An overview of classification of dental trauma

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Review Article An overview of classification of dental trauma Sasikala Pagadala 1*, Deepti Chaitanya Tadikonda 2 1 Assistant Professor, Department t of Periodontics, Nanded Rural Dental College and Research
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Review Article An overview of classification of dental trauma Sasikala Pagadala 1*, Deepti Chaitanya Tadikonda 2 1 Assistant Professor, Department t of Periodontics, Nanded Rural Dental College and Research Center, Nanded, Maharashtra, India 2 Assistant Professor, Department t of Pedodontics, Nanded Rural Dental College and Research Center, Nanded, Maharashtra, India * Corresponding author International Archives of Integrated Medicine, Vol. 2, Issue 9, September, Copy right 2015, IAIM, All Rights Reserved. Available online at ISSN: (P) ISSN: (O) Received on: Accepted on: Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared. Abstract Minor falls, local accidents, while participating in sports or childish pranks that are not intended to harm produce greatest number of teeth fractures and teeth displacements in children. From these seemingly benign accidents, child s facial appearance becomes so altered as to make an attractive child appear unattractive. Dental injuries are considered emergency situation that require immediate care. The purpose of this article is aimed to overview the classification of the traumatized teeth. Key words Fracture, Dental trauma, Luxation, Concussion. Classification of the dental trauma In the 1950, Pediatric dentist G.E. Ellis was the first person to promote a universal classification of dental injuries. Dental injuries have been classified according to a variety of factors, such as etiology, anatomy, pathology or therapeutic considerations. Classification of anterior teeth trauma by Sweets (1955) [1] It is mainly based on the anatomy and morphology of the tooth structure. The disadvantages of this classification are that no stress has been laid on injuries to supporting structures soft tissue and bone. It indicates more towards the permanent teeth than primary teeth as injury to periodontium is more common in primary teeth as compared to permanent. Class I A simple of crown exposing no dentition. Class II A parallel of crown involving little dentin. Class III Extensive fracture of crown involving more dentin bur no pulp exposure. Class IV Extensive fracture of crown exposing pulp. Page 157 Class V Complete fracture of crown exposing pulp. Class VI Fracture of root with or without loss of crown structure. Class VII Tooth loss as a result of trauma. Classification by Rabinowitch (1956) [2] 1. Fractures of the enamel or slightly into the dentin 2. Fractures into the dentin 3. Fractures into the pulp 4. Fractures of the periodontium 5. Comminuted fractures 6. Displaced teeth. Benetts Classification (1963) [3] Benetts classification is according to injuries to periodontium and alveolus considering the anatomy and morphology of the teeth which can be applied partially for primary and permanent teeth. Class I Traumatized tooth without coronal or root fracture. a) Tooth from in alveolus. b) Tooth subluxated in alveolus. Class II Coronal fracture a) Involving enamel b) Involving enamel + dentin. Class III Coronal fracture with pulp exposure. Class IV Root fracture a) Without coronal fracture. b) With coronal fracture. Class V Avulsion of tooth. Classification by Ulfohn (1969) [4] Ulfohn examines a classification of crown fracture from a clinical endodontic point of view based on three fundamental aspects. 1) The possibility of identifying the clinical state of the pulp. 2) The absolute conviction that it is impossible to view the dentin and the pulp as separate organs and that they constitute one organ. Considering this, any attack on the dentin represents indirect damage to the pulp. 3) Determination of treatment. This classification tends to simplification. It does not take into account large or small amount of indirect pulp exposure, for from the prevention aspect, the protection of any amount of exposed dentin is equally important. Crown fractures: - a) Of enamel b) With indirect pulp exposure through the dentin. c) With direct pulp exposure The shape of the fracture may encompass an angle or more thirds of the crown. The pulp may be clinically normal, hyperemic, inflamed, or dead. The apical foramina may or may not have completed its physiologic calcification. Classification by Ellis (1970) [4] It is a simplified classification, which groups many injuries and allows for subjective interpretation by including broad terms such as simple or extensive or extensive fractures. Class I - Simple crown fracture with little or no dentin affected Class II - Extensive crown fracture with considerable loss of dentin, but with the pulp not affected. Class III - Extensive crown fracture with considerable loss of dentin and pulp exposure. Class IV - A tooth devitalized by trauma with or without loss of tooth structure. Class V - Teeth lost as a