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Acknowledgements The SADC Secretariat would like to extend its gratitude to all who gave strategic guidance and input into the process of developing and finalising this framework. In particular SADC would
Acknowledgements The SADC Secretariat would like to extend its gratitude to all who gave strategic guidance and input into the process of developing and finalising this framework. In particular SADC would like to thank SADC Directors or their equivalents of Ministries in Charge of orphans, and other vulnerable children, youth and education; Help Age International; Elizabeth Glaser Paediatric AIDS Foundation; UNICEF- ESARO; REPSSI; Plan International; Save the Children UK; UNAIDS; ILO; FAO; and UNFPA among others. The contributions at all levels were valuable and the depth of the debates affirmed the need for such a framework as an integral component in an effective and coordinated response to OVCY in the region. The process of developing the Strategic Framework and Programme of Action was funded by the SADC Joint Financial and Technical Co-operation Arrangement on HIV and AIDS (JFTCA) comprising of SIDA, Irish AID, DFID, UNAIDS. Technical Coordination and Compilation of the Framework and Programme of Action and Guidelines was Supported by the Regional Psychosocial Support Initiative (REPSSI). The document was compiled by Manasa Dzirikure, and edited with support from UNICEF- ESARO. 1 Foreword Poverty and under development remain daunting challenges for the SADC region. About two thirds of the population in the region live below the international poverty line of US$ per day. Poverty is exacerbated by high levels of diseases, unemployment and low industrial growth and productivity which characterise most of the Member States. Food insecurity is particularly acute in the region, largely due to natural disasters associated with climate change such as floods and recurrent drought. Human productivity has also been curtailed by labour migration and high morbidity and mortality rates among the economically productive age group largely as a result of the treble effect of HIV and AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis, among other diseases and causes of death. The recent global increase in energy and food prices and the crisis in the financial markets are exacerbating the already dire situation in the region. Poverty and the high levels of morbidity and mortality among adults have resulted in an in unprecedented upsurge of orphans and other vulnerable children and youth (OVCY) in the region. Health, social and economic forecasts indicate that the situation is likely to remain serious with increasing household poverty and number of orphans in the foreseeable future. Vulnerable and poor households such as those headed by children, women, older people, people living with disabilities and HIV and AIDS and the unemployed bear the brunt of these numerous challenges, with often little or no options to cope. 2 The Strategic Framework and Programme of Action mark the first deliberate effort to mount a regional response to the growing challenges of OVCY in SADC. The Framework recognises the complexity of the matter and in that regard, has adopted a holistic and integrated approach to ensure comprehensive care and support among OVCY. The premise of the SADC approach to the care and support for OVCY is the recognition that people are the real wealth of nations. Thus, the fundamental purpose of development is to enlarge human freedoms and capabilities by expanding the choices that people have, to live full and creative lives 1. Investing in the well being of young people from early childhood is the most effective way to prevent social-ills among the youth and when they become adults. It is also necessary to build on their productive potential and to ensure that this potential is translated into sustainable development which can benefit them, their countries and the SADC region. As the region braces itself to the challenge of implementing the framework and make a difference for children, it is important for different organizations and agencies to knit together their efforts and work collectively to comprehensively meet the basic developmental needs of children and youth. The SADC Secretariat believes that OVCY strategic interventions presented in this document will contribute to effectiveness of efforts to safeguard the rights and well being of OVCY by all SADC Member States, civil society and the private sector. Tomaz Agusto Salomão SADC Executive Secretary 1 The State of the Human Development, Human Development Indicators, 2004 Abbreviations AIDS ACRWC AIDS ANC ARV AU CRC CRBA DFID DHS FAO HIV JFTCA JIP ILO MiET M&E MTCT NGO NPA OVC OVCY PLWHA PMTCT REPSSI RISDP RIATT SADC SDC SADCC Sida STI UN UNESCO UNICEF UNAIDS UNCRC USA USAID Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome African Charter for the Rights and Welfare of the Child Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome Ante natal clinic Anti-retroviral African Union Convention on the Rights of the Child Child Rights Based Approach Department for International Development Demographic Health