3.0 LARGE-SCALE OCEAN RESEARCH PROJECTS. 3.1 Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms Program, p. 3-1 Kudela, Taguchi

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3.0 LARGE-SCALE OCEAN RESEARCH PROJECTS 3.1 Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms Program, p. 3-1 Kudela, Taguchi 3.2 Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research, p. 3-28
3.0 LARGE-SCALE OCEAN RESEARCH PROJECTS 3.1 Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms Program, p. 3-1 Kudela, Taguchi 3.2 Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research, p Hall, Burkill 3.3 GEOTRACES, p Volkman 3.4 Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study, p Law, Coustenis Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) (joint with IOC) Kudela, Taguchi Terms of Reference: The Scientific Steering Committee of the GEOHAB Programme will 1. Coordinate and manage GEOHAB Core Research Projects (CRPs) in accordance with the GEOHAB Science and Implementation Plans. 2. Identify gaps in knowledge required to execute CRPs, and encourage targeted research activities to fill those gaps. 3. Review progress on CRPs over time and initiate new CRPs in priority research areas. 4. Foster framework activities to facilitate implementation of GEOHAB, including dissemination and information tools. 5. Establish appropriate data management activities to ensure access to, sharing of, and preservation of GEOHAB data, taking into account the data policies of the sponsors. 6. Promote comparative and interdisciplinary research on harmful algal blooms by providing coordination and communication services to national and regional research groups, encouraging explicit affiliation with GEOHAB via the endorsement process. 7. Collaborate, as appropriate, with intergovernmental organizations and their subgroups (e.g., ICES, PICES, FANSA, ANCA, WESTPAC/HAB, HANA, NOWPAP), as well as related research projects (e.g., GLOBEC, LOICZ, IMBER) and observational systems such as the Global Ocean Observing System and its regional alliances. 8. Report regularly to SCOR, the IOC Intergovernmental Panel on Harmful Algal Blooms (IPHAB), and the global HAB research community on the state of planning and accomplishments of GEOHAB, through annual reports and, as appropriate, the GEOHAB Web site, a GEOHAB Newsletter, Harmful Algal News, special sessions at scientific meetings, and other venues. 9. Interact with agency sponsors to stimulate the support of GEOHAB implementation through various mechanisms (e.g., direct support of GEOHAB initiatives and integration of the GEOHAB approach in national programs). Acronyms ANCA = IOC HAB working group for Central America and Caribbean Sea FANSA = IOC HAB working group for South America HANA = IOC HAB working group for North Africa GLOBEC = Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics project ICES = International Council for the Exploration of the Seas IMBER = Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research project IOC = Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission LOICZ = Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone project NOWPAP = UNEP Northwest Pacific Action Plan PICES = North Pacific Marine Sciences Organization SCOR = Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research WESTPAC/HAB = IOC SubCommission for the Western Pacific HAB working group 3-2 Chair: Raphael M. Kudela Ocean Sciences Department University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA Vice Chair: Elisa Berdalet Institut de Ciències del Mar (CMIMA, CSIC) Dept. Biologia Marina i Oceanografia Pg. Marítim, Barcelona, Catalunya SPAIN Members: Icarus Allen Stewart Bernard Paul Bienfang Michele Burford Liam Fernand Songhui Lu Patricia Tester Gires Usup UK SOUTH AFRICA USA AUSTRALIA UK CHINA-Beijing USA MALAYSIA Ex-officio Member: Robert Magnien (IOC IPHAB) IOC Staff: Henrik Enevoldsen Executive Committee Reporter: Satoru Taguchi SCOR-IOC Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) Program Activities, The GEOHAB project is preparing synthesis for completion of its first phase, at the end of GEOHAB-related activities will be continued after the end of 2013, under a different format, as described at the end of this report. 1. IPHAB-XI Meeting: Paris, France, April 2013 GEOHAB was represented by the SSC Chair (Raphe Kudela) at the Tenth Intergovernmental Panel on Harmful Algal Blooms (IPHAB-XI) meeting. An update on GEOHAB activities during the past two years was presented, and a resolution was passed (see attached) recommending support from IOC for a new international research project called GlobalHAB, with an invitation to SCOR to co-sponsor the project. 2. Implementation of Core Research Projects The GEOHAB Implementation Plan 1, published in November 2003, specified the formation of Core Research Projects (CRPs) related to four ecosystem types upwelling systems, fjords and coastal embayments, eutrophic systems, and stratified systems. Since then, initiation and implementation of these CRPs has been the primary GEOHAB objective through OSMs and other activities. All four of the CRP research plans have now been published and some implementation has been accomplished. A fifth CRP plan was published in late 2012 (see below). A. Core Research Project: HABs in Upwelling Systems This sub-group is chaired by Grant Pitcher (South Africa). The group is developing plans with other organizations for a meeting on climate change effects on HABs, in upwelling systems and beyond. This activity has been endorsed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Harmful Algal Blooms (IPHAB), ICES, and PICES. A preliminary workshop was held in 2013 at Friday Harbor, Washington (USA). Reports from the workshop were submitted to the sponsoring agencies, and an overview article was submitted to Harmful Algae News, attached to this report as an Appendix. B. Core Research Project: HABs in Fjords and Coastal Embayments This sub-group is chaired by Suzanne Roy (Canada). It held a workshop in May 2012 in Victoria, Canada, on Life Cycles of HABs, focusing particularly on benthic resting stages of harmful algal species (see The outcomes of this OSM include the following: (1) a GEOHAB Meeting Report with synthesis, conclusions, and future research perspectives (see (2) the production of several mini-reviews to be incorporated in a special issue of an international journal, along with papers from the CRP on Stratified Systems. 3-4 C. Core Research Project: HABs and Eutrophication The sub-group on HABs and Eutrophication is chaired by Patricia Glibert (USA). The work of the group is complementary and somewhat combined with the SCOR/LOICZ Working Group 132 on Land-based Nutrient Pollution and the Relationship to Harmful Algal Blooms in Coastal Marine Systems, which has been disbanded after completing several publications, but continues to complete additional papers (see Tab 2). D. Core Research Project: HABs and Stratification The sub-group on HABs and Stratification is chaired by Robin Raine (Ireland). The group conducted a workshop on Advances and challenges for understanding physical-biological interactions in HABs in Stratified Environments at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institution, Moss Landing, California, USA on August The workshop reviewed the major discoveries relating to the physics, biology, ecology, and/or chemistry of HABs in stratified systems. Through presentations and group discussion, the participants identified critical remaining questions, and new technologies that may be needed to fulfill sampling protocols necessary to answer them. A goal of the meeting was to produce a conceptual model or roadmap of the direction in which biological, physical, and chemical measurements of harmful algal blooms in stratified systems should be headed during the next 10 years, as well as a manuscript synthesizing the findings of this meeting. Another goal was to produce collaborative proposals to conduct a multidisciplinary field experiment addressing this subject. The outcomes of the meeting will be published in a GEOHAB Report. The report is drafted, and has been circulated to the OSM participants for final comments, and is currently being prepared for printing. This CRP is also producing a special issue in Deep-Sea Research II. Guest editors include R. Raine, E. Berdalet, M. McManus, and H. Yamazaki. The special issue has recently (September 2013) been finalized and will be published imminently. It includes 21 peer-reviewed manuscripts and a preface. E. Core Research Project: HABs in Benthic Systems (BHABs) GEOHAB sponsored an OSM on HABs in Benthic Systems in Honolulu, Hawaii in June 2010, with Paul Bienfang as the convener. The OSM organizing committee has completed the science plan from the meeting, a report edited by E. Berdalet, P. Tester and A. Zingone, and printed in late 2012 (see The report contains the state of the art regarding research on benthic HABs and the main open questions for the coming years, in order to initiate and implement the CRP. Three follow-on activities have been proposed and are being actively pursued: Sampling/ID workshop focusing on BHAB organisms, proposed by Wayne Litaker and Patricia Tester (USA). Gires Usup (Malaysia) secured local funding for this activity, and the BHAB working group organized a workshop. YEOSU International Organization Collaboration Project (GEOHAB Asia & BHAB) proposal was submitted and successfully funded in 2011. 3-5 The BHAB program was presented at the International Conference on Ostreopsis Development (ICOD) and was recently published (Zingone et al. 2012, Cryptogamie Algologie 33(2): ) GEOHAB Open Science Meeting The SSC convened the final GEOHAB Open Science Meeting at IOC Headquarters in Paris, France in April The purpose of the meeting was to review the scientific advances accomplished under GEOHAB since its inception and to identify a near-future roadmap of GEOHAB-like activities to be pursued beyond To achieve these objectives, the meeting was structured with the following components: Invited presentations that reviewed GEOHAB s past and present through its 5 Core Research Projects, Regional Programs and Targeted Activities, and topics that provided a general framework for future