An Outline of Life and Works of Dr. Jose Rizal 1

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  DR. JOSE PROTACIO MERCADO RIZAL ALONZO Y REALONDA MEANINGS OF NAME ã Doctor  - completed his medical course in Spain and was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine by the Universidad Central de Madrid ã Jose - was chosen by his mother who was a devotee of the Christian saint San Jose (St. Joseph ã Protacio - from !ervacio . which come from a Christian calendar ã Mercado - adopted in #$%# by &omigo Lamco (the paternal great-great-grandfather of Jose 'ial which the Spanish term mercado means )mar*et+ in ,nglish ã Rizal - from the word )'icial+ in Spanish means a field where wheat cut while still green sprouts again ã Alozo - old surname of his mother  ã  Y - and ã Realoda - it was used by &oa /eodora from the surname of her godmother based on the culture by that time ã J!e #$ %& - moonlit of 0ednesday between eleven and midnight Jose 'ial was born in the la*eshore town of Calamba Laguna ã J!e ''$ %& - aged three days old 'ial was baptied in the Catholic church ã Fat(er R!)io Collates - a 1atangueo the parish priest who baptied 'ial ã Fat(er Pedro Casaas - 'ial+s godfather native of Calamba and close friend of the 'ial family ã Lie!teat*Geeral Jose Le+er, - the governor general of the hilippines when 'ial was born RIZAL-S PARENTS   Do Fracisco Mercado  % %* %#%/ -born in 1ian Laguna on May ## #2#2-studied Latin and hilosophy at the College of San Jose in Manila-became a tenant-farmer of the &ominican-owned hacienda-a hardy and independent-minded man who tal*ed less and wor*ed more and was strong in body and valiant in spirit-died in Manila on January 3 #242 at the age of 25-'ial affectionately called him 0a +odel o) )at(ers1   Do2a Teodora Aloso Realoda  %'&* # / -born in Manila on 6ovember 2 #278 -educated at the College of Santa 'osa a well-*nown college for girls in the city-a remar*able woman possessing refined culture literary talent business ability and the fortitude of Spartan women-is a woman of more than ordinary culture9 she *nows literature and spea*s Spanish (according to 'ial-died in Manila on :ugust #8 #4## at the age of 23 T3E RIZAL C3ILDREN -,leven children;two boys and nine girls#. Sat!ria  %45* # 6/ -oldest of the 'ial children-nic*named 6eneng-married Manuel /. <idalgo of /anawan 1atangas7. Paciao  %4 * #65/ -older brother and confident of Jose 'ial-was a second father to 'ial-immortalied him in 'ial+s first novel 6oli Me /angere as the wise ilosopo /asio-'ial regarded him as the =most noble of >ilipinos?-became a combat general in the hilippine 'evolution-died on :pril #% #4%5 an old bachelor aged $4-had two children by his mistress (Severina &ecena;a boy and a girl%. Narcisa  %4'* #6#/ -her pet name was Sisa-married to :ntonio Lope (nephew of >ather Leoncio Lope a school teacher of Morong@. Oli+7ia  %44* %%8/ -Apia was her pet name-married Silvestre Ubaldo a telegraph operator from Manila3. L!cia  %48* # #/ -married to Mariano <erbosa of Calamba who was a nephew of >ather Casanas-<erbosa died of cholera in #224 and was denied Christian burial because he was a brother-in-law of &r. 