Survey Food and Agricultural Organisation Human Immuno-deficiency Virus Joint Financial and Technical Co-operation Arrangement on HIV and AIDS of SADC Joint Implementation Partnerships International Labour Organization Media in Education Trust Africa Monitoring and evaluation Mother to Child Transmission Non-Governmental Organization National Plan of Action Orphans and Vulnerable Children Orphans, Vulnerable Children and Youth People Living With HIV and AIDS Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission Regional Psychosocial Support Initiative Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan Regional Inter-agency Task Team (on children and AIDS) Southern Development Community Swiss Development Co-operation Southern African Development Coordination Conference Swedish International Development Assistance Sexually Transmitted Infection United Nations United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation United Nations Children s Fund Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child United States of America United States Agency for International Development 3 Definition of Key Terms Key Term Definition Child Every human being below the age of 18 years (CRC, 1989; ACRWC, 1999) 4 Comprehensive Response Deprived Developmental needs of children Family Holistic Household Integration Minimum Standards An intervention or effort that meets the entire needs or defined minimum standards of quality of service, for the child, while minimizing or eliminating risk and vulnerability. This requires that a minimum standard or quality of intervention or service is defined. A situation in which the basic survival and developmental needs and rights of the child have not been met Physical, biological, emotional, social, psychological /intellectual, spiritual and creative necessities for children to survive and grow enough to sustain normal and productive lives into adulthood. A social unit created by blood, marriage, or adoption, defined by common line of kinship or relationship of a paternal, maternal or parental nature. This can be biological or adoptive. It can be described as nuclear (parents and children) or extended (the conjugal family as well as other relatives or ascendants of the husband and/or wife encompassing). The definition of family often changes as the needs of the greater society change and may differ within and across societies for political, socio-cultural, spiritual, economic and biological reasons. The process of ensuring that different options are considered and applied flexibly in combinations that ensure comprehensive and optimal fulfilment of the well being and development of children. It means doing everything possible, getting everybody who is identified as having a duty or responsibilities to play their individual roles to collectively achieve a desirable outcomes for children. A social unit of people (not necessarily related) living together in the same house or compound, sharing the same food or cooking facilities. Not all households contain families. Incorporating new interventions or services holistically into existing interventions or services of an organization, programme or service provider to ensure improved and comprehensive developmental outcomes for children. It often requires developing partnerships with other organizations or programmes or service providers to enhance capacity. The minimum level of service that is critical for optimal growth and development of children and youth Key Term Orphan Psychosocial Support Risk Social Protection Sustainability Vulnerability Definition A child below the age of 18 years who has lost one or both parents. The concept of social orphans is sometimes used to describe children whose parents might be alive but are no longer fulfilling any of their parental duties (e.g. drug addicts who are separated from their children with little chance of reunion, parents who are sick or abusive or who, for other reasons, have abandoned or largely neglected their children PSS is a continuum of care and support which influences both the individual and the social environment in which people live. This continuum ranges from care and support offered by caregivers, family members, friends, neighbors, teachers, health workers, and community members on a daily basis i.e., ongoing nurturing relationships that communicate understanding, unconditional love, tolerance and acceptance and extends to care and support offered by specialized psychological and social services. The possibility/ chance that a child will be deprived in the immediate or long term. All public and private initiatives that provide income or consumption transfers to the poor, protect the vulnerable against livelihood risks, and enhance the social status and rights of the marginalized, with the objective of reducing the economic and social vulnerability of poor, vulnerable and marginalised groups In the context of this framework refers to the process of ensuring that human development efforts achieve lasting improvement on the lives of children, youth and their families/carers and communities without bringing about any harm or compromising their well being and that of others in the present or the future. Any involuntary situation or condition(s) which exposes a child to high risk of deprivation, or an expected welfare loss above a socially accepted norm, which results from risky /uncertain events, and the lack of appropriate risk management instruments (World Bank). Children who are vulnerable are more likely to fall through the cracks of regular support and often require external support because their immediate support system (families/caregivers) can no longer cope. Vulnerability can be defined in terms of (a) the child s individual condition; (b) the condition or situation of the child s family /household; (c) the condition of the environment /community in which the child lives. 