Animal Biotechnology: Where to from here?

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 30
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Computers & Electronics

Published:

Views: 2 | Pages: 30

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
Animal Biotechnology: Where to from here? 2 nd Symposium for Agricultural Biotechnology Risk Analysis Research Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Alison Van Eenennaam, Ph.D. Cooperative Extension
Transcript
Animal Biotechnology: Where to from here? 2 nd Symposium for Agricultural Biotechnology Risk Analysis Research Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Alison Van Eenennaam, Ph.D. Cooperative Extension Specialist Animal Biotechnology and Genomics University of California, Davis 12/6/2007 % US Public Attitude Surveys How much have you heard about animal biotechnology? (IFIC, 2005) A LOT SOME A LITTLE NOTHING Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education I know it when I see it Of the people who say they know nothing about biotechnology, genetic engineering or genetic modification; almost half (46%) disapprove of the use of genetic modification to create plant-based foods, and 66% disapprove of animal-based genetic modification. Hallman, W. K., Hebden, W. C., Aquino, H.L., Cuite, C.L. and Lang, J.T Public Perceptions of Genetically Modified Foods: A National Study of American Knowledge and Opinion. Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education Genetically-modified animals Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education Animal biotechnology is a broad term Artificial selection (breeding programs) Artificial Insemination Hormone use Using DNA information for the markerassisted selection of superior animals Genomics Cloning Genetic engineering Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education Mechanical embryo splitting The Holstein association of America has registered 2319 embryo split clones (ETS) through October 2002 probably the most widely recognized were DUPLICATE and DIVIDE. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education Nuclear transfer from an embryonic donor cell into an enucleated oocyte. Holstein Association USA first registered clones from nuclear transfer in Approximately 1,200 1,500 cows and bulls produced by embryonic cell nuclear transfer in North America in the 1980s and 1990s. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education Dolly (1996), the first adult SCNT clone Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education Regulation of SCNT cloned animals In 2001, FDA imposed a voluntary moratorium on the sale of the products of cloned animals and their progeny into the human and animal food supplies and began assessing the risks expected from the cloning of food animals. Regulation of SCNT cloned animals The FDA's 678-page draft risk assessment based on a four-year analysis of hundreds of peer-reviewed publications and other studies on the health and food composition of clones and their offspring was released in December 2006 found that food products derived from animal clones and their offspring are likely to be as safe to eat as food from their non-clone counterparts, based on all the evidence available Public comment period ended 5/3/2007 The agency will review comments and evaluate additional data that may be shared during the comment period. The FDA will then issue a final risk assessment, risk management plan, and guidance for industry. The FDA will continue to closely monitor any changes in cloning technology and the development of clones and their offspring as a source for food as further data become available. Ethics and the regulation of SCNT cloned animals The mandate of FDA is purely science-based. Moral and ethical issues cannot be considered in the context of making regulatory decisions about whether to allow the marketing of the products of animal biotechnology. In particular, FDA cannot address any ethical concerns about regarding whether a given technology should be commercialized or not; their decision is based solely on whether a product meets the FFDCA s standards. Options for Future Discussions of Food Animal Biotechnology and Ethics Of the Americans who are uncomfortable or unsure about animal cloning; their primary concern is: Religious or ethical 36% Safety 23% Personally uncomfortable with it 13% The effect on animal species 10% Fear of risks 6% No opinion 6% Distrust producers of clones 5% Other 1% 10/2005 Animal cloning regulations that included ethical considerations in Denmark and Norway resulted in the prohibition of cloning for food and ag purposes. Ethical considerations were therefore given 100% weighting in these decisions Let the market decide? While science may determine what is safe, society will decide what is acceptable Kochhar, H.P.S. and B.R. Evans Current status of regulating biotechnologyderived animals in Canada animal health and food safety considerations. 