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  - Contra académicos , libro III;- Confesiones , libros VII, VIII, X y XI (el resto del libro es la vida de Agustín, cmo fue cambiando de o!iniones loscas, !asando !or el mani#ueísmo $asta encontrarse con el neo!latonismo y, luego, el cristianismo; !ara eso !ueden buscar un resumen en internet o ver una !elícula #ue $ay -o $abía- en %ou&ube';- olilo#uios , libro II; - )a ciudad de *ios , libros V (sí o sí', XI, XII+- )a verdadera religin no lo $e leído, y a sim!le vista me !arece #ue $abría #ue leer los ca!ítulos I-XII, XIV, XXX-XXXII y XXXVII+)es a!rovec$o también de mandar (!ara los #ue lean en inglés' el &$e Cambridge Com!anion to Augustine , es buenísimo en cuanto !rofundidad ysíntesis+ ara !re!arar la !rueba, tendrían #ue leerse los artículos de ann (Augustine on evil and srcinal sin, !!+ ./-.0' 1nuuttila (&ime and creation in Augustine, !!+ 2/3-223', att$e4s (1no4ledge and illumination, !!+ 252-206', 78*aly (&$e res!onse to s9e!ticism and t$e mec$anisms of cognition, !!+ 26:-25', <et=el (redestination, elagianism, and fore9no4ledge, !!+ .:-65' y un !>rrafo c$ico #ue trata sobe la memoria y el tiem!o en las Confesiones (!!+ 26.-266'+ ?n mi criterio, #uien lea todo eso (d>ndole es!ecial énfasis a los de ann, 1nuuttila y att$e4s', !uede !erfectamentesacarse una buena nota sin $aber estudiado muc$o las fuentes srcinales+)es recuerdo también -!ara los #ue no lean inglés- #ue les de@é el teto de Cristo!$ Born ( Agustín de Bi!ona Dna introduccin ' en la fotoco!iadora de Carlitos+ Eesume muy bien su losofía, y es m>s com!leto y !reciso #ue Co!leston (lo #ue sí le falta, es una descri!cin biogr>ca m>s am!lia de Agustín'+i tienen dudas !untuales, !ueden !reguntarme cuando me vean en la Facultad o bien mand>ndome un correo (ben@amin+gueroaGug+uc$ile+cl'+aludos y #ue estén bien,Hen@amín++*+ Anoten esta informacin en alguna !arte, ya #ue no utili=o Faceboo9 y entre $oy y maana lo cerraré nuevamente+  Agustín y el pecado. ã Antes del cristianismo, conce!cin de *ios como JKincorru!tible, inviolable, inmutableKK+ ã *os ti!os de maldad 2' ob@etos físicos im!erfectos, así como las cosas vivientes #ue mueren y se degeneran+ L' )os seres #ue tienen almas corrom!idas y #ue tienden al mal com!ortamiento+ ã ?l !roblema del mal radica en cmo !uede eistir en un mundo dondetambién eiste un *ios su!remo #ue !uede erradicarlo ã olucin tem!oral del dualismo materialista mani#ueo, donde el bien y el mal igualan fuer=as y constituyen las cosas+ ?n esa !ro!uesta, *ios intenta erradicar el mal lo me@or #ue !uede, enfrentando un o!onente igual de fuerte #ue él+ ã *es!ués de la conversin al cristianismo, Agustin entiende #ue la solucin del !roblema del mal no !uede estar con la !ro!uesta mani#uea+ Abandono de la conce!cin cor!oral de *ios !or la es!iritual+ ã i *ios a$ora es un es!íritu creador omni!otente, #ue creo el mundo de la nada, y todo lo #ue el crea es bueno, Mde dnde !roviene el malN Augustine de!loys $is ans4er in t4o stages+ First, alt$oug$ every creature is good, some creatures are better t$an ot$ers+ &$e lo4est, most de!raved soul is better t$an lig$t, t$e noblest of cor!oreal t$ings+ ã  &$e 4ord Oevil,P 4$en !redicated of creatures, refers to a !rivation, an absence of goodness 4$ere goodness mig$t $ave been+ First, creatures $ave a natural tendency to4ards mutability and corru!tion, an unavoidable liability of t$eir $aving been created e ni$ilo+ econdly, 4e are sub@ect to !ers!ectival !re@udices, failing to see $o4local !rivations, es!ecially t$e ones t$at aQect us, contribute to t$e good of t$e 4$ole+ Agustín y el tiempo ã Augustine regarded Rod as being itself ( ipsum esse ' and anyt$ing less t$anRod as less eistent+ &$e scale of t$e degrees of eistence overla!s t$e scale of t$e degrees of goodness+ Rod is !erfectly good ( De civ. Dei 2L+2SL'+  &$e createdbeings are more or less good but t$ey are all good because ot$er4ise t$ey 4ouldnot eist+ ã ome second-century C$ristian a!ologists could still acce!t a literal latonic inter!retation of t$e &imaeus to t$e eQect t$at t$e universe $ad a tem!oral beginning and 4as built out of !re-cosmic matter+2/Augustine stated t$at t$e C$ristians s$ould not understand  t$e universeKs being created as its being de!endent u!on Rod 4it$out a tem!oral beginning (*e civ+ *ei 22+.'