Anesthesia 5th year, 7th & 8th lectures (Dr. Aamir)

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The lecture has been given on Feb. 22nd & Mar. 1st, 2011 by Dr. Aamir.
  • 1. Intravenous anesthetic agents
  • 2. Intravenous Anesthetics Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Opioids Miscellaneous drugs
  • 3. Uses <ul><li>Induction of anesthesia (smother and more rapid than inhalational agents) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance (alone or with inhalational agents) </li></ul><ul><li>Sedation during regional anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Sedation in intensive care unit </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of status epilepticus </li></ul>
  • 4. Barbiturates (thiopenton or thiopental) <ul><li>Indications: </li></ul><ul><li>Induction of anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of anesthesia (but has cumulative effects) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of status epilepticus </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of intra-cranial pressure (ICP) </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Adverse effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotension </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory depression </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue necrosis (if injected extra-vascular) </li></ul><ul><li>Laryngospasm </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchospasm (avoid in asthma) </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombophlibitis (less common in 2.5% conc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Allergic reactions 1 in 14000-20000 </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-arterial injection (lead to sever vasospasm and sever pain it may lead to gangrene of the limb, treatment by keeping the cannula in and inject papeverine 20 mg, heparin and fluid, using 2.5% conc. Is safer) </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Contra indications: </li></ul><ul><li>Airway obstruction (epiglottis or pharyngeal tumours) </li></ul><ul><li>Porphyria </li></ul><ul><li>Previous hypersensitivity to this drug </li></ul>
  • 7. Benzodiazepines (Diazepam, Midazolam) <ul><li>Indications: </li></ul><ul><li>Sedation during regional anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Radiological procedures (children, anxious persons) </li></ul><ul><li>Endoscopy </li></ul><ul><li>ICU </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation to general anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Status epilepticus </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Adverse effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Prolong duration (diazepam) </li></ul><ul><li>Painful on injection (diazepam) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotension if used with other agents like opioids </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory depression in over dosage </li></ul><ul><li>Contraindications: </li></ul><ul><li>Early pregnancy (teratogenic effect) </li></ul>
  • 9. Opioids Agonist Morphine, Pethidine, Tramadol Fentanyl & Al, Remi, Su (fentanil) Agonist-Antagonist Pentazocine, Nalburphine Antagonist Nalaxone
  • 10. <ul><li>Indications: </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of analgesia before or after surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Induction of anesthesia and maintenance of anesthesia in patients with severe cardiac dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of reflex sympathetic nervous system activity </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation of inhalational anesthetics being used for maintenance of anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Provide post operative analgesia by injecting it to the subarachnoid or epidural space </li></ul>
  • 11. Adverse effects: <ul><li>On cardiovascular system: </li></ul><ul><li>Orthostatic hypotension (decreased sympathetic nervous system tone to peripheral veins) </li></ul><ul><li>Release of histamine (Morphine) </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia (Sufentanil) </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>On Ventilation: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase resting Paco2 </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease of responsiveness to the ventilatory stimulation of CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased rate of breathing but tidal volume is often increased </li></ul><ul><li>Spasm of thoraco-abdominal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Stiff chest syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Spasm of biliary smooth muscles which leads to pain also spasm of the sphincter of Oddi </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>On CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Miosis </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation of Dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone which cause nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of bladder sphincter tone which lead to urine retention </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the tone of the pyloric sphincter which lead to delayed gastric emptying </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Preemptive analgesia </li></ul><ul><li>Injection of an opioid before painful surgical stimulation occurs this may decrease the subsequent amount of opioid required in the postoperative period to provide analgesia </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Morphine (10, 15mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Administered by variety of routes </li></ul><ul><li>Has active metabolites </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of accumulation in patient with renal impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid in asthma (histamine release) </li></ul><ul><li>Pethidine (100mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter acting </li></ul><ul><li>Its metabolites has long half life with risk of accumulation in patient with renal impairment, also the metabolites are neurotoxic and result in grand mal seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid in patient with history of epilepsy </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Tramadol (100mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesic efficacy around one tenth that of morphine </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid in patient with history of epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Useful For Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Fentanyl (100 μ g ) </li></ul><ul><li>Very potent opioid used primarily for intra-operative analgesia </li></ul><ul><li>Useful drug for PCA </li></ul><ul><li>Cause respiratory depression </li></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>Alfentanil (100 μ g ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra short-acting potent opioid used for intra- operative analgesia </li></ul><ul><li>Limited use in the post operative period </li></ul><ul><li>Cause respiratory depression </li></ul><ul><li>Sufentanil </li></ul><ul><li>Is closely related in structure to fentanyl </li></ul><ul><li>5-10 times more potent than fentanyl and slightly shorter duration </li></ul><ul><li>Remifentanil </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra short acting opioids </li></ul><ul><li>The duration of action is short with no residual effects </li></ul>
  • 18. Agonist-Antagonist <ul><li>Those drugs have limited analgesic properties (ceiling effect) above which increasing doses do not produce additional anesthesia, they usually used for treatment of addiction </li></ul>
  • 19. Antagonist <ul><li>Is used as a short acting opioid antagonist because of its short duration of action opioid terminated depression may return when effect of Nalaxone have terminated </li></ul><ul><li>Nalaxone may precipitate the sympathetic drive of unrelieved pain (tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias-----etc.) </li></ul>
  • 20. Miscellaneous drugs Propofol Etomidate Ketamine hydrochloride
  • 21. <ul><li>Propofol </li></ul><ul><li>Indications: </li></ul><ul><li>Induction of anesthesia when rapid early recovery of consciousness is indicated </li></ul><ul><li>Sedation during regional anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Sedation in ICU </li></ul><ul><li>Total intravenous anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular depression </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory depression </li></ul><ul><li>Excitatory phenomena (convulsion, myoclonus) </li></ul><ul><li>Pain on injection </li></ul><ul><li>Allergic reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Contra indication: </li></ul><ul><li>Airway obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersensitivity </li></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>Etomidate </li></ul><ul><li>Indications: </li></ul><ul><li>Used in patient with cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular stable) </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for out patient anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse effects : </li></ul><ul><li>Excitatory phenomena (involuntary movements, hiccups, cough) </li></ul><ul><li>Pain on injection </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Venous thrombosis </li></ul><ul><li>Contraindications: </li></ul><ul><li>Airway obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Porphyria </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal insufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Long term duration </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>Ketamine hydrochloride: </li></ul><ul><li>Indications: </li></ul><ul><li>Shocked patient </li></ul><ul><li>Paediatric anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult locations (at accident site, wars) </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesia And sedation (wound dressing change) </li></ul><ul><li>In ICU </li></ul><ul><li>In developing countries (where anesthesia equipments and trained staff are in short supply) </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence delirium, nightmares and hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension and tachycardia </li></ul><ul><li>Prolong recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Salivation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase intra-cranial pressure </li></ul>
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