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Information Report

Ancient Egypt


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Anngd Report AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE I TWENTY SOUTH TWELFTH STREET PHILADELPHIA 7, PENNSYLVANIA AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE Honorary Chairman RUFUS M. JONES ERROL T. ELLIOTT Treaszirer WILLIAM A. LONGSHORE 1946 OFFICERS Chairman HENRY J. CADBURY Ifice-Chairnzen HANNAH CLOTHIER HULL D. ROBERT YARNALL EXECUTIVE BOARD Exectrtive Secretary CLARENCE E. PICKETT Co-opted Directors Representatives of Co-operating Organizations Olua 0. MILLER, Mennonite Central Committee FLORENCE F. MURPHY, Brethren Service Comvzittee ADMINISTRATIVE December 1, 1946 STAFF Execz(tive Secretary Clarence E. Pickett Assistant to Executive Secretary Blanche E. Tache Assistant Executive Secretaries Elmore Jackson Eleanor Stabler Clarke GENERAL ~DIV~INISTRATIOA~ ivfiddjrest BRS1VCH Hugh W. Moore, Finance J. Earle Edwards, Execrrtive Secretary William Ensor, Conzptmlfer 189 West Madison Street. Louis W. Schneider, Personnel Chicago 2, Illinois John Kavanaugh, Ptrblicity Homer L. Morris, Branch Offices NORTHERN CALIFORNIA BUh CH Joseph Conard, Executive Secretary 1830 Sutter Street PEACE SECTION San Francisco 15, California Ray Newton, Secretary Guy W. Solt, Finance SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BRANCH Paul B. Johnson, Executive Secretary SOCIALIND USTXIAL SECTION 426 North Raymond Avenue Pasadena 20, California David E. Henley, Secretary FOREIGN SERYICE SECTION SEATTLE OFFICE Par Danforth. Executive Secretarv Cornelius Krus6, Secretary # th AV&U~, N. E. Julia E. Branson, Associate Secretary Seattle 5, Washington SPECIAL COMMITTEES Ruth H. Gefvert, Edtrcational &Iaterials for Clzildren Arle Brooks, Prison Service Donald Knolie, Friends Draft Services 3 he fallowing report i~clicates a zuider expn7zsion of the work of the Anzerican Friends Service Committee thuz i?z any previozds year of its history. Yet how inadeqz~ate its services in toclay's gigantic wastes of humair. sz~ffering, indiference, and discord/ Those whom we serve ofte~z tell w that what we do is more valuable than its obvioz~s li?nitations sziggest, and that when zue serve the body we also serve the spirit. The gospels closely conlzect being clothed with being in olze's right?)zi?z4 or, as Whittier pz~ts it, reclothe 21s i?z our rightfl~l??zi~zd. They coiz?zect giviug and receiving daily bread with Go& zuill and with the conzi7zg of God's Kingdom. For this reason we are of good courage, even we see the ocean of darkness and death, a kind of chaos like that over which the Creator said, Let there be light. Reconciliatio~z, love, peace-maki7zg, are creative tasks atzd brilzg joy and blessi7zg to him who gives and to hi?tz who mkes. We welcoirlle this opportunity far fellowsh$ in creatilzg am? bzlildi~g. Creation is an essential part of all good craf2s?1zanship. A great teacher, fioebel, opzce said, ' Silzce God creates, I mr~st create. A greater said, My Father worketh hitherto and I work. As we acknowledge the loyal cooperation of?zany generozl~. givers and laborers we do not hesitate to invite their cotztinzdance in these creative tasks of transforvzing chaos into barmo?zy. AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE. COMMITTEE 1946 Although emergency relief became the chief work of the American Friends Service Committee during the war years, relief operations were at all times rooted in the Committee's basic, long-range concern for deep, creative peace among men. Therefore these operations had a reciprocal effect on the total thinking and program of the Committee. Dealing directly with the ultimate results of terrible spiritual violations, many workers both overseas and in this country realized for the first time the extent to which most of us in the United States have accommodated ourselves to the very evils of which the war was a logical end. They comprehended as they never had before the deeper levels at which we must learn to live if we are not to be destroyed by the darkness that is within us. They saw that this darkness could turn to light only through the surrender of shallownesses and reservations with which we have striven to protect ourselves against the true finding of God. These were strong visions, but the emergency was a dire one, the might of the evil forces so great that nothing less than great vision would do as an answering rallying cry. It is with keen awareness of all this that the Committee now reports on its first fuli year of post-war work. It has been necessary, not only to continue emergency relief services overseas during this year, but to greatly expand them in an effort to meet as much as possible of the ever increasing need. At home, the work of building conditions of peace has moved ahead boldly on several fronts. But both overseas and in the United States awareness of the urgency of the need for strong cooperative brotherhood is in danger of being lost as cessation of war releases many