+ ã Augustine $eld t$at all $uman beings 4ere seminally in Adam, t$oug$t$eir individual forms 4ere not yet eistent (*e civ+ *ei 23+2., LL+L.'+ ã AugustineKs ans4er to t$e arguments against t$e tem!oral beginning of t$e 4orld is based on a s$ar! distinction bet4een time and timelessness+ &ime de!ends on movement, and since Rod is unmoving, t$ere is no time before creation (Conf+ 22+23+26; *e civ+ *ei 22+'+ &$e creation is an actuali=ation of RodKs eternal and immutable decision to 4ill a c$ange does not im!ly a c$ange of 4ill+  &$ere is no sudden ne4 decision in RodKs mind (Conf+ 22+2/+2L; *e civ+ *ei 22+., 2L+26, 2L+20, LL+L'+ imilarly t$e #uestions O<$y not soonerNP or O<as Rod idle beforeNP ma9e no sense 4$en Rod does not !recede t$e created 4orld in any tem!oral sense+ ã Augustine stresses t$at even t$oug$ RodKs immense !o4er is not com!re$ensible to $uman minds, RodKs 4or9s are not irrational (ibid+ L2+6'+ Augustine asserts an eternal system of mat$ematical, dialectical, and meta!$ysical !rinci!les based on Ot$e arc$ety!al forms or stable and unc$angeable reasons of t$ings, 4$ic$ are not t$emselves ã )i9e Aristotle and t$e toics, Augustine assumed t$at time is an innitely divisible continuum (Conf+ 22+26+L/'; t$at t$ere 4ould be no time if t$ere 4ere no motion and no souls (*e Ren+ ad litt+ 6+6+2L; *e civ+ *ei 22+, 2L+2'; and t$at time and motion are distinct even t$oug$ time is not inde!endent of motion (Conf+ 22+L.+32, 2L+22+2.'+ In critici=ing t$e vie4 t$at time is t$e motion of a celestial body, Augustine states t$at time 4ould still !ass if t$e sun stood still, and it 4ould not be aQected if t$e $eavenly bodies 4ere accelerated+ &ime as duration is not de!endent on any s!ecic motion, but if not$ing !assed or arrived or eisted, t$ere 4ould be no !ast, future or !resenttimes (22+L3+3/SL.+32; cf+ 22+2.+25'+ Augustine also t$oug$t t$at 4e measure t$e tem!oral lengt$ of somet$ing by com!aring it to somet$ing, basically to t$e number of ed !arts of a regular motion serving as measurement units (Conf+ 22+2+L2, 22+L.+32'+ ã Bo4 can somet$ing 4$ic$ does not eist be long or s$ortN &$e !resent, 4$ic$ is actual, is 4it$out duration+ It is not long or s$ort (Conf+ 22+26+20SL/'+ ?ven t$oug$ time moves bac94ards so t$at t$e !resent continuously ceases to be !resent and becomes a !art of t$e !ast, t$ere is no store out of 4$ic$ t$e future is issuing to become t$e!resent and t$en be stored again in t$e !ast (22+25+LLS20+L3'+ ã Tevert$eless, 4e are conscious of intervals of time and measure t$em+ Augustine argues t$at t$e !ractice of t$e measurement of timeis based on t$e fact t$at $uman consciousness functions by antici!ating t$e future, remembering t$e !ast, and being a4are of t$e!resent t$roug$ !erce!tion+ &$roug$ t$is distension of t$e soul (distentio animi' 4e $ave in our memory images of t$ings 4$ic$ 4ere!resent and 4$ic$ 4e e!ect to be !resent+ &$erefore 4e $ave in t$e  soul a !resent of !ast 4$ic$ is memory and a !resent of future 4$ic$ is antici!ation or e!ectation (22+L/+L, 22+L+33'+ In t$is sense time eists as a distension of t$e soul+.2 ã 7ur ability to measure times and evaluate tem!oral lengt$s is based on our ability to memori=e e!erienced durations+ <e become a4are of time t$roug$ e!eriencing tem!oral etension+ Contrary to 4$at $as often been maintained, Augustine does not oQer any !$iloso!$ical or t$eological denition of time in Hoo9 22 of t$e Confessions+ Be tries to e!lain $o4 4e are a4are of time and $o4 its eistence could be e!lained from t$e !syc$ological !oint of vie4
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