research on HABs. Concept papers (i.e., proposals for specific activities, such as research projects, training sessions, or comparisons among ecosystems) that could be implemented between 2014 and It was requested that the papers be based on GEOHAB planning documents, such as the GEOHAB Science and Implementation Plans, and the Core Research Project reports (www.geohab.info). The concept papers contributed to development of the GlobalHAB project concept and some may be implemented as activities beyond Poster sessions that broadened the number of topics that could be considered during the meeting and encouraged the widest possible scientific participation. Breakout discussion sessions among the participants based on both the invited presentations and the concept papers. Three breakout sessions were held: What has GEOHAB accomplished and how was it done? What did and didn't work and why? Which scientific objectives can effectively be implemented in the coming years and what are the best mechanisms to accomplish them, based on the Concept Papers that were submitted? Based on the previous session s outcomes, how should GEOHAB be structured to most effectively move forward in the future? 4. IOCCG/GEOHAB Working Group The International Ocean Colour Coordination Group and GEOHAB are co-funding a working group on HABs and Ocean Colour. The group will Summarize the relevance of ocean colour-based harmful algal bloom observation systems. Summarize the wide variety of harmful algal bloom types with regard to ecosystem function, consistent with GEOHAB Core Research structures. Summarize the principal methodological difficulties for ocean colour in coastal and inland waters, with reference to previous IOCCG Working Groups and other ongoing initiatives, e.g. GEO Tasks, CoastColour, etc. Summarize our current understanding of the physics of phytoplankton community composition from a bio-optical and ocean colour perspective. 3-6 Review the relevance of Phytoplankton Functional Type (PFT) approaches (with reference to the IOCCG PFT Working Group) for harmful algal bloom observations across a variety of coastal and inland ecosystems. Review and summarize current and emerging harmful algal bloom-related ocean colour techniques, from reflectance-based community composition algorithms to ecosystemspecific change-detection algorithms, that is, research and operational applications. Compare the results of a variety of algorithms on selected bloom case studies, representative of the GEOHAB core research ecosystems with the specific addition of inland waters, and use these studies to provide a clear guide to ocean colour algorithm performance diagnostics, and optimal ocean colour-based approaches for various bloom and ecosystem types. Examine the utility of ocean colour observations beyond the event scale: multisensory and temporal analyses of ecological drivers and response for example systems, analysing and demonstrating the value of routine synoptic data and integration with other observations and models. Recommend future studies, measurements, protocols, etc. to develop, improve and better understand application limitations for harmful algal bloom-focused ocean colour algorithms Summarize, recommend, and present a future outlook for the development of new ocean colour observation systems, incorporating future sensors/systems. Prepare a monograph to be published within the IOCCG or GEOHAB series. Prepare a special issue in a peer-reviewed journal incorporating suitable review and case study chapters as papers. The group has met twice and is working on a monograph for the IOCCG Report series and potentially a special issue of a peer-reviewed journal. This group anticipates finalizing the report before the end of GEOHAB Modelling Based in part on the successful collaboration between GEOHAB and IOCCG, GEOHAB participated in the GEO Blue Planet Symposium in Brazil November 2012 (http://www.faro-project.org/blue_planet/announcement.html). Stewart Bernard (SSC member; South Africa) and Lourdes Velo-Suarez (Spain) represented GEOHAB, addressing the HAB observations and modelling needs within the GEO framework. Travel support was provided by IOCCG through the Fisheries Applications from Remotely-Sensed Ocean Colour (FARO) effort. A contributed chapter was written to be included in the Oceans & Society: Blue Planet book, anticipated to be published in Publications and Endorsed Projects A full list of GEOHAB reports, publications, and endorsed activities are available on the GEOHAB Web site. GEOHAB generated considerable interest from the community during this interval, and GEOHAB-endorsed work has been conducted in Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Philippines, Spain, South Africa, United Kingdom, and the United States. We continue to receive requests annually for project endorsements and are reaching out to the prior endorsed projects for inclusion in the GEOHAB synthesis activities. GEOHAB Synthesis At the end of 2013, the GEOHAB program will complete 10 years from the publication of its Implementation Plan. The SCOR Executive Committee has requested that GEOHAB conduct synthesis activities and complete its current phase of activity. Information from the Open Science Meeting will contribute to the synthesis documents, which will be a major focus of the final GEOHAB meeting in December A. GEOHAB Summary Outcomes Tentatively planned synthesis documents include the following: 1. Special issue from the meeting, with guest editors and the journal to be determined. The SSC is in favor of selecting an open-access journal, if possible. The SSC is currently also looking into possible publication of a monograph, rather than a special issue. 