5 Key Term Vulnerable Children Definition Children who are deprived or likely to be deprived or harmed as a result of their physical condition or social, cultural, economic, political circumstances and environment, and require external support because their immediate care and support system can longer cope..examples are children living in a household whose parent/s is infected with HIV, lives in a child headed or elderly household, who is disabled or the parents are disabled, who is HIV positive, who has been traumatised by war, living on the street, neglected by her/his parents, who is undocumented in other countries and is involved as a child labourer, among others. 6 Vulnerable Youth Youth Young persons aged between 18 and 24 years who are deprived or likely to be deprived, harmed, exploited and or denied necessary age specific developmental needs as a result of their physical condition such as disability, unemployment, HIV and AIDS, conflict and war, living on the street, neglected by her/his parents, illegal migration and substance abuse, among others. The UNICEF /WHO defines youth as every person between the ages of 15 and 24 years and young person as aged between 10 and 24 years; the African Youth Charter defines youth or young person as aged between 15 and 35 years. For the purposes of this framework, youth or young person shall be used interchangeably to refer to persons aged 18 to 24 years. TABLE OF CONTENTS LISTS OF TABLES AND FIGURES... 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 9 PART ONE: STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK ON ORPHANS AND OTHER VULNERABLE CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SADC BACKGROUND TO THE FRAMEWORK SITUATION OF ORPHANS AND OTHER VULNERABLE CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN THE SADC REGION Vulnerabilities of children and youth and their impact Poverty HIV and AIDS Natural Disasters Conflict Access to Education Child Marriages Child Labour Cross border Migration Lack of Birth Registration GLOBAL AND REGIONAL RESPONSE TO VULNERABILITIES FACING CHILDREN AND YOUTH CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NATIONAL RESPONSE TO VULNERABILITIES FACING CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SADC Challenges associated with National Plans of Action Limited Impact of National Programmes Lack of accurate data SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR OVCY BASIC DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF OVCY GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR COMPREHENSIVE CARE AND SUPPORT FOR OVCY VISION AND PURPOSE OF THE FRAMEWORK REGIONAL STRATEGIC PRIORITIES COORDINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FRAMEWORK Institutional Arrangements Partnerships for Implementing and Monitoring the Framework BUDGET AND RESOURCES MOBILIZATION MONITORING AND EVALUATION PART TWO: PROGRAMME OF ACTION ( ) GOAL, OBJECTIVES AND EXPECTED OUTCOMES STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR ACTION, ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS SUMMARY OF BUDGET...45 ANNEX 1: MINIMUM DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS FOR OVCY AND CORE INDICATORS FOR NATIONAL LEVEL REPORTING ON PROGRESS...48 ANNEX 2: GUIDELINES FOR COMPREHENSIVE CARE AND SUPPORT FOR ORPHANS AND OTHER VULNERABLE CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SADC...49 ANNEX 3: REFERENCES Lists of Tables and Figures Figure 1 Out of school children Figure 2 Institutional Framework for the Programme on OVCY in SADC Table 1 Estimated number of orphans in SADC by country Table 2: ARV Therapy need and coverage for SADC 2006 Table 3 Basic developmental needs of OVCY Table 4 Summary of budget ( ) Executive Summary Nowhere is the impact of poverty, food shortages and the treble effect of HIV and AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in the region more evident than in the numbers and experiences of orphans, vulnerable children and youth (OVCY). The need for coordinated and well resourced efforts supported by strategic, regional guidance gave rise to the development of this SADC OVCY Strategic Framework and Programme of Action. This Framework identifies key priorities that can be facilitated at regional level by SADC Secretariat and Member States, international and regional organisations, civil society, private sector institutions and donors. The main objective of the Framework is to improve on the effectiveness of national and community efforts