result of trauma. Class VI - Root fracture with or without the loss of crown structure. Class VII - Displacement of the tooth with neither root nor crown fracture Class VIII - Complete crown fracture and its replacement. Class IX - Traumatic injuries of primary teeth. Classification by Ellis and Davey (1970) [2] Class 1 - Simple fracture of the crown-involving little or no dentin Class 2 - Extensive fracture of the crown involving considerable dentin, but not the pulp Class 3 - Extensive fracture of the crown involving considerable dentin, and exposing the dental pulp Page 158 Class 4 - The traumatized tooth which becomes nonvital-with or without loss of crown structure Class 5 - Teeth lost as a trauma Class 6 - Fracture of the root - with or without loss of crown structure Class 7 - Displacement of the tooth-without fracture of crown or root Class 8 - Fracture of the crown en masse and its replacement. Classification by Hargreaves and Craig (1970) [5] Proposed a simplified classification of trauma to anterior teeth. Class I - No fracture or fracture of enamel only, with or without loosening or displacement of the tooth Class II - Fracture of the crown involving both enamel and dentin without exposure of the pulp and with or without loosening or displacement of the tooth Class III - Fracture of the crown exposing the pulp, with or without loosening or displacement of the tooth Class IV - Fracture of the root with or without coronal fracture, with or without loosening or displacement of the tooth Class V - Total displacement of the tooth. Application of international classification of diseases to dentistry and stomatology (WHO, 1978) [2] Classification Description Tissues involved S.O.25 Fracture of tooth (primary and secondary teeth) S Fracture of enamel of tooth only+ Enamel infraction Enamel S Fracture of crown of tooth without pulpal involvement Enamel, Dentin S Fracture of crown of tooth with pulpal involvement Enamel, Dentin, pulp S Fracture of root of tooth Cementum, Dentin, Pulp S Fracture of crown with root of tooth, with or without pulpal involvement Enamel, Cementum, dentin, +Pulp S Multiple fracture of tooth Unspecified S Fracture of tooth, Unspecified Unspecified Classification by Garcia Godoy (1981) [6] Enamel crack Enamel fracture Enamel Dentine fracture without pulp exposures Enamel Dentine fracture with pulp exposure Enamel- Dentine-cementum fracture without pulp exposure Enamel- Dentine-cementum fracture with pulp exposure Root fracture Concussion Luxation Lateral displacement Intrusion Extrusion Avulsion. Classification by Andreasen (1981) [2] A. Injuries to the hard dental tissues and pulp. 1. Crown infarction N An incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of the tooth substance. 2. Uncomplicated crown fracture. A fracture contained to the enamel (N 873) or involving enamel and dentin, but not exposing the pulp (N ) 3. Complicated crown fracture N A fracture involving enamel and dentin and exposing the pulp. 4. Uncomplicated crown root fracture. N A fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum but not involving the pulp. Page 159 5. Complicated crown root fracture N A fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum and exposing pulp. 6. Root fracture N873. A fracture involving dentin, cementum and the pulp. B. Injuries to the periodontal tissues. 1. Concussion N An injury to the tooth supporting structures without abnormal loosening or displacement of the tooth, but with marked reaction to percussion. 2. Subluxation N An injury to the tooth supporting structures with abnormal loosening but without displacement of the teeth. 3. Intrusive Luxation (central dislocation) N Displacement of the tooth into the alveolar bone. This injury is accompanied by comminution or fracture of the alveolar socket. 4. Extrusive luxation (peripheral dislocation partial avulsion) N Partial displacement of the tooth out of its socket. 5. Lateral Luxation N Displacement of the tooth in a direction other than axially. This is accompanied by comminution or fracture of the alveolar socket. 6. Exarticulation (complete avulsion) N Complete displacement of the tooth out of its socket. C. Injuries of the supporting bone 1. Comminution of alveolar socket (Mandible N802.20, Maxilla ) Crushing and compression of the alveolar socket. This condition is found together with intrusive and lateral luxation. 2. Fracture of the alveolar socket wall (Mandible N802.20, Maxilla N802.40). A fracture contained to the facial or lingual socket wall. 3. Fracture of the alveolar process (Mandible N802.20, Maxilla N802.40). A fracture of the alveolar process, which may or may not involve the alveolar socket. 4. Fracture of the Mandible and Maxilla (Mandible N802.21). Maxilla N802.42). A fracture involving the base of the mandible or maxilla and often the alveolar process (jaw fracture). The fracture may or may not involve the alveolar socket. D. Injuries to gingiva or oral mucosa. 1. Laceration of gingiva or oral mucosa N A shallow or deep wound in the mucosa resulting from a tear and usually produced by a sharp object. 