'ial8. Maria  %4#* #94/ #  -1iang was her nic*name-married &aniel >austino Cru of 1ian Laguna$. Jose  %& * %#&/ -the greatest >ilipino hero and peerless genius-nic*name was epe-lived with Josephine 1rac*en Brish girl from <ong ong-had a son but this baby-boy died a few hours after birthD 'ial named him =>rancisco? after his father and buried him in &apitan2. Coce7cio  %&'* %&4/ -her pet name was Concha-died of sic*ness at the age of %-her death was 'ial+s first sorrow in life4. Jose)a  %&4* #94/ -her pet name was anggoy-died an old maid at the age of 25#5. Triidad  %&%* #4 / -/rining was her pet name-she died also an old maid in #43# aged 2%##. Soledad  %85* #'#/ -youngest of the 'ial children-her pet name was Choleng-married antaleon Euintero of Calamba ã 'ial always called her sisters &oa or Seora (if married and Seorita (if single ã >rancisco Mercado and /eodora :lonso 'ealonda married on June 72 #2@2 after which they settled down in Calamba ã /he real surname of the 'ial family was Mercado which was adopted in #$%# by &omingo Lamco (the paternal great-great grandfather of Jose 'ial who was a full blooded Chinese ã 'ial+s family acFuired a second surname;'ial;which was given by a Spanish alcalde mayor (provincial governor of Laguna who was a family friend RIZAL-S ANCESTRY ã FAT3ER-S SIDE 7   Do+i:o La+co (a Chinese immigrant from the >u*ien city arrived in Manila about #845 Ies de la Rosa (0ell-to-do Chinese Christian girl of Changchow Fracisco MercadoCirila ;erac(aJ!a MercadoRizal-s :rad)at(er/Cirila Ale<adro <ad thirteen children the youngest being >rancisco Mercado ('ial+s father    ã MOT3ER-S SIDET3E RIZAL 3OME -was one of the distinguished stone houses in Calamba during the Spanish times-it was a two-storey building rectangular in shape built of adobe stones and hard-woods and roofed with red tiles-by day it hummed with the noises of children at play and the songs of the birds in the gardenD by night it echoed with the dulcet notes of family prayers ã /he 'ial family belonged to the principalia a town aristocracy in Spanish hilippines ã /he 'ial family had a simple contented and happy life C3ILD3OOD YEARS IN CALAM;A -Calamba was named after a big native Gar -Calamba was a hacienda town which belonged to the &ominican Hrder which also owned all the lands around it ã = Rec!erdo A Mi P!e>lo I Me+or, o) M, To?/ - a poem about 'ial+s beloved town written by 'ial in #2$8 when he was #3 years old and was student in the :teneo de Manila ã /he first memory of 'ial in his infancy was his happy days in the family garden when he was three years old ã  :nother childhood memory was the daily :ngelus prayer. 1y nightfall 'ial related his mother gathered all the children at the house to pray the :ngelus ã  :nother memory of 'ial+s infancy was the nocturnal wal* in the town especially when there was a moon ã /he death of little Concha brought 'ial his first sorrow ã  :t the age of three 'ial began to ta*e a part in the family prayers ã 0hen 'ial was five years old he was able to read haltingly the Spanish family bible ã T(e Stor, o) t(e Mot( - made the profoundest impression on 'ial -=died a martyr to its illusions? ã  :t the age of five 'ial began to ma*e s*etches with his pencil and to mould in clay and waI obGects which attracted his fancy ã Sa A@i: M:a a>ata To M, Fello? C(ildre/ - 'ial+s first poem in native language at the age of eight-reveals 'ial+s earliest nationalist sentiment ã  :t the age of eight 'ial wrote his first dramatic wor* which was a /agalog comedy INFL=ENCES ON T3E 3ERO-S ;OY3OOD %   La@ad!la  (/he last native *ing of /ondo E!:eio =rs!a ('ial+s maternal!reat-great !randfather of Japanese :ncestry ;ei:+a (a >ilipina Re:iaMa!el de B!itos (a >ilipino from angasinan ;ri:idaLorezo Al>erto Aloso (a prominent Spanish >ilipino mestio of 1ian6arcisa /eodora ('ial+s mother !regorio Manuel at Jose  (# hereditary influence(7 environmental influence(% aid of &ivine rovidence ã Tio Jose Al>erto - studied for eleven years in 1ritish school in Calcutta Bndia and had traveled in ,urope inspired 'ial to develop his artistic ability ã Tio Ma!el - a hus*y and athletic man encouraged 'ial to develop his frail body by means of physical eIercises ã Tio Gre:orio - a boo* lover intensified 'ial+s voracious reading of good boo* ã Fat(er Leocio Lo7ez - the old and learned parish priest of Calamba fostered 'ial+s love for scholarship and intellectual honesty EARLY ED=CATION IN CALAM;A AND ;IAN ã /he first teacher of 'ial was his mother who was remar*able woman of good character and fine culture;her mother  ã Maestro Celestio - 'ial+s first private tutor  ã Maestro L!cas Pad!a - 'ial+s second tutor  ã Leo Moro, - a former classmate of 'ial+s father became 'ial+s tutor that instructed Jose in Spanish and Latin. <e died five months later  ã S!da, a)teroo i J!e$ %&# - 'ial left Calamba for 1ian accompanied by aciano ã Maestro J!stiiao A!io Cr!z - 'ial+s teacher in a private school in 1ian-'ial described his teacher as follows9 <e was thin long-nec*ed with a sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward ã Pedro - the teacher+s son which 'ial challenged to a fight ã Adres Saladaa - challenged 'ial to an arm-wrestling match ã J!ac(o -an old painter who was the father-in-law of the school teacherD freely give 'ial lessons in drawing and painting ã Jose G!eara - 'ial+s classmate who also loved painting became apprentices of the old painter  ã 0t(e )aorite 7aiters o) t(e class1 - because of his artistic talent ã C(rist+as i %85 -'ial received a letter from his sister Saturnina informing him of the arrival of the steamer /alim which would ta*e him from 1ian to Calamba ã Sat!rda, a)teroo$ Dece+>er 8$ %85 - 'ial left 1ian after one year and a half of schooling ã Art!ro Ca+7s - a >renchman friend of 'ial+s father who too* care of him on board DAILY LIFE IN ;IAN -<eard the four o+ cloc* mass then at ten o+ cloc* went home at once and went at school at two and came out at five-/he day was unusual when 'ial was not laid out on a bench and given five or siI blows because of fighting MARTYRDOM OF GOM*;=R*ZA ã Ni:(t o) Ja!ar, '5$ %8' - about 755 >ilipino soldiers and wor*men of the Cavite arsenal under the leadership of Lamadrid >ilipino sergeant rose in violent mutiny because of the abolition of their usual privileges ã Fat(ers Mariao Go+ez$ Jose ;!r:os ad Jacito Za+ora - were eIecuted at sunrise of >ebruary #$ #2$7 by order of !overnor !eneral BFuierdo ã /he martyrdom of !om-1ur-a in #2$7 truly inspired 'ial to fight the evils of Spanish tyranny and redeem his oppressed people ã 'ial dedicated his second novel ,l >ilibusterismo to !om-1ur-a INJ=STICE TO 3ERO-S MOT3ER ã ;e)ore J!e$ %8' - &oa /eodora was suddenly arrested on a malicious charge that she and her brother Jose :lberto tried to poison the latter+s perfidious wife ã Atoio iecio del Rosario - Calamba+s gobernadorcillo help arrest &oa /eodora ã  :fter arresting &oa /eodora the sadistic Spanish lieutenant forced her to wal* from Calamba to Santa Cru (capital of Laguna province a distance of 35 *ilometers ã &oa /eodora was incarcerated at the provincial prison where she languished for two years and a half  ã Messrs. Fracisco de Marcaida ad Ma!el Marza - the most famous lawyers of Manila that defend &oa /eodora SC3OLASTIC TRI=MP3S AT ATENEO DE MANILA  %8'* %88/ ã Ateeo M!ici7al - a college under the supervision of the Spanish Jesuits ã Esc!ela Pia C(arit, Sc(ool/ - formerly name of :teneo a school for poor boys in Manila which was established by the city government in #2#$ ã Esc!ela Pia****   Ateeo M!ici7al***   Ateeo de Maila @
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