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An Oracle Technical White Paper June 2015 NDMP Implementation Guide for the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance Table of Contents Introduction... 4 Documentation Conventions... 5 Network Data Management Protocol
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An Oracle Technical White Paper June 2015 NDMP Implementation Guide for the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance Table of Contents Introduction... 4 Documentation Conventions... 5 Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) Overview... 6 Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance NDMP Support... 6 Supported NDMP Topologies... 6 Supported NDMP Features... 7 Selective File Restore... 7 Direct Access Recovery (DAR)... 7 ZFS-NDMP Backup... 7 Multi-Stream Concurrent Backups... 8 Incremental and Cumulative Level Backups... 8 Token Based Backups... 8 Backup of Replication Targets... 8 NDMP File Service Extensions... 9 Data Encryption... 9 NDMP Formats Tar and Dump NDMP Format Use Specifying a Backup Path Backing Up a Snapshot Restoring Backup Data ZFS-NDMP Format Use Passing NDMP Parameters ZFS-NDMP System Snapshot Concepts Specifying a Backup Path Backing Up a Snapshot Backing Up a Replication Target Restoring Backup Data Configuring NDMP on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance Configuring the Fibre Channel Interface for NDMP Configuring the NDMP Service Attaching Fibre Channel Tape Drives and Tape Libraries Monitoring Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance NDMP Status Dashboard Status NDMP Analytics Supported Backup Applications Best Practices Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance Cluster Configuration Deciding When to Use ZFS-NDMP Backing Up ZFS-NDMP Projects or Datasets Replication Target Backup Considerations Conclusion Appendix A: Oracle Secure Backup ZFS-NDMP Configuration Adding an NDMP Host Setting NDMP Parameters Configuring Tape Storage Devices Configuring Disk Storage Devices Creating a Backup Dataset Performing a Backup Performing a Restore Managing Instances Appendix B: Symantec NetBackup ZFS-NDMP Configuration Specifying an NDMP Host Configuring Storage Devices Inventorying the Tape Library Creating a Backup Policy Setting Maximum Jobs Per Client Restoring an NDMP Backup Appendix C: EMC NetWorker ZFS-NDMP Configuration Configuring a Storage Node Labeling Tapes Adding an NDMP Client Definition Changing NDMP Parameters in the Client Definition Restoring from an NDMP Backup Appendix D: References Introduction With the large number of backup configurations and applications available today, trying to decide how best to design a data protection architecture for important business data can be confusing. One data protection technology widely available in backup applications and Network-Attached Storage (NAS) appliances is the Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP). NDMP provides a simplified mechanism to transfer data directly from a source to a target without having to be processed through an intermediary backup application media server, thus potentially increasing efficiency and reducing network utilization. The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance implements the NDMP standard and has been qualified with many of the leading backup applications. Additionally, the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance has an enhanced NDMP mode (ZFS-NDMP) which takes advantage of the underlying system architecture. ZFS-NDMP is capable of protecting both shares and block storage, and can potentially greatly increase the backup performance of millions-of-files shares. This paper explores the NDMP features supported by the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance as of the OS software release. It includes information regarding the configuration of the NDMP service, attaching tape devices, and monitoring NDMP processes. The ZFS-NDMP mode and its requirements are described in detail, including Appendices that walk through the configuration of those backup applications which support its implementation. 4 Documentation Conventions This document makes many references to the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance Browser User Interface (BUI). The navigation directive through the BUI will be in the format: BUI - Top Menu Selection - Sub Menu Selection - Sub Item 1 - Sub Item 2 - BUI represents the starting point after logging in to the BUI. Top Menu Selection represents the menu options in the darker grey shaded area near the very top of the BUI (white lettering, which turns yellow when selected). Sub Menu Selection represents the menu options just below the Top Menu Selection corresponding with the Top Menu Selection picked. Sub Item represents the dynamic content that displays below the Sub Menu Selection corresponding with the Top Menu Selection and Sub Menu Selection picked. The Sub Item can either be a known value such as Snapshots, or can be a user configuration specific value such as share name . It can also include a directive such as double-click. For example, to navigate to the screen provided in Figure A, the directive may be: BUI - Shares - Projects - double-click desired project - Filesystems which would be interpreted as: 1. Log in to the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance BUI. 2. Click on Shares in the top menu. 3. Click on Projects in the sub menu. 4. Double-click on the project that will be viewed. 5. Click on Filesystems. The - directive shorthand is used to enhance document readability. Figure A. Share listing example 5 Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) Overview NDMP is an open standard protocol for network-based backup of Network-Attached Storage (NAS). It enables backup application software and NAS systems to interoperate without creating specific integrations for each software vendor and storage array, allowing for the storage array to be backup-ready without requiring backup client software to be installed on the NAS system. The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance supports NDMP versions 3 and 4. At the time of this writing, most backup applications have switched to NDMP version 4. The testing in support of this document was done using NDMP version 4. Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance NDMP Support NDMP provides an efficient, non-intrusive mechanism for backing up and restoring shares and LUNs on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance. It is possible to back up shares without the use of NDMP by having the shares mounted directly to backup application clients or media servers, but this non-ndmp method leads to greater network and server resource usage. NDMP offers the following advantages: Tape drives can be attached, using a Fibre Channel SAN, directly to the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance for faster performance. The tape library robotics control can either be directly attached (Fibre Channel) to the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance, or separately connected to the backup application s media server. All file system attributes, permissions, share settings, and metadata are backed up. The NDMP service on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance takes an automatic snapshot to ensure consistency of data. The backup action operates on the snapshot, thereby allowing normal read/write activity to continue on the share(s). The backup application media server does not need filesystem-level access to the NAS shares. An NDMP-specific user-defined userid and password grants access to the backup and restore of the share(s), but does not grant access to the data on the shares. Supported NDMP Topologies The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance supports the following NDMP topologies: Local The tape drive is connected to the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance through Fibre Channel. Backup data moves directly from the dataset to the tape drive without going over the network to a backup server. This method usually provides the best performance. The tape drive can either be dedicated to the system or shared across a Storage Area Network (SAN). Remote The tape drive or storage device (disk storage, Virtual Tape Library) is connected to a backup application media server. Data from the Oracle ZFS Storage 6 Appliance travels over the network to the backup media server, which then transfers the data to tape. 3-Way A tape drive connected to one Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance is used to store data from another Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance. The data travels over the network to the system controlling the tape resource. This is a specific variation of remote backup. However, this topology is only supported from one Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance to another. Oracle does not certify or support this configuration with any other vendor s NAS appliance. Passthrough Data is written directly from a backup application media server over a network to the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance attached tape drive. This is not a common topology and is only supported by a limited number of backup applications. Supported NDMP Features The following sections outline the NDMP features that are supported by the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance. The backup application must implement the particular feature in order for it to be available. Refer to the Supported Backup Applications section for details. Selective File Restore Selective File Restore enables the backup application to know the file level contents of the backup, and to restore independent files of the backup without having to restore the entire backup image. During the backup, the file history is provided to the backup application. During a selective file (or files) restore, the backup application reads from the beginning of the backup image until it locates the targeted file(s), and restores it to the desired location. Direct Access Recovery (DAR) DAR is a feature of NDMP that can significantly reduce the time it takes to perform individual file restoration. As an enhancement to Selective File Restore, DAR also provides the backup application with positioning information of the files on tape. Rather than starting at the beginning of the backup image and searching until the item is found, the backup application can directly seek to the file s location on the tape and restore it. This is particularly helpful with multi-tape volume backup image restores. DAR is typically the default setting for backup applications, but can be disabled if required. It does, however, require that file history information is available in order to be useful. Refer to the backup application s administration guide for more information. ZFS-NDMP Backup The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance has implemented a proprietary NDMP format which enables the backup application to store block-level data to tape. This format includes backing up and restoring both filesystem shares and LUNs. It has the potential of greatly improving backup performance as compared to traditional NDMP formats. It is discussed in depth in the NDMP Formats section of this document. 7 Multi-Stream Concurrent Backups The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance allows for multiple backup requests to stream data to the same tape drive simultaneously. Not all backup applications support this feature. Incremental and Cumulative Level Backups The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance supports full backups (level 0) as well as incremental level (levels 1 9) backups. A full backup is taken the first time that the target is backed up. Thereafter, differential incremental levels can be specified to back up only the data that has changed since the last full or comparable level backup. Traditionally, a full backup is conducted on a weekly basis (for instance, Sunday), and then level backups on subsequent days (for example, Monday level 1, Tuesday level 2,, Saturday level 6). This allows for shorter backup windows during the week, since only the changes are backed up. The drawback, however, is that a full restore of the data would require that all the level backups be restored sequentially. For example, using the provided level schedule, if a full restore is required for Thursday, backup levels 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 would need to be sequentially restored. Depending on the size of the protected volume, the restore process can be fairly long. Another method is to run cumulative incremental level backups, where the same level is specified after a full backup. A cumulative incremental level backup captures the data that has changed since the last full backup. So, performing another level 1 backup on Tuesday would capture all the changes included in Monday s level 1 backup. A level 1 backup on Wednesday would capture all of the changes included in Monday s and Tuesday s backups. This method increases the amount of data stored, but decreases the time required to restore a full volume, since only the full backup and then the specific day s level 1 backup would need to be restored. Token Based Backups In level backups, the administrator only has ten backup levels (0 9) to utilize. Once a level 9 backup has been requested, all subsequent level 9 backups will become cumulative incremental backups. Thus, a full backup (or a level lower than 9) is required before any additional differential incremental backups can be resumed. Token-based backups use a date-time stamped token to extend beyond the level backup limitation. After a full backup is performed, the backup application can then request more than one billion differential incremental backups (up to ) over time. Whereas this is not practical from the sense of level backups, it does enable some backup applications infinite incremental offerings. These applications are able to synthesize restorable full backups from the incremental NDMP backups. Once the backup application has a full backup of the volume, then it only needs incremental data updates in the future. Refer to the individual backup application s administration guide to configure its specific implementation. Backup of Replication Targets The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance includes the licensable feature to replicate a volume from one Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance to another, either continuously or according to a 8 schedule. All NDMP backup formats are supported from the replication source. Only ZFS- NDMP can be used to perform backups of the data at the replication target. For more information specific to this backup method, search for NDMP Replica Backup in the online help accessible through the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance BUI's top right corner. NDMP File Service Extensions NDMP File Service Extensions is an enhancement to the NDMP version 4 specification. These extensions allow an enabled backup application to implement NDMP disk targets on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance. The disk targets use the same commands and protocols as the NDMP tape devices, and therefore allows for the easy transfer of backup images between disk and tape, providing for a disk-to-disk-to-tape backup solution with NDMP. The benefits to this implementation include: Virtually instantaneous backup response since the disk is always available and does not need to wait for tape mount, dismount, or positioning operations. Potentially faster backup speeds limited only by the network bandwidth. Potentially better tape drive utilization since the data from disk to tape is transferred internally on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance. Data is consolidated and staged in larger sizes to keep the tape drive running at full speed. Refer to the individual backup application s administration guide to determine if this feature is available. Data Encryption There are several paths available to encrypt data among the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance, the backup application, and the tape drives. Many backup applications have encryption mechanisms built into their software that encrypt the data based on keys that the backup application manages. Tape drives can either be encrypted through the backup software or through a separate key management system such as Oracle Key Manager (OKM). The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance can manage its own encryption keys on the appliance or also integrate with OKM. When using the appliance-level encrypted volumes on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance, the encryption mechanism works differently between the NDMP formats. When using tar/dump NDMP, the encrypted data is unencrypted before it is copied to tape. Thus, a tar/dump NDMP backup can be restored to any other Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance, regardless of whether encryption is enabled or not. The restored share would not be encrypted, unless it was restored to an already encrypted share. Since ZFS-NDMP is block level, the encrypted data on the share remains encrypted on the tape media regardless of whether the tape drive has encryption enabled. A backup of an encrypted share or LUN using ZFS-NDMP can only be restored to the same Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance or to another Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance that is also configured with the same encryption keys. The restore will fail if the identical keyname is not on the target system. 9 NDMP Formats The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance supports tar/dump NDMP and ZFS-NDMP formats. The features supported by the NDMP formats are displayed in Table 1. TABLE 1. NDMP FORMAT FEATURE LIST FEATURE TAR/DUMP NDMP ZFS-NDMP NDMP Version Supports Version 3 and Version 4 Supports Version 4 Only Volume Backup Supports Filesystem/Share Backup Only Supports Filesystem/Share and LUN Backup Full Volume Restore Supports Filesystem/Share Restore Only Supports Filesystem/Share and LUN Restore Individual File Restore Supported Not Supported. Entire volume must be restored. Incremental Level Backup Supported Supported Project Level Backup Not Supported Supported Token Based Backup Supported Supported Replication Source Backup Supported Supported Replication Target Backup Not Supported Supported Backup Application Encryption Controlled by Backup Application Controlled by Backup Application Appliance Level Encrypted Share Backups Data Decrypted to Backup Device Data Remains Encrypted to Backup Device NDMP File Service Extensions Supported Supported Tar and Dump NDMP Format Use The NDMP service on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance accepts both dump and tar backup requests from the backup application. These are the most common NDMP backup type requests and are supported by all of the backup applications currently qualified with the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance. Specifying a Backup Path Only shares and filesystems can be backed up using the tar/dump NDMP format, using its Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance mounted name. This is a path which will start with /export. This mountpoint can be viewed by using the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance BUI to navigate to BUI - Shares - Filesystems. Each share name will be listed with its respective mountpoint on the right, as shown in Figure 1. 10 Figure 1. Example Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance share listing This mountpoint is used as the path for the backup definition in the backup application. Subdirectories of these mountpoints (for example, /export/share2/subdir3) can also be specified. Backing Up a Snapshot Before a backup begins, the NDMP service on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance takes a snapshot of the share being backed up to ensure a consistent, point-in-time image. This allows for the continued use of the share while the backup is in progress. After the backup is completed, this system-generated snapshot is deleted. These actions are performed regardless of conducting a full-, level-, or token-based backup. The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance allows the administrator to create manually generated or system periodic snapshots. In order to back up from one of these snapshots, the snapshot path must be appended to the mountpoint. To determine the snapshots available for a share, navigate to BUI - Shares - Shares - Filesystems - double-click share - Snapshots. The screen capture in Figure 2 shows an example of the snapshots available for mountpoint /export/share3. 11 Figure 2. Example Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance share snapshot listing The Monthly snapshot, for example, would have a backup specification of: /export/share1/.zfs/snapshot/monthly The /.zfs/snapshot/ directive notifies the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance that the dataset source is a snapshot. The snapshot name is case sensitive. Since the manual snapshot is already a read-only point-in-time entity, an additional snapshot is not created for the backup. A backup of a manual snapshot will result in a full (level 0) backup. Restoring Backup Data Using tar/dump NDMP, the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance can restore
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