2. Contusion of gingiva or oral mucosa N : A bruise usually produced by an impact from a blunt object and not accompanied by a break of the continuity in the mucosa, causing submucosal hemorrhage. 3. Abrasion of gingiva or oral mucosa N : A superficial wound produced by rubbing or scrapping of the mucosa leaving a raw bleeding surface. Classification by Basrani (1982) [4] Based on the anatomy of the teeth a) Crown fracture i) Fracture of the enamel ii) Fracture of the enamel and dentin. Without pulp exposure With pulp exposure b) Root fractures c) Crown-root fractures Classification by Galea (1984) [7] Crown facture without pulp exposure Crown facture with pulp exposure Crown Root fractures Root fractures Subluxation Subluxation with intrusion Subluxation with extrusion Luxation Fracture of the alveolar socket Dento- alveolar fracture Page 160 Fractures to the maxilla and mandible Injuries to the soft tissues Other injuries. Classification by Burton, et al. (1985) [8] Fracture involving dentin and/or pulp Devitalization Avulsion Classification by Stockwell (1988) [9] Fracture of enamel only Fracture of crown involving enamel and dentin, but not the pulp Fracture of the crown with exposure of the pulp Fracture of the root Luxation of the tooth without fracture Avulsion of the tooth Concussion without fracture, displacement or avulsion, but loss of vitality during survey period Trauma to a previously traumatized tooth resulting in either dislodgement of the restoration, or further fracture, dislodgement or avulsion of the tooth Classification by Lee-Knight, et al. (1989) [10] Tooth infraction Chipped tooth Fractured tooth Lacerated lip Traumatized TMJ Classification by Hunter, et al. (1990) [11] Fracture Discolouration Absence of any maxillary incisor teeth Classification by Bijella, et al. (1990) [12] Crown fracture Concussion Subluxation Subluxation with enamel fracture Subluxation with lingual or labial displacement Intrusion Extrusion Full displacement Root fracture Crown-root fracture Alveolar bone fracture Classification by Forsberg and Tedestam (1990) [13] Enamel fracture Enamel dentin fracture Fracture involving pulp Root fracture Luxation,Subluxtation Exarticulation Discolouration Classification by Perez, et al. (1991) [14] Intra-oral and / or extra-oral soft tissue injury Presence or absence of fracture/displacement to teeth Alveolar fracture Crown fracture were analyzed according to Ellis classification system Classification by Zerman and Cavellari (1993) [10] Fracture of enamel including enamel chipping Fracture of enamel- dentine without pulpal involvement Fracture of enamel- dentine with pulpal involvement Fracture of root Crown-root fracture with pulpal involvement Concussion Subluxation Intrusive luxation Extrusive luxation Latetral luxation Avulsion Classification by World Health Organization in its application of International Diseases of Dentistry and Stomatology (1994) [15] This classification is based on a system adopted by the WHO in its application of the International classification of Disease to Dentistry and Stomatology. Certain trauma Page 161 entities were not defined and included in the WHO system. The following classification includes injuries to the teeth, supporting structures, gingival and oral mucosa and is based on anatomical, therapeutic and prognostic considerations. This classification can be applied to both the primary and the permanent dentition. Includes injuries to the teeth, supporting structure, gingival, and oral mucosa which is based on anatomical, therapeutic and prognostic considerations and applied to both the permanent and the primary dentition. The code number is according to the international classification of diseases to dentistry (1992). A. Injuries to the hard dental tissues and the pulp 1) Enamel infraction (N ) An incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance. 2) Enamel fracture (uncomplicated crown fracture) (N ) A fracture with loss of tooth substance confined to the enamel. 3) Enamel- Dentin Fracture (Uncomplicated Crown fracture) (N ) A fracture with loss of tooth substance confined to enamel and dentin, but not involving the pulp. 4) Complicated crown fracture (N ) A fracture involving enamel and dentin, and exposing the pulp. 5) Uncomplicated Crown- Root Fracture (N ) A fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum, but not exposing the pulp. 6) Complicated Crown-Root fracture (N ) A fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum, and exposing the pulp. 7) Root Fracture (N ) A fracture involving dentin, cementum, and the pulp. Root fracture can be further classified according to displacement of the coronal fragment, as Horizontal, Oblique, and Vertical. B. Injuries to the periodontal tissues. 1) Concussion (N ) An injury to the tooth-supporting structures with abnormal loosening or displacement of the tooth, but with marked reaction to percussion. 2) Subluxation (Loosening) (N ) An injury to the tooth-supporting structures with abnormal loosening, but without displacement of the tooth. 