of us into the old comfortable dreams that we can have peace without being willing to do those things that make for peace. It is with a sharp sense of this danger, rather than with any relaxation of wartime concern, that the Committee makes this report on its work in RELIEF AND REHABILITATION Europe Relief needs in Europe during the winter of are critical. Families are still without shelter, and without adequate food, fuel, clothing, and medicines. Even more serious is the widespread loss of hope and faith, and the fact that fear permeates the-social outlook of millions. Our Committee's services are small in comparison with the need; they can be no more than supplementary at best; but it is our hope that they bring a spiritual ministry of fellowship to victims of war in a time when such a ministry is more urgently needed than ever before. AUSTRrA The termination of UNRRA operations as of December 31, 1946, is particularly tragic for the people of Austria, where medical examinations in the late spring revealed undernourishment in 52 percent of the girls and 72 percent of the boys. Private relief organizations cannot possibly meet the basic need, and must work in the knowledge that their best is not nearly enough. Early in 1946 a team of twelve Quaker workers arrived in Vienna, and since that time have distributed food and clothing to selected groups in that city, one of the neediest in Europe, as well as in Berndorf and four neighboring communities in southeastern Austria, located in what has been called the forgotten valley. Supplementary food is being given to 25,000 people over 70, to 15,000 young tubercular patients, 700 young people in rest homes, and 300 apprentices. During the year more than 200,000 civilians have benefited from Quaker food distributions. Clothing distributions have been made to Viennese and also to Volksdeutsche, the families expelled from eastern Europe because of German origin or ancestry. These unhappy people are in transit to Germany and are in urgent need. Industrial rehabilitation is a necessity before any permanent recovery can begin, and the Committee has helped in this direction where it could. Technical advice has been given in connection with the construction of a factory for the manufacture of glass by skilled Volksdeutsche glassmakers. A weaving school for country girls in Leonstein has been aided. Procurement of coal for the operation of the plant and shoes for the workers has enabled a paper mill in Grchburg to re-open. Materials have also been provided for the workshops in the state prison at Steyr. I FINLAND Late in 1945 Quaker workers undertook services in Finland, basing in Lapland, where the destruction of two wars fought on Finnish soil had been particularly serious. Two committees sponsored by Americans of Finnish extraction, Help Finland, Inc. and United Finnish Relief, Inc., have contributed the funds for this program. During the winter of the staff was housed in Swedish barracks at Rovaniemi and Kemijarva. They visited approximately 270 schools in Lapland and encouraged and assisted teachers and local committees in the establishment of supplementary feeding projects. During the winter and spring approximately 25,000 school and pre-school children received one supplementary meal a day. Because food needs were critical until crops had matured, this supplementary feeding was continued for several thousand children during the summer. Large quantities of clothing, including ski boots and shoes, have been distributed. The Committee has been able to allocate special funds to the American Book Center for War Devastated Libraries to permit the distribution of technical and scientific materials. It has also been able to provide hospital barracks for the town of Salia, which was without hospital facilities. During the summer American workers joined with Finnish, Swedish, and Danish students in rebuilding homes in Lapland. These international work communities were at Hirvasvaara and Autti. In Germany, undernourished children are given supplementary meals. Supplies are shipped in by CRALOG. At present Committee services are being carried on in both Middle Finland and Lapland. In the latter area the staff is assisting local teachers in a supplementary feeding program for school children, the supplies being provided by UNRRA until the end of In Middle Finland children selected by medical examinations are receiving supplementary meals. Plans for the winter include the continued distribution of considerable supplies of clothing both to resident families and to refugees who are being resettled in that area. FRANCE American Friends have been associated in efforts to assist civilians in France since 1939, although they were forced to withdraw temporarily at the time of total German occupation. Immediately after the liberation of France in 1944, they returned to join with British and French Quakers in the French committee, Secours Quaker, to set up transport service and food and clothing distributions. In July, 1946, recognizing that the first emergency