to achieve comprehensive developmental outcomes for children and youth. This framework is the culmination of several consultative processes with key stakeholders from Member States, international organisations and civil society groups. OVCY are vulnerable to HIV through low uptake of interventions to reduce mother to child transmission (MTCT). With anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy, in the majority of SADC countries, reaching only 30% of the children in need of it, orphans are also at risk of dying from AIDS related illnesses. The endemic poverty in the region with the potential to stretch social safety nets to capacity and reprioritise household expenditure away from securing basic necessities for children, coupled with the financial costs associated with AIDS related deaths increases children s vulnerability to HIV. Political conflicts and natural disasters can result in the forced migration, the disruption of social norms and behaviours, food insecurity and exposure to sexual abuse and sexual exploitation, all which increase risk and vulnerability. Certain characteristics of the region such as the high levels of cross border migrancy, the propensity for human trafficking, low birth registration rates and harmful traditional practices such as early marriages, work in tandem to expose children and youth to deprivation of basic developmental needs and vulnerability. 9 Regional and global responses to poverty, HIV and AIDS and related challenges and to the OVCY issue in particular have seen the signing of various Declarations and Commitments over the last decade by Member States. However, successful implementation of national policies and programmes remain a challenge. Most SADC countries have national policies and National Plans of Action (NPAs) that respond to issues related to OVC. However, NPAs do not provide a standardised and adaptive approach to deliver services to OVC. The involvement of caregivers and people living with HIV and AIDS in policy and programme development for OVCY is minimal. In addition to this, the needs of youth, street children, incarcerated and institutionalized children, child soldiers, double orphans, and disabled children are not always analysed and considered within the plans. Limited impact has been attributed to, among other things, limited human resource capacity, unprecedented burden of OVC and impact of HIV and AIDS, poverty and conflict, disjointed and uncoordinated interventions, inadequate financial resources and inadequate skills in project and programme management, among others. SADC recognises the potential for a social protection approach to comprehensively address challenges facing OVCY in a sustainable manner. At present, there are currently no explicit policy frameworks and approaches at regional and national levels as implied by the social protection approach although various versions of social protection programmes have been implemented in South Africa, Namibia, Malawi and Zambia, among others. In theory the framework is developmental in nature and based on principles of holistic development, gender sensitivity, participation, sustainability and child rights centeredness. 10 Some of the regional priorities for interventions include: Facilitating development and harmonisation of policies and strategies on OVCY across SADC Member States Strengthening the capacity of Member States in aspects such as integrating / mainstreaming OVCY in different sectors of development and facilitating the setting up of conditions and mechanisms for comprehensive delivery of services to OVCY Strengthening partnerships for comprehensive service delivery at regional and national levels Facilitating and articulating for the integration of NPAs into national development plans, define accountability for NPA development and ensure the process is adequately resourced Facilitating the availability of expertise to support Member States on the technical aspects of OVCY strategies and programmes Promoting evidence based policies and programmes and maintain a regional information system and data bank that reflects the patterns, levels and trends in OVCY challenges Supporting the strengthening of capacity for Member States to monitor and evaluate programmes, and the capacity of SADC Secretariat to monitor and evaluate the regional multi-sector response Supporting the scaling up of treatment to pregnant mothers and HIV positive infants Policy oversight for the Framework will be provided by the SADC Summit of Heads of State and Government. The SADC Council of Ministers will approve major policy, strategic and budgetary issues relating to or emanating as a result of efforts to operationalise the Framework. The Ministers will also facilitate implementation of the Framework at national level. A Forum of Directors incharge-of OVC, youth and six selected regional and international partners working on OVCY will be set up to oversee the implementation of the OVCY programme. At the regional level, existing partnership forums will be tapped into and strengthened to coordinate the implementation of the OVCY Strategy and Programme of Action.
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