Anesthesia and Analgesia in USDA Regulated Laboratory Animals at UR - PDF

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Anesthesia and Analgesia in USDA Regulated Laboratory Animals at UR OVERVIEW Animal anesthesia, analgesia and pain management are crucial components of the animal use protocol. The standard of care at
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Anesthesia and Analgesia in USDA Regulated Laboratory Animals at UR OVERVIEW Animal anesthesia, analgesia and pain management are crucial components of the animal use protocol. The standard of care at UR is to prevent animal pain whenever possible and to treat pain whenever diagnosed. Exceptions to these principles are permitted only in the minority of protocols approved by UCAR as USDA Category E and require scientific justification. Multi-modal anesthetic and analgesic regimens are the standard of care in veterinary medicine. This approach combines drugs from a variety of classes to maximize the desired effects while minimizing potential undesirable side effects that occur with over-reliance on a single agent. Special considerations are required in some species, ages, or types of procedures. These considerations may include administration of additional drugs, fluid therapy, or handling of the animal. A veterinarian must be consulted in the planning stages of all proposed surgical procedures. The Ideal Anesthetic/Analgesic Regimen The ideal anesthetic/analgesic regimen must balance several goals: 1. It should provide pre-emptive analgesia so that animal pain is already being treated as the general anesthetic is wearing off to prevent sensitization of pain sensory mechanisms, and to lower the overall amount of general anesthetic required for the procedure 2. It should be precisely titratable to assure that animals receive adequate anesthesia to block pain sensation, to produce unconsciousness, and to produce immobility without causing hemodynamic instability 3. It should not interfere with the research goals of the protocol 4. It should not result in undesirable post-operative side effects 5. It should not cause pain or distress during induction or recovery 6. It should be compatible with available equipment and medications Pre-emptive analgesia is implemented by administration of analgesics prior to the first incision during surgical procedures. Volatile inhaled anesthetics (such as isoflurane and sevoflurane) delivered via a precision vaporizer allow titration of anesthetic delivery to the needs of the individual animal for the procedure. Adjusting the percentage of anesthetic gas to modify depth of anesthesia is safer than repeated administration of injectable drugs. However, inhalant anesthetics lack residual analgesic effects after the procedure. Use of pre-emptive analgesics significantly reduces the required concentration of anesthetic gases All staff anesthetizing animals must complete training as prescribed by UCAR and DLAM. Veterinary consultation is available at all times. Drug Dosages and Frequencies of Administration Investigators should either list drugs and approximate dose ranges or reference the DLAM standard anesthetic procedure in their protocol. The DLAM standard anesthetic LD 12/9/11 procedures are continually updated by veterinarians to reflect the current best practices in veterinary anesthesia and pain management and reviewed at least annually by UCAR. UCAR requires that pre-emptive analgesia be administered prior to the first incision for all surgical procedures unless otherwise scientifically justified in the protocol. It is not acceptable to conduct surgical procedures unless an animal is in a surgical plane of anesthesia. Special attention must be paid to analgesic doses and frequencies. UCAR requires that investigators take into account overnight pain management. It is not acceptable to give drugs at greater intervals than those prescribed and known to adequately manage pain. DLAM Anesthetic and Analgesic Formulary for Regulated Species Investigators may reference the DLAM formulary for anesthetic and analgesic drugs in their protocol rather than listing specific drugs and dosages. While all of the drug combinations listed here are considered safe, appropriate, and within current veterinary standards, the selections shaded in gray represent the DLAM best practice approach to anesthesia and analgesia in these species and should be followed whenever possible. Note that all of these doses are approximations and must be titrated to the animal s strain, age, sex, and individual responses. Significant departures from these doses should be discussed with a veterinarian. Doses will also vary depending on what other drugs are being administered concurrently. All doses are listed as milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) unless otherwise