2. GEOHAB Science Summary As part of our synthesis report to both IOC and SCOR, GEOHAB will revisit the Science Plan and CRP plans to review what has been accomplished and what remains to be achieved. 3. A summary/overview article was originally envisioned to be submitted to Oceanography in late All SSC members would be authors. This builds on the past Oceanography publications highlighting the mid-stream goals and accomplishments of the GEOHAB effort, and would be suitable for the scientifically literate public, policy makers, and program managers. Depending on task 1, this may be revised to represent an overview paper for the special issue. 4. Summary for Policy Makers. The SSC is strongly in favor of developing a Summary similar to previous efforts such as the Ocean Fertilization summary document (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001906/190674e.pdf). GEOHAB is working with IOC, SCOR, and NOAA to implement this effort. 8. Final GEOHAB SSC Meeting The final GEOHAB SSC Meeting will be held in Barcelona, Spain on 3-5 December 2013, with many of the SSC members agreeing to an informal extension (December 6-8) to implement the GEOHAB Summary Outcomes. The meeting will discuss several topics: completion of GEOHAB synthesis products, implementation of concept papers from the Open Science Meeting, and plans for GlobalHAB. 3-8 Appendixes 1) HABs in a Changing World summary document from the Workshop on Harmful Algal Blooms in a Changing World (WKHABCW), to be submitted to Harmful Algae News 2) Draft report of the WKHABCW effort 3) IPHAB-XI.1 Recommendation Harmful Algal Blooms in a Changing World There are projections that the process of climate change will lead to increased frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Indeed there is evidence that climate change already may be causing shifts in phytoplankton community composition, but the projections on climateincreasing the HAB impact remain, at this point, largely speculative. Although there are many intuitive linkages, these scenarios are founded on limited and often conflicting experimental data, so that scientific debate at this time cannot establish a link between HABs and climate change, let alone how dramatic any change in HABs might be in the future. Moreover, the field of HAB research lacks the rigorous organization structure of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, where scientists worldwide work in collaboration to quantify and evaluate trends in HAB impacts. HAB scientists need to proactively identify the fundamental parameters and research infrastructure needed to effectively address this important question if we are to have those data we need when called upon to forecast or explain changing HAB patterns. It is important to recognize that the issue here is not simply whether a pattern might develop where fluctuations in HAB frequencies at times become more prevalent in the future. Instead, based on limited ecophysiological insights it is reasonable to postulate there will be fundamental changes in the distributions of HABs, bringing ecosystem and human health threats to extensive new regions, perhaps compounding current problems. There also likely will be increased windows of opportunity for existing regional HABs, intensifying existing threats at a time when humans will be relying more on coastal resources for food security. As it stands, the HAB research community is woefully unprepared to provide solid insights to the changes that will define the next generation s access to many marine resources. A workshop of international experts convened in March, 2013 at the Whiteley Center, Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington (funded by PICES, GEOHAB and NOAA) to develop a preliminary assessment of where the field of HAB research stands in terms of addressing the HAB-climate change connection, and the directions it needs to move over the next decade. Three broad classes of HABs were considered: (1) toxic HABs that impact human health, (2) fish-killing HABs where the causative organisms affect both wild and aquaculture fish populations, and (3) hhigh-biomass HABs, whether derived by natural or anthropogenic processes leading to hypoxia, foam, and other negative impacts. The key underlying consideration surrounding climate-related distributional changes in HABs is three-pronged: HAB species getting there, being adapted well enough to remain there over the course of the season, and ultimately staying there for multiple seasons. T
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