had been met, British and American Friends, working together in a newly organized Quaker Service, began to adjust their program to include work on some of the long-range problems of recovery. Community centers have been established in Toulouse, Montauban, and Perpignan to assist refugees in adjusting to their new life. French and refugee families in these communities are being given opportunities to meet in groups for study, discussion. and recreation, and apprentice training in radio, carpentry, shoe-making, and tailoring, is being made available to about 200 young Spaniards. A community service unit at Le Havre has been aiding families who were bombed out and are awaiting resettlement. Because the slowness of recovery in France is related to inadequate transportation, Quaker transport teams have been assisting devastated communities. One such team has been operating in St. Nazaire, which was badly damaged by German occupation and Allied bombardment, and other transport personnel have been working in Bitche. Small stocks of scarce foodstuffs are being distributed through selected French institutions, such as orphanages, sanatoria, etc., in areas where malnutrition is still common. Quaker workers at Caen and Toulouse, in cooperation with French authorities, are visiting Axis prisoner of war camps with clothing, medical, and recreational supplies. GERMANY Factors other than those of a military defeat in which most of the country's great cities have been smashed, are contributing to the continued deterioration of social and economic conditions in Germany. That country, as a result of its division into four military zones of occupation, is no longer an economic unit. Difficult as this makes it to house and feed the mliiions of Germans who are homeless as a result of dwelling destruction and requisitioning by occupying authorities, the task might still have been accomplished had it not been for the presence of additional millions of people. It is estimated that more than a million displaced persons in Germany, most of them former victims of concentration camps, have no home and no country to which to return, and must look to intergovernmental agencies for help in resettling in new countries. Also the Volkdeutsche, families of German origin who have been expelled from eastern Europe, are a tragically uprooted group in Germany, unhappy and unwanted there. By the early part of 1946 the American Friends Service Committee had joined with other groups in a special mission to Germany to learn from military authorities whether they could be of help. It was found that the military occupation necessitated the development of a single distribution channel through which all of the private committees seeking to give assistance must work. Such a coordinated council, known as CRALOG (Council of Relief Agencies Licensed to Operate in Germany), was quickly organized by the groups concerned, which included Lutheran World Relief, the Mennonite Central Committee, the War Relief Services of the National Catholic Welfare Conference, Church World Service, American trade unions, the American Friends Service Committee, and others. The first CRALOG shipments were made to the American zone in March, As permissions became available, supplies were also sent through CRALOG to the British zone, and to the International Red Cross for distribution in the Russian zone. Supplies are now on order for the French zone. The Committee recognizes that material aid-two million pounds of food and clothing up to October, 1946-is of primary importance as an expression of American friendship and concern, but it has also continued to work for permission from military authorities for the establishment of services which would enable German and American personnel to work together on community problems. Besides the two American Friends Service Committee representatives on CRALOG, one in the American zone and one in the British zone, ten Committee representatives are now working with British Quakers on service programs in the British zone, twelve are establishing headquarters and a student center at Freiburg in the French zone, and three are on their way to the American zone to help set up neighborhood centers in Frankfort and Darmstadt. It is hoped these centers will serve as models for other similar centers later. HOLLAND Following liberation, emergency assistance for Dutch civilians was urgently needed. Through a limited program of financial grants and clothing shipments, the Committee was able to assist British Friends Relief Service and Dutch Friends in their respective services in the Netherlands. With the passing of this emergency period, the Committee has cooperated with British and Dutch Friends in the longer-term program of the Quaker Bureau and Center in Amsterdam. An American representative is working with Dutch Friends in Amsterdam on migration counseling. HUNGARY Food and clothing shortages in Hungary have been among the most critical in Europe. The Committee began negotiations early in 1946 for the entrance of workers and