noted. SID BID TID QID SQ CRI PO Abbreviations Once daily (every 24 hours) Twice daily (every 12 hours) Three times daily (every 8 hours) Four times daily (every 6 hours) Intramuscular Intravenous Subcutaneous Constant rate infusion Per os (by mouth) LOCAL ANESTHETICS Local anesthetics can be used in all species except cats at similar doses. Nerve blocks should be considered prior to surgery whenever possible. Alternatively, infiltration of the surgical site with a local anesthetic at closing can significantly reduce pain in the post-operative period. Bupivicaine is the local anesthetic of choice due to its relatively long duration of action (6-8hrs compared to 2-4 hours of analgesia from lidocaine). In all species, a maximum of 2mg/kg bupivicaine should be administered. 2 DOG FORMULARY DRUG NAME and Pre-Medication / Sedation Hydromorphone 0.1mg/kg + Acepromazine 0.03mg/kg + Atropine 0.02mg/kg Ketamine 2mg/kg + Dexmedetomidine 0.02mg/kg Dexmedetomidine mg/kg Ketamine 5mg/kg + Diazepam 0.2mg/kg Fifteen minutes before surgery May cause vomiting Can be mixed and given in the same syringe Dexmedetomidine may cause bradycardia that should not be treated with atropine unless patient is hypotensive. This combination results in moderate to profound sedation Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 agonist that is reversible with atipamezole at an equal volume Can be mixed and given in the same syringe Useful for quick procedures (~30 minutes) requiring mild to moderate sedation Choose the lower end of the dose range for larger dogs Reversible with atipamezole at an equal volume () Give half as a bolus and the remaining to effect for intubation Propofol 4-6mg/kg Administer to effect via intravenous catheter May cause apnea with rapid administration Isoflurane 1-2% Meloxicam 0.2mg/kg or PO SID A COX-2 specific NSAID with fewer side effects than other NSAIDs Generally given for no more than 3-5 days Buprenorphine 0.01mg/kg BID-TID Opioid useful as an adjunctive analgesic Buprenorphine SR 0.12mg/kg SQ q3days Sustained release formulation that provides 3 days of analgesia May be associated with sedation and 3 inappetence Dopram 5mg/kg Indicated to stimulate respirations Epinephrine mg/kg Indicated for cardiac arrest Lidocaine 2-4mg/kg followed by 0.05mg/kg/min CRI Indicated for ventricular arrhythmias 1. Papich MG Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs. 2 nd ed. Elsevier: St. Louis, MO. 2. Plumb DC Plumb s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 5 th ed. Blackwell: Ames, IA. 4 CAT FORMULARY DRUG NAME and Pre-Medication / Sedation Ketamine 10mg/kg + Diazepam 0.3mg/kg Ketamine 5mg/kg + Dexmedetomidine 0.04mg/kg Diazepam 0.5mg/kg + Ketamine 10mg/kg Deep sedation with minimal cardiovascular and respiratory effects May require isoflurane mask for intubation Dexmedetomidine reversible with same volume of atipamezole (Antisedan) Dexmedetomidine may cause significant bradycardia that should not be treated with atropine unless patient is hyotensive Useful for calm cats no pre-medication required for intubation Give half as a bolus and the remaining to effect Isoflurane 1-2% Banamine 0.25mg/kg SID Use extreme caution with NSAIDs in cats due to potential for renal toxicity Can repeat once 12-24hrs later Meloxicam 0.1mg/kg PO or SQ SID Use extreme caution with NSAIDs in cats due to potential for renal toxicity only a single dose Buprenorphine 0.01mg/kg or or Buccal BID-TID Buprenorphine SR 0.12mg/kg SQ Sustained release formulation that provides 3 days of analgesia Dopram 5mg/kg Indicated to stimulate respirations Epinephrine Indicated for cardiac arrest 0.02mg/kg Lidocaine 2-4mg/kg followed by 0.05mg/kg/min CRI Indicated for ventricular arrhythmias 1. Papich MG Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs. 2 nd ed. Elsevier: St. Louis, MO. 2. Plumb DC Plumb s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 5 th ed. Blackwell: Ames, IA. 5 RABBIT FORMULARY DRUG NAME and Ketamine 44mg/kg + Xylazine 5mg/kg SQ administration of ketamine may cause myonecrosis, vasculitis, and axonal degeneration with resultant self-trauma Dermal ulcers may occur even with SQ administration, so 1ml saline can be injected at the same site following administration Isoflurane 1-2% Laryngeal masks may be utilized in place of endotracheal tubes as rabbits are difficult to intubate Meloxicam 0.5mg/kg SQ or PO Generally no more than 3-5 days Buprenorphine SQ or BID-QID 0.05mg/kg Dopram 5mg/kg Indicated to stimulate respirations Epinephrine mg/kg Indicated for cardiac arrest 1. Lipman NS, Marini RP, Flecknell PA Anesthesia and Analgesia in Rabbits. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. 2 nd ed. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. 