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Brief History of Indian Cinema In 1896, India was first exposed to motion pictures when the Lumiere Brothers' Chinematographe showed six soundless short films on July 7 in Bombay. By 1899, Harishchandra Bhatvadekar shot two short films, which were exhibited with Edison’s projecting kinetoscope. Throughout the first two decades, the trend continued with filmmakers such as Hiralal Sen and F. B. Thanawalla, J. F. Madan and Abdullah Esoofally, and others. Dada Sahib Phalke produced India's first ind
  Brief History of Indian Cinema  In 1896, India was first exposed to motion pictures when the Lumiere Brothers' Chinematographe showed six soundless short films on Jul ! in Bom a# B 1899, $arishchandra Bhat%ade&ar shot two short films, which were exhi ited with dison(s  pro)ecting &inetoscope# *hroughout the first two decades, the trend continued with filmma&ers such as $iralal +en and # B# *hanawalla, J# # -adan and . dullah soofall, and others# /ada +ahi 0hal&e produced India's first indigenous silent film, a)a $arishchandra, in -a of 1912, which ena led the film industr to trul arise# B 1934, the Indian Cinema was ecoming part of societ 5$istor of Indian Cinema7# The Representation of Women on Screen  In traditional Indian +ociet, there are certain prescri ed roles which regulate the conduct of women# or example, the conception of the woman as +ita is pre%alent in Indian societ and film# +ita is a character in the amaana, one of the great epics, which em odies %alues and the differences etween right and wrong# +he is the wife of ama, who is representati%e of man %irtues including honor, courage, and loalt# -uch of Indian popular cinema is influenced  the amaana and the -aha harata, another epic, which in%ol%es the hero Lord rishna# +ita is the ideal woman and wife that sees her hus and as an idol# Indian popular cinema represents this role of the ideal wife's admiration and unfaltering respect# .lso, according to the -anusmriti, an ancient classical wor& dealing with laws, ethics, and moralit, a woman should e su )ect to her father in childhood, in outh to her hus and, and when her hus and is dead, to her children# :ithin the guidelines of the -anusmriti, women do not en)o independence# :omen are supposed to adhere to the role of a happ figure who ta&es care of the household# *he are supposed to e o edient to their hus ands and go to e%er length to honor them e%en after death# .lthough Indian cinema continues to change and e%ol%e, reflecting new trends in gender relations, at least in %er traditional Indian cinema women who li%e  these traditional norms are portraed as happ and ethical# :omen who go against these rules of narrati%e and culture in film are punished and seen as immoral# Four Roles of Women   T hese roles and constructions of women are reflected in a great deal of popular Indian Cinema# our important roles to consider include the ideal wife, ideal mother, the %amp, and the courtesan5/issanaa&e !!# *he Ideal :ife  *his character is represented  sexual purit and fidelit# +he must e consistent with traditional Indian roles  honoring the famil and depending on the hus and# +he is closel connected to the domestic domain# ã *he Ideal -other Indian reference to the mother in%ol%es religious suggestion# *he countr is connected with the mother goddess, +ha&ti, who represents great strength# *he role of the mother in Indian film is often seen as a strong force, such as in -other India 519;!# ã *he <amp *he %amp in Indian film is modern and imitates western women# $er eha%ior can include smo&ing, drin&ing, and dancing# +he can also e =uic& to fall in and out lo%e# +he represents unaccepta le eha%ior and is seen as unwholesome# +he is almost alwas  punished for her eha%ior# ã *he Courtesan *he courtesan is outside the normal realm of Indian womanhood in that she is a tpe of  prostitute or dancing girl# +he em odies sexualit# +he is a character who helps with the  phsical and emotional needs of men# >ften in Indian film, she gi%es the man comfort and care, after which, he lea%es her to desperatel mourn the loss of him#  Sexuality in Indian Cinema  -an of the roles represented here are similar to that of the roles of women in western film# or example, the women are seen as o )ects of desire# *his relates to the representations of romance and the female figure in Indian popular film# issing was un&nown in Indian film for a long time# 0u lic displas of affection are associated with western life# $owe%er, there are latant scenes in%ol%ing sexualit# .lthough more recent films often include scenes of o%ert sexual relations, traditionall Indian film has used three techni=ues to con%e this sexualit as categori?ed    ichards as tri al dress, dream se=uences@wet saris, and ehind the ush# ã *ri al /ress Because man Indian films in%ol%e music and dance, ichards explains, Atri al costumes are used for the exposure of %ast expanses of the od, in particular the pel%ic regionA 5=td# in /issanaa&e !9# ã /ream +e=uences@:et +ari /reams offer the a ilit to express sexual desires and explore for idden pleasure# :et saris are often in%ol%ed in these dreams and are caused  a downpour in which the woman's flims sari allows for exposure of the female od# ã Behind the Bush  *heIndia has one of the oldest film industries in the world# *hough the first film ad%ertisement in India appeared in the *imes of India on ! Jul 1896, in%iting people to witness the Lumiere Brothers' mo%ing pictures, Athe wonder of the worldA, it was not until earl 1912 that an Indian film recei%ed a pu lic screening#  Rajah Harischandra  was an extraordinar commercial success its director, /adasahe 0hal&e, who is now remem ered through a lifetime achie%ement award estowed  the film industr in his name, went on to ma&e a num er of other films drawing upon themes deri%ed from the Indian epics# 0hal&e could not find a woman to pla the female roles, eing turned down in this endea%or not onl  'respecta le' women ut    prostitutes, and had to resort to the expedient of choosing a oung man, .# +alun&e, to pla the female roles in his earl films# .mong the middle classes, that association of acting with the loss of %irtue, female modest, and respecta ilit has onl recentl een put into =uestion, whate%er degree of emulation actresses might appear to recei%e from an adoring pu lic# :hile a num er of other filmma&ers, wor&ing in se%eral Indian languages, pioneered the growth and de%elopment of Indian cinema, the studio sstem was eginning to emerge in the earl 1924s# Its most successful initial product was the film  Devdas  5192;, whose director, 0#C# Barua, also appeared in the leadD the $indi rema&e of the srcinal Bengali film, also directed  Barua, was to esta lish the legendar career of undanlal +aigal# *he *amil %ersion of this Eew *heatres release appeared in 1926# A*o some extentA, note the authors of Indian ilm, A/e%das was a
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