supplies into that country, but these negotiations were protracted over many months, final clearances not being received until October. A team of eight Quaker workers arrived in Budapest in November and undertook as a first project supplementary feeding for adolescents. ITALY Widespread destruction of housing, food deficits, and advancing prices have hampered recovery in Italy. Late in 1945 a modest rebuilding project was undertaken by the American Friends Service Committee and the Friends Ambulance Unit in an effort to help some of the more isolated villages in central Italy which had been almost totally destroyed. This was in the nature of a pump-priming effort, since once the Italians had supplies and the encouragement of even a single room, they began to work together for the larger reconstruction of their communities. This service was expanded in 1946 with the assistance of UNRRA and the Italian Government. In seven devastated areas Committee personnel have been working with representatives of Friends Ambulance Unit, the Brethren Service Committee, the International Voluntary Service for Peace, and Italian volunteers. These workers have been utilizing some 500 UNRRA trucks, and repairs for some periods have averaged 7,000 rooms a month. With the withdrawal of UNRFtA at the end of 1946, the Service Committee is assuming a share in the costs of personnel and transport. Committee representatives are also working in various camps where Italian refugees are s d housed. An attempt is being made to plan with the refugee families individually for return to their own villages in the spring. Young people in all countries of Europe have lived under conditions of stress and terror, without homes or adequate opportunity to develop social responsibility. This is a concern of thoughtful people who are at work in the European scene. To assist Italian leaders in youth programs, the Service Committee is contributing part of the personnel and funds for a Boys' Town near Lanciano. NORWAY For a number of years the Service Committee has been active in volunteer work communities in the United States. During the summer of 1946 it participated for the first time in international work camps in various European countries. Six representatives of the Committee took part in such a project in war-wasted Finnmark in northern Norway. Houses, barns, roads, and bridges in this section had been destroyed, and during the summer former residents came back to live in tents until shelters could be erected. Volunteers from Denmark, Sweden, Norway, England, and the United States joined in this rebuilding effort, which was under the direction of the Norwegian Department of Reconstruction. heavy war casualties, and make the needs in Poland extremely critical. Early in 1946, British and American Friends undertook services in two heavily ravaged areas-olsztyn and Kozienice. In Kozienice supplementary food is being distributed to about seven thousand children under seven, and there is clothing distribution for the villagers from stocks sent from London and Philadelphia. At Olsztyn, where resettlement and religious minority problems add to the difficulties of recovery, there is distribution of food and clothing, and five medical clinics have been opened in response to urgent need. A transport team with eight heavy trucks, operating from Gora Pulawska in northeastern Kielce, has been hauiing lime and stone to enable viiiagers to build simple shelters on their devastated farms. By the end of the year food distributions were being made to students in Krakow. SPAIN During the war thousands of refugees fled to Spain. Many of them were able to continue to other destinations, but hundreds are stateless persons for whom no government has yet been willing to assume authority. They need help until they are able to resettle. Since 1942 the Service Committee has joined with Jewish, Catholic, and Unitarian committees to give coordinated service to these people. The Madrid center for this program has become something of an embassy for the stateless, taking as its responsibility all who do not come under the care of the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees. It has also acted as agent for the Intergovernmental Committee. Throughout the war years the Committee maintained an office for refugee services in Geneva in neutral Switzerland. Clothing shipments from the United States helped meet extreme need, and in addition many individual services were provided. With the close of the war this office seemed less necessary, and in the spring of 1946 it was closed. It is hoped that a Quaker Center program will be developed in Geneva within the next few months, and British and American Friends are cooperating with Swiss Friends to this end. OTHER SERVICES IN EUROPE School Afiliutiajz Service. Friendly contacts between American schools and those in France, Italy, and Holland are being developed in cooperation with the Overseas School Committee of Boston. More than 100 European sc
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