AI Planning for Grid/Web Services Composition, Policy Analysis & Workflow

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AI Planning for Grid/Web Services Composition, Policy Analysis & Workflow Austin Tate & Jeff Dalton AIAI, University of Edinburgh Andrzej Uszok & Jeff Bradshaw IHMC, Pensacola, FL. I-X/KAoS Composer (& Enactor). Enforcement (e.g. via KAoS). Enactment (e.g. via I-P 2 ). I-X/KAoS Composer.
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AI Planning for Grid/Web Services Composition, Policy Analysis & Workflow Austin Tate & Jeff Dalton AIAI, University of Edinburgh Andrzej Uszok & Jeff Bradshaw IHMC, Pensacola, FL I-X/KAoS Composer (& Enactor) Enforcement (e.g. via KAoS) Enactment (e.g. via I-P2) I-X/KAoS Composer OWL-S Previous Relevant AIAI Work
  • O-Plan
  • On-line web service exposing API via CGI scripts since 1994
  • HTTP interface since 1997
  • Simple - single user single-shot plan generator
  • Mixed-initiative – multiple options, multiple users with multiple roles, long transactions, collaborative planning, execution and plan repair on failure
  • Air Campaign Planning Workflow Aid - people and systems
  • I-X
  • I-X supports the construction of mixed-initiative agents and systems which are intelligible to their users and to other systems and agents
  • Dynamic workflow generation and reactive execution support
  • I-Q query adaptor for OWL, OWL-S lookups via CMU Matchmaker, Semantic Web Queries via OWL and RDQL (AKTive Portal)
  • I-Plan planning/re-planning tool
  • CoAX and CoSAR-TS
  • Coalition Command and Control/Search and Rescue Task Support
  • Use on CoABS Grid and with KAoS Domain and Policy Services
  • Previous Relevant IHMC Work
  • KAoS
  • Developed domain and policy services compatible with several popular agent (e.g., CoABS Grid, Cougaar, Brahms, SFX) and distributed computing (e.g., CORBA, Grid Computing, Web Services) platforms
  • Use of OWL to represent application domain concepts and instances, and policy information
  • Analysis and policy disclosure algorithms built on top of Stanford’s Java Theorem Prover
  • CoAX and CoSAR-TS
  • Use of KAoS to rapidly specify, deconflict, and enforce policies in coalition agents experiment (CoAX)
  • Use of KAoS to define, deconflict, and enforce policies governing access to CMU Semantic Matchmaker information in conjunction with AIAI’s I-X tool set (CoSAR-TS)
  • FY04 Progress
  • Initial exploration of the research agenda for using AI planners and workflow analysis capabilities as web service composition tools
  • O-Plan Web Service experiments
  • Dealing with Inputs & Outputs
  • Recovering Dataflow from Plan Goal Structure
  • OWL-S Import & Export
  • I-Plan
  • As a web service
  • As a Java planning tool (stand-alone and embedded)
  • KAoS Policy Analysis of workflows
  • Translate instances of OWL-S processes into KAoS Action Classes to allow policies to be written about OWL-S processes
  • KAoS Policy Semantics extended for more sophisticated insertion of policy obligations into OWL-S composite processes
  • KAoS role-value-map extensions allow generation of richer OWL-S dataflow semantics
  • FY04 Progress
  • Use KAoS Policy Analysis during I-Plan plan generation
  • Scenarios
  • Simple examples – e.g. document handling
  • myGrid biochemistry scenario to identify tool requirements
  • CoSAR scenario - Emerging web Interactive demo of all the integrated technology on CoSAR-TS scenario Explorations
  • KAoS Workflow Policy Analyzer as a Web Service
  • Link to AKT work on OWL-S manual composition tool (SEdit)
  • I-Plan Web Service – Search & Rescue O-Plan/I-Plan OWL-S Importer http://ontology.ihmc.us/CoSAR-TS/CoSAR-TS-ServiceOntology.owl KAoS Policy about an OWL-S Process Using vocabulary from CoSAR -TS OWL-S Process ontology policies COSAR-TS Web Interactive Demo http://ontology.ihmc.us/CoSAR-TS/Demos/CoSAR-TS_Demo_Concept.htm I-Plan Tool – CoSAR-TS Search & Rescue I-K-C – CoSAR-TS Search & Rescue I-K-C – CoSAR-TS Search & Rescue Some Features of the Approach
  • Planning using OWL-S Service Model IOPE Core
  • Can easily extend to accommodate richer temporal, resource and performer constraints
  • Policy analysis feedback during planning
  • Should separate plan-time model from run-time enactment environment
  • Single shot plan service with re-plan facility or richer “mixed-initiative” multiple-options mode
  • Exploring links to a graphical web service editor
  • Exploring seeking web service description information at planning or enactment time