67:188. FDA is not recommending any additional measures relating to food derived from adult clones and their offspring, including labeling... there is no science-based reason to use labels to distinguish between milk derived from clones and that from conventional animals. Animal biotechnology is a broad term Artificial selection (breeding programs) Artificial Insemination Hormone use Using DNA information for the markerassisted selection of superior animals Genomics Cloning Genetic engineering Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education Pharma and industrial applications of animal biotechnology (cloning and genetic engineering) Animal Biotechnology and Genomics Education European panel now recommends GTC anticlotting drug s surgical use OCTOBER FRAMINGHAM A European drug regulation committee reversed itself yesterday and recommended that a GTC Biotherapeutics Inc. anti-clotting drug (human antithrombin) drawn from the milk of genetically altered goats be approved for use in surgical patients Agricultural applications of animal biotechnology Selected Participants ABS Global Columbus Farming Corp. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN NZ Ministry of Agriculture DeKalb Poultry Research Hy-Line International AgResearch (NZ) MetaMorphix National Institute of Animal Industry, Japan PIC Group Victorian Institute of Animal Science, Australia U.S. Regulation of GE animals FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has asserted jurisdiction over genetically engineered animals on the grounds that the transgene and any expressed proteins, affect the structure and function of the receiving animal analogous to the modalities of alternative veterinary drug formulations. Aqua Bounty AquaAdvantage TM growth-enhanced salmon submitted to the FDA over 10 years ago Hopes to launch in 2009 Ag applications on hold Genetically engineered cows resistant to intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infection (2005) Production of transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in their mammary gland (2006) Production of cattle lacking prion protein that causes mad cow disease (2007) H. Niemann (1998) An important factor that should not be underestimated is the considerable resistance of public opinion in several countries, particularly Europe, against this technology. This could affect private and public funding in these countries and thereby slow down further progress. Given the broad range of serious problems that mankind is facing in the years ahead, one can hope that rational approaches will be taken to ensure that the huge benefits of transgenic farm animals will not be an unexploited resource. European project to map research and commercial activities worldwide for animal cloning and genetic modification Animal cloning and genetic modification. A prospective study Joint Research Center Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. European Commission, Seville. In preparation Number of published papers on animal GM/GE increased over the period and then leveled off, with most coming from the EU, followed by the USA. Number published papers on cloning increased from but this has since leveled off. Most of the work was done in the USA with Europe coming third (after the Far East). The work concentrated on technical aspects and was mostly publicly funded. USDA National Research Initiative (major funding source for academic agricultural research in the U.S.) GloFish is the only product of animal biotechnology thus far on the U.S. market 1. Government regulators should include ethical and moral considerations, in addition to scientific evaluation of risks and benefits, when making regulatory decisions about cloning or genetically modifying animals. 2. Though ethical and moral considerations are important, government regulators should consider only scientific evaluation of risks and benefits when making regulatory decisions about cloning and genetically modifying animals. 1. Morals / Ethics and Science 53% 10% 63% 2. Science only 27% 18% 9% 10% Not Sure 10% Feel that way strongly How to incorporate social and ethical issues into regulatory decisions? American consumers (75%) and scientists (70%) agree that cloning and genetic engineering of animals raise some moral and ethical issues However public is much less likely to approve (21-25%) of these technologies than scientists (60-68%) How to reach a societal consensus on which set of values will ultimately be applied to decide the acceptable uses of animal biotechnology? Keystone Research Center (2004) Biotechnology and ethics: a national survey of consumers and scientists. Report to the Biotechnology Industry Organization. KRC Research, Washington DC, 29pp. Options for Future Discussions of Food Animal Biotechnology and Ethics Shiela Jasanoff SUMMARY Animal biotechnology faces unique ethical questions that were not part of plant biotechnology debate FDA regulates GE/cloned food animals in U.S. The mandate of FDA is purely science-based Even in the absence of an ethical discussion or some may say because of that absence long regulatory process for products of animal biotech No GE or SCNT cloned food animals are currently on the U.S. market Yet to see if the expense of the technology and the regulatory process results in commercial viability
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks