Reactivity of unsaturated compounds (11.3)
  • Last Time: Organic Compounds Typical organic compounds
  • have covalent bonds.
  • have low melting points.
  • have low boiling points.
  • are flammable.
  • are soluble in nonpolar solvents.
  • are usually not soluble in water.
  • oil (organic) and water (inorganic) Last Time: Alkanes (CnH2n+2)
  • nonpolar.
  • insoluble in water.
  • less dense than water.
  • flammable in air.
  • not a lot of interesting chemistry!
  • …but they burn!
  • Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size  Melting (blue) and boiling (pink) points of the first 14 n-alkanes in °C. Last Time: 4 Ways to Represent Structures of Organic Compounds (Know These!) 1. 2. 3.
  • Line Structures
  • - See next slide
  • Last Time: Naming Alkanes Compounds (Know These!) Give the name of CH3 CH3   CH3─CH─CH─CH3 STEP 1 Name the longest continuous chain. CH3 CH3   CH3─CH─CH─CH3 butane Last Time: Naming Alkanes Compounds (Know These!) Give the name of CH3 CH3   CH3─CH─CH─CH3 STEP 2 Number chain.CH3 CH3   CH3─CH─CH─CH3 1 2 3 4 STEP 3 Locate substituents and name (alphabetically). 2,3-dimethylbutane Functional Groups (Beyond Single Bonds and Only C & H) Compounds (Know These!)
  • a characteristic feature of org. molecules that behave in a predictable way.
  • composed of an atom or group of atoms.
  • groups that replace a hydrogen atom in the corresponding alkane.
  • a way to classify families of organic compounds.
  • Key Point: Functional Groups Give the Molecule their Chemical Personality Functional Groups (Beyond Single Bonds and Only C & H) Compounds (Know These!)
  • a characteristic feature of org. molecules that behave in a predictable way.
  • composed of an atom or group of atoms.
  • groups that replace a hydrogen atom in the corresponding alkane.
  • a way to classify families of organic compounds.
  • Key Point: Differences typically depend on polarity!!! Alkenes and Alkynes Compounds (Know These!) Alkenescontain a double bond between adjacent carbon atoms. Alkynescontain a triple bond. Alcohols and Ethers Compounds (Know These!) An alcohol contains the hydroxyl (-OH) functional group. In anether, an oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon atoms. –C–O–C– . Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds (Know These!) An aldehyde contains a carbonyl group (C=O), which is a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom. In a ketone, the carbon of the carbonyl group is attached to two other carbon atoms. Carboxylic Acids and Esters Compounds (Know These!) Carboxylic acidscontain the carboxyl group, which is a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group. O ║ — C—OH An ester contains the carboxyl group between carbon atoms. Amines and Amides Compounds (Know These!) In amines, the functional group is a nitrogen atom. | —N — In amides, the hydroxyl group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a nitrogen group. Summary Compounds (Know These!) These are some of the most important biological functional groups! Some functional groups in consumer products Compounds (Know These!)
  • BENGAY
  • Camphor – a ketone
  • Menthol – an alcohol
  • Methyl salicylate – an ester and a phenol
  • Neopsporin
  • Miconazole – many functional groups (ether, chloro)
  • Dimethyl ether propellant
  • Halls cough
  • Menthol- an alcohol
  • Some functional groups in spices Compounds (Know These!)
  • Nutmeg
  • Myristicin – a polyether, an alkene, benzene ring
  • Elemicin
  • Safrole
  • Anise
  • Anethole – an ether, an alkene, benzene ring
  • Caraway seeds
  • d-Carvone – a ketone
  • Spearmint
  • l-Carvone – a ketone
  • Ch. 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Compounds (Know These!) Alkenes & Alkynes 15 Good Practice Problems (Ch 11) Compounds (Know These!) 11.05, 11.07, 11.11, 11.13, 11.15, 11.17, 11.19, 11.23, 11.25, 11.27, 11.29, 11.31, 11.35, 11.37, 11.40 For Ch 10 – Do all odd problems! Saturated Hydrocarbons Compounds (Know These!)
  • have the maximum # of H atoms attached to each C atom.
  • i.e. alkanes with single C-C bonds, CnH2n+2
  • Examples: propane: CH3—CH2—CH3 (C3H8) 2-methyl propane: CH3—CH—CH3 (C4H10) │ CH3
  • Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Compounds (Know These!)
  • have fewer H atoms attached to the C chain than alkanes
  • are alkenes with double bonds
  • If one C=C bond, CnH2n
  • Monounsaturated = 1 D.B.
  • are alkynes with triple bonds
  • If one C≡C bond, CnH2n-2
  • NOTE: cycloalkanes can also be thought of as unsaturated b/c they have the formula (CnH2n) FUN WITH KETCHUP Compounds (Know These!) Unsaturated compounds are Compounds (Know These!)oxidized relative to saturated compounds
  • Oxidation of organic compounds means:
  • Replacement of hydrogen atom with a more electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen) OR
  • Loss of H atoms & replacement with a double bond
  • Ethene (Ethylene Compounds (Know These!)) Ethene or ethylene
  • is an alkene with the formula C2H4.
  • has two carbon atoms connected by a double bond.
  • has two H atoms bonded to each C atom.
  • is flat with all the C and H atoms in the same plane.
  • is used to accelerate the ripening of fruits.
  • 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Compounds (Know These!)
  • http://www.smartfresh.com/
  • It inhibits the release of ethylene, thus preventing ripening.
  • Naming Simple Alkenes Compounds (Know These!)
  • use the corresponding alkane name.
  • change the ending to –ene Alkene IUPAC Common H2C=CH2 ethene ethylene H2C=CH─CH3 propenepropylene cyclohexene
  • Naming Simple Alkynes Compounds (Know These!)
  • use the corresponding alkane name.
  • change the ending to –yne. Alkyne IUPAC Common HC≡CH ethyne acetylene HC≡C─CH3 propyne
  • Bond Angles in Alkenes & Alkynes Compounds (Know These!) According to VSEPR theory:
  • the 3 groups bonded to C atoms in a double bond are at 120° angles.
  • alkenes are flat because the atoms in a double bond all lie in the same plane.
  • the 2 groups bonded to each carbon in a triple bond are at 180° angles.
  • How do you make a double bond? Compounds (Know These!)
  • The 1st bond is made by “orbitals” overlapping between atoms, and is called a “sigma” (σ) bond.
  • The 2nd bond is made by sideways p orbitals (not directly between the atoms) and is called a “pi” (π) bond.
  • This is why a single bond can rotate. But the π bond part of a double bond can’t rotate – you’d have to break it.
  • More Steroisomers: Compounds (Know These!)Cis-Trans Isomers In an alkene, the double bond
  • is rigid, i.e. NO ROTATION around the double bond!
  • holds attached groups in fixed positions.
  • makes cis/trans isomers possible.
  • Important in nature – such as in pheromones CH3 CH3 CH3 CH = CH CH = CH cistransCH3 (similar groups on same side) (similar groups on opp. sides)
  • Cis-Trans Isomerism Compounds (Know These!)
  • Alkenes cannot have cis-trans isomers if a C atom in the double bond is attached to identical groups. Identical Identical 2-bromopropene1,1-dibromoethene (not cis or trans) (not cis or trans)
  • H H Br H Unsaturated Fatty Acids Compounds (Know These!)
  • Fatty acids in vegetable oils are omega-6 acids (the first double bond occurs at carbon 6 counting from the methyl group)
  • A common omega-6 acid is linoleic acid CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH 6 linoleic acid, a fatty acid
  • an alkene group a carboxylic acid group Trans Compounds (Know These!) Fats In vegetable oils, the unsaturated fats usually contain cis double bonds.
  • During hydrogenation, some cis double bonds are converted to trans double bonds (more stable) causing a change in the fatty acid structure.
  • If a label states “partially” or “fully hydrogenated”, the fats contain trans fatty acids.
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