  • Can run as separate services or as embedded tools
  • Continuing Issues
  • OWL-S input beyond primitives
  • OWL-S output espec. wrt Preconditions/Effects
  • Two way I-X <-> KAoS rich interchange
  • Widen scope of KAoS policy analysis
  • Discrete vs. continuous analysis of workflows
  • Mixed-initiative planning support, GUI
  • Multiple option exploration, GUI
  • Current service environment vs enactment model
  • When to stop planning – how far to commit
  • LOTS of planning power when we need it
  • OWL-S Semantics Issues
  • OWL-S doesn't yet define a way to express preconditions and effects
  • The intention is to fix this in SWSL
  • It is awkward to express the data-flow in a composite process that invokes the same service more than once
  • The intention is to fix this in OWL-S 1.1
  • There are partial orders of service invocations and temporal constraints that the OWL-S control structures cannot express
  • The intention is to fix this in SWSL
  • OWL-S Workflow Issues
  • Current Process Model ontology is more suited to the purpose of defining internal structure of a single service
  • Need to attach Profile restrictions to a step of the workflow; used to find a Matchmaker-registered service that meets requirements during enactment
  • Composite processes are made up of non-unique instances of processes. We have not been able to find a way to add additional information to a particular step, for instance:
  • Profile restrictions
  • Policy analysis results
  • OWL-S Deployment Issues
  • There doesn't seem to be an authoritative document that precisely defines the OWL-S semantics.  Many questions aren't answered by the Technical Overview or by the OWL definitions of the OWL-S ontologies
  • RDF is awkward to use and difficult to read, and OWL-S doesn't yet have an agreed alternative "surface syntax"
  • There is currently no OWL-S editor
  • Doing simple things with OWL-S requires lots of software (e.g. Jena2 and all that it requires or the OWL-S API which requires Jena2 and more)
  • Continuing Work
  • Complete integration of I-Plan Planner with KAoS policy analysis services
  • Also allow the use of WSDL workflow analyses
  • Java Web Start version of KPAT to obviate the need for prior installation on user’s machine
  • Generic KAoS enforcer for OWL-S
  • Mixed-initiative planning, integration with AKT project graphical composition tool
  • Web-based demonstration integrating I-Plan, I-P2, CMU Matchmaker, KAoS and servlets simulating services
  • Semantic Web Service Workflow Composition Editor AKT Project – Stephen Potter, AIAI AIAI Summary Report
  • 2003 Goal
  • Link I-X coordination and task support with KAoS agent, domain and policy services
  • Demonstrate in a Search & Rescue scenario in TTCP Binni C2 Domain
  • To be shown as AAAI-2004 Intelligent Systems Demonstrator http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/cosar-ts/demo/isd/
  • 2004 Goal
  • Create a web service composition tool based on AI planning technology that can account for execution policy issues, requirements and constraints
  • Release Plans
  • Currently I-X version 3.3 and CoSAR demonstration are available via web for research use
  • Open source I-X version 4.0 for research and US government use planned for September 2004. Tool based on this put on SemWebCentral soon after.
  • Plans to end of Project
  • Do our best to package the results (effort mostly used to date)
  • Do our best to continue to participate in SWSL and W3C SWS-IG
  • IHMC Summary Report
  • 2003 Goal
  • Provide KAoS domain and policy services to I-X
  • Different from and complementary to CMU Matchmaker Policies and OWL-S security extensions
  • Develop policies and enforcers for Search & Rescue scenario in TTCP Binni C2 Domain
  • 2004 Goal
  • Provide policy analysis capability for OWL-S composite processes (next: WMSO)
  • Release Plans
  • Web hosting of KAoS and CoSAR demonstrations for research use
  • Distribution of KAoS on SemWebCentral for research and US government use planned for October 2004
  • Plans to end of Project
  • Enrich policy analyses of OWL-S specified workflow
  • Finish the live Web demonstration of integrated technology and CoSAR scenario by August 2004
  • Collaborate with CMU on Matchmaker improvements and usage
  • Develop generic policy enforcer for OWL-S services
  • Further Information
  • http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/cosar-ts/
  • http://ontology.ihmc.us/
  • http://i-x.info
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