4/28/08 BR- 1. What are the 3 branches of American Government? 2. Can you describe what is different about a patrician and a plebian in ancient Rome?

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4/28/08 BR- 1. What are the 3 branches of American Government? 2. Can you describe what is different about a patrician and a plebian in ancient Rome?
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Title: 4/28/08 BR- 1. What are the 3 branches of American Government? 2. Can you describe what is different about a patrician and a plebian in ancient Rome? 1
  • 4/28/08BR- 1. What are the 3 branches of American Government?2. Can you describe what is different about a patrician and a plebian in ancient Rome?
  • Today The Roman Republic (Great Grandfather of The American Republics?)
  • 2 The Roman Republic the Punic Wars 3 Hypothetical reconstruction of Roman Forum in Imperial times. Watercolor (18th century), Giuseppe Becchetti 4 5 Ancient Italy (c. 6th century B.C.) PEOPLE The Latins -Rome The First Romans The Etruscans -Northern Italy -Urbanized Rome Building Programs (the Forum) -Influence on Romans the arch, alphabet The Greeks -Southern Italy and Sicily -Influence on Romans art, architecture, literature, ..government, engineering GEOGRAPHY -Tiber River Mediterranean Sea -Fertile Soil Strategic Location 6 Government RepublicRespublica - matters of the public (people) 7 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • 509 B.C., Romans rejected Etruscan king (monarchy) and established a republic.
  • Power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.
  • In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens. Voted in blocks called assemblies.
  • 8 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • STRUGGLE FOR POWER CLASS CONFLICT
  • Patricians- wealthy landowners who held most of the power inherited power and social status
  • Plebeians- (Plebs) common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the population can vote, but cant rule
  • Tribunes- elected representatives who protect plebeians political rights. Could not be touched. Was a safeguard against the patricians.
  • 9 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • A Balanced Government
  • Rome elects two consuls had power of life and death, could veto acts (except tribunes) one to lead army, one to direct government (consul, proconsul)
  • Senate- chosen from patricians (Roman upper class), make foreign and domestic policy (500 people)
  • Popular assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for plebeians patricians can veto acts of others.
  • Dictators- leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis (appt. by consuls and senate)
  • 10 Other Officials
  • Praetor (6)- Law officer and judges
  • Pontifex Maximus (1) - chief of the state religion
  • Quaestor (20) - treasurer and state records
  • Aedile (20) - oversaw public works (streets, etc) temples and markets and public games - very popular post!
  • Censor - Auditor of the Government and senate, checked finances, works, and morality. Elected every 5 years. (old, honored title)
  • 11 Cursus Honorum - Course of Honors
  • This was the path (ladder) most Roman men took to power.
  • It was a series of posts at different ages. You could
  • not repeat offices and had to follow the age limits.
  • You wanted to be elected IN SUO ANNO - in
  • your year.
  • Quaestor - 30 years
  • Aediels - 36 years
  • Praetor - 39 years
  • Consul - 42 years
  • Governor - Had to have been a consul (governed provinces)
  • Censor (censi means to count)- former consul
  • 12 (No Transcript) 13 Assignment - Due Tuesday
  • Make a chart of the cursus honorum.
  • Its ok to use the previous page. Include each position AND a description of duties and requirements.
  • 14 The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • THE TWELVE TABLES
  • 451 B.C., officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets and hung in Forum.
  • Laws confirm right of all free citizens to protection of the law
  • Become the basis for later Roman law
  • 15 The Twelve TablesPrimary Source Review
  • What can we infer about Roman values based on the laws cited in the Twelve Tables?
  • How do the Twelve Tables compare to modern laws in the United States?
  • 16 Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy the Mediterranean World? 17 Military OrganizationThe Roman Army 18 The Roman Army
  • All citizens were required to serve
  • Army was powerful
  • Organization fighting skill
  • Legion- military unit of 5,000 infantry (foot soldiers) supported by cavalry (horseback)
  • 19 Rome Spreads its Power
  • Romans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek city-states in south
  • Treatment of Conquered
  • Forge alliances
  • Offer citizenship
  • By 265 B.C., Rome controls Italian peninsula
  • 20 Romes Commercial Network
  • Rome establishes a large trading network
  • Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes
  • Carthage, powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome
  • 21 Military OrganizationThe Punic Wars 22 Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • Three Wars between Rome and Carthage
  • 1st Punic War- Rome gains control of Sicily western Mediterranean Sea.
  • The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection 23 Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • 2nd Punic War- Carthaginian General Hannibals surprise attack through Spain France
  • 60,000 soldiers and 60 elephants
  • Romans experience severe losses, but eventually ward off attacks invade North Africa
  • The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection 24 Hannibal's troops crossing the Rhone River on their way to attack northern Italy. 25 Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • 3rd Punic War- Rome seizes Carthage
  • Scipio- Roman Strategist
  • Conquered people sold into slavery
  • The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection 26 Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy the Mediterranean World? (Give a few reasons and explain)Do you think the Roman Republic owed its success more to its form of government, or its army? Why?How does Romes rise to power relate to modern efforts to gain power and authority? 27 Forthcoming
  • How did the struggle for power between patricians and plebeians affect the Roman Republic?
  • How does leadership impact the power and authority of a nation/republic/empire?
  • Julius Caesar
  • Augustus
  • The Good Bad Emperors
  • Diocletian Constantine
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