3) Extrusive Luxation(Peripheral Dislocation, Peripheral Avulsion) (N ) Partial displacement of the tooth out of its socket. 4) Lateral Luxation (N ) Displacement of the tooth in a direction other than axially. This is accompanied by communition or fracture of the alveolar socket. 5) Intrusive Luxation (Central dislocation) (N ) Displacement of the tooth into the alveolar bone. This injury is accompanied by communition or fracture of the alveolar socket. 7) Avulsion (Exarticulation) (N ) Complete displacement of the tooth out of its socket. C. Injuries to the supporting bone 1) Communution of the mandibular (N ) or Maxillary (N ) Alveolar Socket Crushing and compression of the alveolar socket. This condition is found concomitantly with intrusive and lateral luxations. 2) Fracture of the Mandibular (N ) or Maxillary (N ) Alveolar Socket Wall A fracture confined to the facial or oral socket wall. 3) Fracture of the Mandibular (N ) or Maxillary (N ) Alveolar process A fracture of the alveolar process which may or may not involve the alveolar socket. 4). A fracture involving the base of the mandible or maxilla and often the alveolar process(jaw fracture).the fracture may or may not involve the alveolar socket. D. Injuries to gingiva or oral mucosa 1) Laceration of gingival or oral mucosa (S 01.50) A shallow or deep wound in the mucosa resulting from a tear, and usually produced by a Sharp object Page 162 2) Contusion of gingiva or oral mucosa (S00.50) A bruise usually produced by impact with a blunt object and not accompanied by a break in the mucosa, usually causing sub mucosal hemorrhage. 3) Abrasion of gingival or oral mucosa (S 00.50) A superficial wound produced by rubbing or scraping of the mucosa leaving a raw, bleeding mucosa. Classification by Burden (1995) [10] Fracture (enamel) Fracture (enamel and dentin) Fracture (involving pulp) Discoloration Acid etch resoration Other restoration Classification of dental trauma of primary teeth by Fried and Erickson (1995) [10] 1.Classification of hard tissue fractures Class I - Simple fracture of enamel only. Class II - Fracture involving enamel and dentin. Class III - Fracture extends farther into the tooth, with a small pulpal exposure Class IV - Fracture involves significant amount of pulpal exposure Class V - Complete loss of the tooth Class VI - Fracture of the root 2.Trauma affecting the periodontium Concussion - Sensitivity of the tooth to trauma without abnormal loosening or mobility Subluxation - Loosening of the tooth without mobility Luxation - Displacement of the traumatized teeth. Classification by Hamilton, et al. (1997) [10] Fracture confined to enamel Fracture involving dentin Fracture with pulp exposed Intrinsic discoloration Abnormal mobility Infraocclusion Presence of sinus or swelling in the mucosa over a tooth. Classification by Spinas (2002) [16] It is an easy to use classification of dental crown lesions that helped to gather data easily, to choose the right materials, to improve communication among practioners including by electronic means. It consist of 4 classes (A-B-C-D) and 3 subclasses (b1-c1-d1) Class A: All the simple enamel lesions, which involve a mesial or distal crown angle, or only the incisal edge. Class B: All the enamel dentin lesions, which involve a mesial or distal angle and the incisal edge. When a pulp exposition exists defined as a subclass b1. Class C: All the enamel dentin lesions, which involve the incisal edge and at least a third of the crown surface. In case of pulp exposure defined as subclass c1 Class D: All the enamel dentin lesions, which involve a mesial or distal crown angle and the incisal or palatal surface, with root cement involvement (crown root fracture) in case of pulpal exposure exists defined as subclass d1. Classification by McDonald (2004) [17] Class 1 - Simple fracture of the crown involving little or no dentin Class 2 - Extensive fracture of the crown involving considerable dentin but not the dental pulp Class 3 - Extensive fracture of the crown with an exposure of the dental pulp Class 4 - Loss of the entire crown. References 1. Sweet C.A. A classification and treatment for traumatized anterior teeth. ASDC J Dent. Child., 1955; 22: Shobha Tandon. Text book of Pedodontics. 2 nd edition, India: Paras, Page 163 3. Bennett D.T. Traumatized anterior teeth assessing the injury and principle of treatment. Br. Dent. J., 1963; 115: Enrique Basrani. Fractures of the teeth. 4 th edition, Lea & Febiger, Elsivier, Mosby, Hargreaves A, Craig W, Needleman L. The management of traumatized anterior teeth of children; 2 nd edition, Churchill Livingstone, Garcia-Godoy FM. Prevalence and distribution of traumatic injuries to the permanent teeth of Dominican children from private schools. Comm Dent Oral Epidemiol., 1984; 12: Galea H. An investigation of dental injuries treated in an acute care general hospital. J Am Dent Assoc., 1984; 109: Burton J, Pryke L, Rob M, Lawson JS. Traumatized anterior teeth amongst high school students in Northen Sydney. Aust Dent J., 1985; 30: Stockwell AJ. Incidenc
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