A Process-Based Model for Valuing Coastal Protection Services

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A Process-Based Model for Valuing Coastal Protection Services Greg Guannel, K. Arkema, M. Papenfus, G. Verutes, J. Davis J. Bernhardt, A. Guerry, C.-K. Kim,M. Ruckelshaus, and J. Toft fabiencousteau.org
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A Process-Based Model for Valuing Coastal Protection Services Greg Guannel, K. Arkema, M. Papenfus, G. Verutes, J. Davis J. Bernhardt, A. Guerry, C.-K. Kim,M. Ruckelshaus, and J. Toft fabiencousteau.org NOAA Coastal Protection Model in Marine InVEST Miami Herald SaveGuanaCayReef Outline 1 Coastal protection in Marine InVEST 2 3 Theory behind the model Illustrative example Coastal Protection Model Two Types of Habitats Two Types of Hazards Living Erosion Non-living Flooding Habitats Characteristics Living Habitats Non-Living Habitats Spelio Coastal Protection Model Inputs 1a Coastal Exposure Index Know the Environment Generate Scenarios 1b Erosion/Inundation Model Inputs Outputs Site Characteristics ozcoast.org Biotic Features Coral Cay Conservation Storm Characteristics Social Data Management Action Inputs Site Characteristics Biotic Features Storm Characteristics Social Data Management Action ozcoast.org Coral Cay Conservation Outputs a Relative Exposure b Avoided Eroded & Inundated Area Avoided Number of People Affected Avoided Property Damage Short & Long Term Effects of Seawalls USGS Erosion/Inundation Model Define Environment Public Land Private Land $ $ Define Driving Conditions Public Land Private Land $ $ Example Management Action 15 hrs Storm Offshore Beach Storm Simulation Tropical Extra-Tropical + Waves Big Storm = Increased Water Level (Non-)Living Habitat Decrease Water Level Run Storm Surge Model Estimate surge from 2D model Run Wave Model 15 hrs Storm H max =3m T=8s Dean&Bender, ECg ρg = D b D Veg D 8 x Bot Mendez&Losada, 2004 Increased Water Level = Erosion/Inundation Area eroded Kriebel and Dean, 1993 (Non-)Living Habitat Provide Protection ΔErosion=2m or 9m 3 Valuation Avoided beach erosion Avoided re-nourishment cost Public Land Private Land Avoided property damages Avoided number of people affected Valuation Shoreline Nourishment Cost: $5/m 3 Property line Property value: $5,000/m 2 Valuation NOT TO SCALE Avoided re-nourishment cost Avoided property damages Conclusion Qualitative and quantitative tools to value services from habitats Wide variety of marine and coastal habitats can be incorporated Process-based model estimates erosion and inundation during storms Plenty of guidance provided to interpret inputs and outputs Future Steps Tier1a available February 2011 mymauisunset Future Steps Tier1a available February 2011 Tier1b available mid-2011 mymauisunset Future Steps Tier1a available February 2011 Tier1b available mid-2011 Guidance and databases mymauisunset ekidnaworld Questions? Social Variables What is the land used for? Where do people live? Can they evacuate easily? Incorporation of Man-Made Structures Stability of wall Amount of overtopping Bonus! Long-Terms Impacts Thom and Shreffler, Erosion of adjacent sites Run Wave Model 15 hrs Storm H max =3m T=8s Dean&Bender, ECg ρg = D b D Veg D 8 x Bot Mendez&Losada, 2004 NOAA Miami Herald SaveGuanaCayReef 1) Relative exposure of this area? 1) Relative exposure of this area? 2) Protection value of existing habitats? Coastal Exposure Index 34 A Screening and Evaluation Tool USGS 35 A Screening and Evaluation Tool USGS 36 Coastal Exposure Index Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value 37 Coastal Exposure Index Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value 38 Coastal Exposure Index Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value 39 Coastal Exposure Index Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value 40 Coastal Exposure Index Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value ` 41 Coastal Exposure Index Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value 42 Estimate Value of Vegetation Area eroded in absence of vegetation: Public Land 4 m 2 Private /m Land Area eroded in presence of vegetation: 2 m 2 /m Estimate Avoided Erosion