2. Williams A, Wyatt J Comparison of Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Ketamine- Medetomidine With and Without Reversal by Atipamezole in Dutch Belted Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 46(6): NONHUMAN PRATE FORMULARY DRUG NAME and Ketamine 10mg/kg + Diazepam 0.25mg/kg + Atropine 0.04mg/kg May require isoflurane via mask for intubation Isoflurane 2-3% Meloxicam 0.2mg/kg PO or SID followed by 0.1mg/kg A COX-2 specific NSAID with fewer side effects than other less specific NSAIDs and has an oral formulation Generally no more than 3-5 days An opioid useful as an adjunctive agent to NSAIDs; required for major invasive surgeries Sustained release formulation of buprenorphine that lasts for 72hrs NSAID generally no more than 3-5 days Buprenorphine or SC BID-TID 0.04 mg/kg Buprenorphine SR SQ q 72hrs 0.06mg/kg Flunixin (Banamine) or SID 1mg/kg Ketoprofen 5mg/kg SID-BID NSAID generally no more than 3-5 days Dopram 1-4mg/kg Indicated to stimulate respirations Epinephrine 0.1mg/kg Indicated for asystole Lidocaine 1-4mg/kg Indicated for preventricular contractions Mannitol g/kg Indicated for brain swelling; give slowly over 30 minutes 1. Association of Primate Veterinarians. Nonhuman Primate Formulary. Available at: [Accessed 12/1/11]. 2. Plumb DC Plumb s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 5 th ed. Blackwell: Ames, IA. 3. Popilskis SJ, Lee DR, Elmore DB Anesthesia and Analgesia in Nonhuman Primates. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. 2 nd ed. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. 7 SWINE FORMULARY DRUG NAME and Ketamine 33mg/kg + Acepromazine 1.1mg/kg + Atropine 0.05mg/kg SQ Ketamine 10mg/kg + SQ Medetomidine 0.2mg/kg Isoflurane 1-2% Amiodarone 10mg/kg + 0.5mg/kg/hr Carprofen 3-4mg/kg A butterfly catheter attached to a syringe can be used to avoid stress associated with restraining pigs. Behind the ears is the most easily accessible site for SQ injections in swine. This combination will not be adequate for intubation medetomidine reversible with same volume of atipamezole (Antisedan) Amiodarone is an anti-arrhythmic drug useful to prevent arrhythmias common in anesthetized swine especially during cardiac manipulation PO BID SQ or SID An NSAID usually provides sufficient analgesia alone in swine Meloxicam 0.4mg/kg PO or SQ SID Can increase bleeding time in swine Buprenorphine mg/kg or SC BID-TID Useful for breakthrough pain, but not usually necessary routinely Dopram 5-10mg/kg Indicated to stimulate respirations Epinephrine 0.02mg/kg Indicated for asystole Lidocaine 2-4mg/kg, then 0.3mg/kg/hr CRI Indicated for ventricular arrhythmias 1. Swindle MM Swine in the Laboratory: Surgery, Anesthesia, Imaging, and Experimental Techniques. 2 nd ed. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. 8 CATTLE FORMULARY DRUG NAME and Pre-Medication / Sedation Xylazine mg/kg Ruminants are extremely sensitive to xylazine do not give repeated doses; the high end of this dose range will cause recumbency Ketamine 5mg/kg + Diazepam 0.25mg/kg Give slowly to effect for intubation Pentobarbital 10-12mg/kg Isoflurane 1-2% Flunixin (Banamine) 1-2mg/kg Amiodarone 10mg/kg, then 0.05mg/kg/hr PO or or SID-BID Give very slowly to effect for intubation; use of other agents is preferred NSAID generally no more than 3-5 days Indicated for treatment of arrhythmias Epinephrine 0.02mg/kg Indicated for asystole Lidocaine 4mg/kg, then Indicated for ventricular tachycardia / fibrillation Dopram 5-10mg/kg Indicated for stimulation of respiration 1. Plumb DC Plumb s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 5 th ed. Blackwell: Ames, IA. 2. Valverde A, Doherty TJ Anesthesia and Analgesia of Ruminants. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. 2 nd ed. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. 9 SHEEP FORMULARY DRUG NAME and Pre-Medication / Sedation Acepromazine 0.02mg/kg Ketamine 7.5mg/kg + Midazolam 0.4mg/kg Give slowly to effect for intubation Isoflurane 1-2% Fentanyl 60- CRI 180mcg/kg/hr Flunixin (Banamine) 1.1mg/kg Buprenorphine 0.005mg/kg Amiodarone 10mg/kg, then 0.05mg/kg/hr or SID-BID TID Short-acting opioid useful for intra-operative pain management during major invasive procedures NSAID generally no more than 3-5 days Opioid Indicated for treatment of arrhythmias Epinephrine 0.02mg/kg Indicated for asystole Lidocaine 4mg/kg, then Indicated for ventricular tachycardia / fibrillation Dopram 5-10mg/kg Indicated for stimulation of respiration 1. Carney EL, Clark JB, Myers JL, Peterson R, Wilson RP, Weiss WJ Animal Model Development for the Penn State Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device. Artif Organs 33(11): Valverde A, Doherty TJ Anesthesia and Analgesia of Ruminants. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. 2 nd ed. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. 10
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