A Kingdom Transformed: Early Mormonism and the Modern LDS Church, 2nd ed. By Gordon Shepherd and Gary Shepherd. University of Utah Press, 2015. 368 pages. $35.00 paper; ebook available.

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A Kingdom Transformed: Early Mormonism and the Modern LDS Church, 2nd ed. By Gordon Shepherd and Gary Shepherd. University of Utah Press, 2015. 368 pages. $35.00 paper; ebook available.
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  is the genius of putting the ‘‘energy of American individualism to work for the benefit of the church groups as a whole’’ (68). Building Zion   also maps relationships between secular and sacredbuildings in town centers through several distinct phases. After 1870, with thecompletion of thetranscontinental railroad and theintrusion of Gentiles, the generally homogenous built environment gave way todiverse buildings that went hand in hand with Americanization. Busy and prosperous main streets became distinguishable by building types,underpinning the general restructuring and delineation of the sacredprecinct of the temple outside the town center where they were srci-nally situated. To Carter, the message here is one of millennial deferral:meetinghouses now became typical religious structures that connectedthe group stylistically to mainstream Protestantism, easily recognizableas church buildings within the towns’ marketplaces.Carter studies all aspects of the built environment—houses, farms,stores, meetinghouses, temples, and towns—as elements in the largerMormon landscape, shaped by religious, social, and economic ideals.His work demonstrates that the Sanpete Valley’s incarnation of the City of Zion had two faces: a theocratic one where capital flowed throughtithing and cooperation; the other individualistic and entrepreneurial,since increasingly salvation and exaltation relied on the ‘‘Gospel of  Works’’ in building up the Kingdom. In the end, the early Mormonlandscape is an ‘‘eclectic blend of new and old, of the sacred and thesecular, the temple and the house,’’ demonstrating the realities of ‘‘Zionin the world’’ over and above the utopian dream of the ‘‘city on the hill’’(284).This is a thoroughly fascinating book for those interested in land-scape and Vernacular Architecture Studies and religion, including ar-chitects, architectural historians, religious studies scholars, andespecially students, since it is a model of methodological sophistication. While it is undoubtedly an academic text, the book is written without  jargon and with considerable attention to clarity, making it also anexcellent book for anyone interested in the buildings and landscapesof this important American religion.Paul Eli Ivey, University of Arizona A Kingdom Transformed: Early Mormonism and the Modern LDS Church  , 2nded. By Gordon Shepherd and Gary Shepherd. University of Utah Press,2015. 368 pages.  $ 35.00 paper; ebook available.The first edition of   A Kingdom Transformed  , published in 1984, tracedthe development of the official rhetoric of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from its founding in 1830 to 1979. Because general Nova Religio  112  conferences were held annually all throughout the Mormon Church’sexistence, and because the proceedings were recorded verbatim since1897, sociologists Gordon and Gary Shepherd used general conferenceaddresses from every year to determine the salience of themes expressedover time. The authors identified a total of 216 themes and relatedsubthemes, and calculated salience scores for each theme by totaling thenumber of paragraphs in which each theme appeared. Using historicaland theoretical secondary sources, the rise and/or decline of the highest scoring themes were then further analyzed. The authors found that uto-pian themes were most salient in the nineteenth century, familial themes were most salient after World War II, and authoritative themes have beenconsistently salient throughout the history of Mormonism.This second edition, published thirty years later, has been completely rewritten. Recentresearch, particularly in the field of Mormon studies, isreferenced throughout to ensure the most up-to-date analysis. This edi-tion also features a new subtitle, ‘‘Early Mormonism and the ModernLDS Church,’’ to better specify the primary subject matter of this book,namely: ‘‘To what extent and in what ways the LDS Church has dilutedor transformed its fundamental faith commitments and theological pre-mises in the process of becoming a worldwide religion’’ (xxii). Thisedition includes a new chapter: using a fresh method that takes fulladvantage of the technological advances since the 1980s, specifically Mark Davies’ online site,  Corpus of LDS General Conference Talks  , this chap-ter examines the twenty most salient themes from 1980 to 2009. Thesalience scores calculated here exhibit a growing emphasis on conserva-tive Christian themes—such as Jesus Christ, the Bible, and the family—and a decreasing public endorsement of distinctive LDS themes—suchas Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon.The timing of this new edition, particularly its latest chapter, is note- worthy. This last chapter was written in June 2014, that is, just monthsbefore the LDS Church began emphasizing its unique history and teach-ings, such as: Joseph Smith’s practice of plural marriage, the prophet’suse of seer stones, the official recognition of the Heavenly Mother, andthe handbook changes that respond to the legalization of same-sex mar-riage. While the authors’ conclusion still holds true—the church wouldcontinue to emphasize its conservative Christian themes in general con-ference addresses but preserve its distinctiveness by means of otherpublications—it is nevertheless important to note that the public imageof the LDS Church has undergone significant changes over the past two years. In an attempt to set the record straight on a number of difficult topics, the church has become considerably more transparent and openabout its srcins, beliefs, and practices.This book would be improved if it were to nuance its understanding of the family. The authors present this theme as a particularly post-warconcern shared by all conservative Christians. Studies that have suggested Reviews  113  that the family was also of central importance to early Mormons are not referenced. Furthermore, while this second edition has benefitted froman extended discussion of women in the rhetoric of the LDS church,references to people of color are still minimal.This book is surprisingly easy to read, virtually jargon-free, and pro- vides a substantial overview of Mormonism’s core beliefs, practices, andhistory. For those interested, this book includes three appendices that detail this study’s statistical method and data. And as a theoreticalapproach to Mormonism,  A Kingdom Transformed   yields new insights andsuggests new directions for those interested in Mormon studies.Megan Leverage, Florida State University  Ghosts: A Haunted History  . By Lisa Morton. Reaktion Books, 2015. 208pages.  $ 25.00 cloth;  $ 16.00 paper; ebook available.Lisa Morton, author of both fiction and nonfiction works specializing in horror and the macabre, here aims to deliver a comprehensive history of ghosts as they have appeared in folklore and popular culture through-out recorded history. This relatively short book opens with a brief intro-duction, followed by a chapter defining the nature of ghosts as they arecommonly understood, be they spirits, souls, or demons. The book thenfollows a familiar pattern in offering three chapters covering examplesof ghost stories from different cultures and time periods, beginning withancient tales of ghosts from Greco-Roman and Mesopotamian times,then moving on to a chapter each on Western and Eastern ghosts.Next, Morton provides a succinct chapter outlining ghost tales fromLatin America and the Southern Hemisphere (mainly the Caribbeanand Australia). Morton then moves to a chapter that lists some of thematerials used by modern ghost hunters in their search for evidence, with short descriptions of some theories to explain ghostly experiences.Finally, the book ends with a longer chapter providing an overview of ghosts in modern literature and film, followed by a summary conclusionto the book. While Morton is not an academic, she does a comprehensive job of providing an array of interesting examples of ghosts in various contexts.None of the material is particularly new, and Morton does not offer any additional insight in relation to work that has already been done on thesubject. In fact, scholars of the subject will likely be familiar with many or all of the material Morton provides. For instance, Morton relies onthe same historical format and offers many of the very same examples(especially in the ancient and Western chapters) as does my own book  Nova Religio  114
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