Public Land Private Land Area eroded Kriebel and Dean, 1993 Increased Water Level = Erosion/Inundation Amount beach lost Re-nourishment cost Public Land Private Land Property damages Number of people affected (Non-)Living Habitat Provide Protection Avoided beach erosion Avoided re-nourishment cost Public Land Private Land Avoided property damages Avoided number of people affected Inputs Physical Characteristics ozcoast.org Social Data Habitat Coral Cay Conservation Management Action Storm Characteristics Jakarta Post Outputs Relative Exposure Number of People Affected USGS Avoided Eroded and Inundated Area Amount of Property Damage Coral Cay Conservation Short & Long Term Effects of Seawalls Data, Data, Data Data, Data, Data Global Bathymetry Data, Data, Data Global Bathymetry Habitats drag and friction coefficients Data, Data, Data Global Bathymetry Habitats drag and friction coefficients Default beach profiles parameters Index Variables Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value High and consolidated low and unconsolidated 53 Index Variables Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value Stiff & Permanent Flexible & Dynamic Nothing 54 Index Variables Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value Water goes up: land disappears 55 Index Variables Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value Strong winds = higher storm surge & waves, and flying debris 56 Index Variables Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value Larger waves cause more erosion 57 Index Variables Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value 58 Index Variables Rank Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Variable Geomorphology Rocky, cliffed coast, fiord, fiard Medium cliff, indented coast Low cliff, glacial drift, alluvial plain Cobble beach, estuary, lagoon, bluff Barrier beach, sand beach, mud flat, delta Natural Habitats Coral reef, mangrove, coastal forest High dune, marsh Low dune Seagrass, kelp Bare sand, gravel, cobble.. Sea Level Change Net decrease ±1 Net rise Wind Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Wave Exposure Lower value Average value Higher value Shelf Length Lower value Average value Higher value Tidal Range No Ranking of Tidal Range Just Value 59 Data, Data, Data Data, Data, Data Global: Population Data, Data, Data Global: Population Shoreline Data, Data, Data Global: Population Shoreline Shelf position Data, Data, Data Global: Population Shoreline Shelf position Wind statistics Data, Data, Data Global: Population Shoreline Shelf position Wind statistics Wave statistics Detecting the Presence of Habitats 66 Detecting the Presence of Habitats 67 Dissipation of Wave Energy via Drag Force 1 ρg 8 EC x g = D Brk D Bot D Veg F = 1 2 ρc D b v Nu u Kobayashi et al., 1993 Bradley & Houser, Meta-analysis of Wave Attenuation 47 studies with 167 data points marsh (21), seagrass (17), kelp (5), and mangrove (4) 46 studies report wave attenuation 25 studies with 138 data points to fit Cd marsh (9), seagrass (12), kelp (2), and mangrove (2) 69 Living Habitats Type Height Depth Extent Density RMI2 Diameter Non-Living Habitats Type Spelio Length Height J. Kitchin Type of Vegetation PD Photos Winds Waves Inundation Management Action Erosion FEMA USGS PD Photos Winds Waves ΔInundation Management Action ΔErosion FEMA USGS PD Photos Winds Waves ΔInundation Management Action ΔErosion FEMA Δ=Service USGS Wind Exposure U n, P n Top 5% wind speeds Wind Exposure F n U n, P n Top 5% wind speeds Wind Exposure F n U n, P n Top 5% wind speeds WiEx Site = 16 n= 1 U n F n P n Wind Exposure F n U n, P n Top 5% wind speeds WiEx Site = 16 n= 1 U n F n P n REI = Site WiEx WiEx Site AllSites Wave Exposure Top 5% deep-water wave heights Wave Exposure P Site = Top5% 0.5H 2 T Top 5% deep-water wave heights WaveExp Site P = AllSites Site P Additional Outputs 81 Living Habitats Type Extent Height: Depth Density Diameter Flexibility Under the Hood Gedney Conclusion Value services of habitats that protect against erosion and inundation Tier1a: Qualitative and quick evaluation tool Tier 1b: Quantitative processbased model
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