AHE Exemplars

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AHE Exemplars
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  • 1. Managing dialogue around exemplars David Carless, Masterclass AHE Manchester, June 28, 2017 http://davidcarless.edu.hku.hk/ Twitter: @CarlessDavid The University of Hong Kong
  • 2. Overview 1. Exemplars: rationale and benefits 2. Challenges and how they might be tackled 3. Managing dialogue 4. Implementation suggestions The University of Hong Kong
  • 3. Teaching Enhancement Project Enhancing dialogic use of exemplars amongst 10 teachers in a Faculty of Education The University of Hong Kong
  • 4. What are exemplars? Samples used to illustrate dimensions of quality Usually assignments from a previous cohort The University of Hong Kong
  • 5. Why used? Exemplars convey messages that nothing else can (Sadler, 2002) The University of Hong Kong
  • 6. Promotes self-evaluation Illustrate what good work looks like Benchmark for comparison with own performance The University of Hong Kong
  • 7. Benefits for students Gain experience in making judgments Apply insights to own work & improve learning outcomes The University of Hong Kong
  • 8. Hendry et al., (2012) Students positive about exemplars Balanced teacher-led discussion of exemplars as crucial The University of Hong Kong
  • 9. Student views Rubrics: vague, unclear and do teachers really use them? Exemplars: useful & concrete; students want more of them (Carless, 2015, 2017) The University of Hong Kong
  • 10. The University of Hong Kong
  • 11. ‘Model answer syndrome’ May reduce student creativity May lead to copying (Handley & Williams, 2011) The University of Hong Kong
  • 12. Scaffolded use of exemplars Students work on assessment task prior to exposure to exemplars The University of Hong Kong
  • 13. Scaffolding steps Instructional sequences combining: - Student work in progress; - Interaction with peers and teachers; - Analysis of exemplars. (Carless et al., 2018) The University of Hong Kong
  • 14. Time issues • Collecting them • Obtaining consent • Time taken from instruction • How many exemplars? The University of Hong Kong
  • 15. Content vs process Too much time spent teaching content, insufficient attention to learning processes The University of Hong Kong
  • 16. It’s challenging! Difficulties for students in evaluating exemplars accurately The University of Hong Kong
  • 17. Have I addressed challenges satisfactorily? Any other thoughts or queries? The University of Hong Kong
  • 18. DIALOGIC USE OF EXEMPLARS The University of Hong Kong
  • 19. Key assumption The quality of dialogue about exemplars is crucial The University of Hong Kong
  • 20. The University of Hong Kong
  • 21. Research question What are the main features of a specific exemplars dialogue and how is it orchestrated? The University of Hong Kong
  • 22. Context of the case Participants: • Trainee Science teachers • BEd/BSc double degree Teacher-researcher: Dr Kennedy Chan The University of Hong Kong
  • 23. Data collection • Classroom observation • Open-ended student survey • 2 focus group interviews • Interview with teacher-researcher • Teacher journal • Student artefacts: ‘exit slips’, assignments etc. The University of Hong Kong
  • 24. Coding scheme Main teacher moves: - Eliciting student views - Summarizing student views - Elaborating student views The University of Hong Kong
  • 25. Exemplars provided 2 high quality exemplars – Same format (i.e. reflective essays) but different content focus – Design aimed at reducing ‘copying’ The University of Hong Kong
  • 26. Management of dialogue 1. Prior to class, students analyzed exemplars; 2. Students discussed exemplars in pairs; 3. Students elicited views from peers and made mini-presentations; 4. Teacher-orchestrated dialogue; 5. Students submitted exit slip of reflections. The University of Hong Kong
  • 27. Dilemmas Students constructing notion of quality VS Telling students about quality  Time for students to talk with peers VS Time for developing shared understandings  Exemplars as guide VS Exemplars as model Using students’ voices VS Making teacher’s voice explicit  The University of Hong Kong
  • 28. Good Exemplars dialogue • Airs multiple & divergent viewpoints • Shows linkages between peer talk & whole- class discussion • Evidences development of student views • Makes explicit some key qualities of exemplars (Carless & Chan, 2016) The University of Hong Kong
  • 29. Implications The University of Hong Kong
  • 30. Implementation blueprint Assessment task Students devise or engage with criteria for good task response Two samples read before class Peer discussion Teacher-led dialogue Student ownership of insights The University of Hong Kong
  • 31. Exemplars & feedback By developing capacities to make judgments, students are learning to decode feedback (Sadler, 2010) Analysis of exemplars facilitates student uptake of feedback (Carless et al., 2018; To & Carless, 2016) The University of Hong Kong
  • 32. Engaging with quality Student need to engage with what quality looks like and develop capacities in making judgments The University of Hong Kong
  • 33. COMMENTS, QUESTIONS The University of Hong Kong
  • 34. References Carless, D. (2015). Excellence in University Assessment: learning from award- winning teachers. London: Routledge. Carless, D. (2017). Students’ experiences of Assessment for Learning. In D. Carless, S. Bridges, C.K.W. Chan & R. Glofcheski (Eds.), Scaling up Assessment for learning in Higher Education. Singapore: Springer. Carless, D. & K.K.H. Chan (2016). Managing dialogic use of exemplars. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2016.1211246 Carless, D., Chan, K.K.H., To, J., Lo, M. & E. Barrett (2018). Developing students’ capacities for evaluative judgement through analysing exemplars. In D. Boud, R. Ajjawi, P. Dawson & J. Tai (Eds), Developing Evaluative Judgement in Higher Education: Assessment for knowing and producing quality work. London: Routledge. Handley, K. & Williams, L. (2011). From copying to learning: Using exemplars to engage students with assessment criteria and feedback. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(1), 95-108. The University of Hong Kong
  • 35. References Hendry, G., Armstrong, S. & Bromberger, N. (2012). Implementing standards‐based assessment effectively: Incorporating discussion of exemplars into classroom teaching. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 37(2), 149-161. Sadler, D. R. (2002). Ah! … So that’s ‘quality’. In P. Schwartz & G. Webb (Eds.), Assessment: Case Studies, Experience and Practice from Higher Education (p.130-136). London: Kogan Page. Sadler, D. R. (2010). Beyond feedback: Developing student capability in complex appraisal. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5), 535-550. To, J. & Carless, D. (2016). Making productive use of exemplars: Peer discussion and teacher guidance for positive transfer of strategies. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 40(6), 746-764. The University of Hong Kong
  • 36. The University of Hong Kong
  • 37. The University of Hong Kong Productive assessment task design Appreciating the nature of quality work Student engagement with feedback Learning-oriented assessment framework
  • 38. The University of Hong Kong
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