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2009 Household Sewage Treatment System Installation Manual Clermont County General Health District Fall, Table of Contents 1 Section 1.0 Introduction General Information Purpose
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2009 Household Sewage Treatment System Installation Manual Clermont County General Health District Fall, Table of Contents 1 Section 1.0 Introduction General Information Purpose of Manual Layout of Manual HSTS Types Included HSTS Component Application(s) Section 2.0 HSTS Installation Planning General Critical Elements of Job Planning and Execution Job Planning Site and Plan Review Wet Weather Planning Planning the Work HSTS Protections Planning to Prevent Future Damage by Others Soil Moisture Condition Planning Clearing Areas without Trees or Brush Areas with Trees or Brush Mechanical Clearing Layout Survey, Excavation Planning and As-built (Survey Notes) Layout Survey (Step 1 Required) Excavation Plan (Step 2 Required) As-built (Step 3 Required) Homeowner Education Considerations for HSTS Replacement Section 3.0 Tanks Definitions Scope and Applicability General Primary Tank Sizing Advanced Technology Systems /80 Surge/Reserve /100 Surge/Reserve Demand Dosed Conventional System 3.4.3 Gravity Conventional System Primary Tank Volume Reductions Location and Depth of Placement Tank Installation Precast Concrete (PCC) Tanks Fiberglass Tanks Plastic Tanks Dosing Basins/Filtrate Sump Effluent Filter General Residential Grade Commercial Grade Dosing Septic Tank Effluent Filters Screen Vault Filter (Style 1 Tank) Special Effluent Filters (Style 2 Tank) Application of Commercial Grade, Residential Grade and Special Effluent Filters Risers/Lids Watertight Tank Field Test PCC Tanks (includes filtrate sumps) Watertight Field Test Procedure Plastic/Fiberglass (including filtrate sumps) Watertight Tank Field Test Procedure Pump Installation Flow Rate Testing of Installed Components Floats/Transducers Settings General Section 4.0 Aggregates and Cover Definition Scope and Applicability Stockpiling Requirements Miscellaneous Aggregates ODOT #57 Stone (Rounded) ODOT #8 Stone (Rounded) ODOT #57 or #8 Stone (Angular) Sand for Treatment Filter Sand (1.25 gpd/ft 2 ) Filter Sand (2.5gpd/ft 2 ) Natural Sand & Concrete Sand Gradient Drain/Interceptor Drain Aggregate Cover Soil Specifications Best Available Site Topsoil Other Site Soils Geotextile Fabric 4.12 Aggregate Jar Test Section 5.0 Piping General Gravity Piping Building Sewer Pipe Type (Building Sewer) Pipe Installation (Building Sewer) Cleanouts for Building Sewer Other Gravity Piping Pipe Type Pipe Installation Cleanouts for Other Gravity Piping Discharge Pipe Casing Pipe (Pipe Casing), and Pipe Protection Pressure Piping Pipe Type Pipe Installation Pipe Protection Freeze Protection Mechanical Protection Pressure Pipe Network Pressure Piping Force Main Pressure Piping Sub-Main Pressure Piping Manifold Pressure Piping Laterals Maximum Operating Head (Squirt Height) Variation No operating head in a distribution lateral network shall be less than the required minimum operating head. No operating head on any network lateral shall exceed the required minimum operating head by more than ten (10) percent Pressure Piping Lateral Cleanouts (C/O) Operating Head (Squirt Height) Adjustment Operating Head Orifice and Orifice Shields Orifice(s) Orifice Shield(s) Air Release Valves Flow Direction Control Valves K-Rain Valves Pressure Pipe Network Dose Pump Flushing Procedure Required Design (Net) Dose Volume Solvent Welding General Primers and Cements Applicators Pipe Joining Solvent Welding Curing Section 6.0 Finished Appearance General Grading Care of Surface Water Seeding and Mulching Erosion Control Diversion Swale Section 7.0 Drainage Enhancement Description Gradient Drain Collector Segment Gradient Drain Gravity Discharge Segment Gradient Drain Pressurized Discharge Gradient Drain Sump Interceptor Drain Section 8.0 Electrical System(s) General Electrical Cable Electric Wire Electrical Conduit Electrical J (Splice) Box(es) Electrical Splices Dry Locations Float Switch/Control & Pressure Transducers Service Panel Safety Disconnect(s) Control Panel(s) General Programmable Control Panels See Addendum for panel requirements for system type Stick-Built and Modular Home with Indoor Service Panels Manufactured Homes (Single/Doublewide) with an Outdoor Service Panel (No access to circuits inside the house) Section 9.0 Disinfection and Monitoring Devices General Disinfection Devices Scope and Applicability Types of Disinfection UV Disinfection Chlorinators Effluent Sampling Wells Access Wells/Valve Boxes Specifications Observation Ports Specifications Section 10.0 Mounds/Modified Mounds/Other At-grade Structures Definition Scope and Applicability Purpose and Function Specifications General Basal Area Preparation Protection Clearing Chisel Plowing Layout of Structures Flat Site Regular Shape Flat Site Irregular Shape Sloped Site Split/Divided Structures Construction Specifications Structure Layout Procedure Layout of Structures Requiring a Level Upper Sand Surface Layout of Structures Allowing for a Uniform Sloping Sand Surface Layout of Structures Allowing for Sand to be Placed Everywhere at a Minimum Thickness Construction of Structures Aggregates Aggregate Placement Sand Gravel Laterals The laterals described in this manual are PVC pipes designed for controlled and predictable distribution and application of effluent Geotextile (Filter) Fabric Cover Soil Observation Ports Drain Installations Section 11.0 Leach Trenches (LT) Definition Scope and Applicability Purpose and Function Specifications Sizing and Location Traditional Leach Trenches (LT) Shallow Trenches Drop Boxes Drop Boxes on Traditional LT Drop Boxes on Shallow LT Headline Pipe (Septic Tank/Pretreatment Unit to Drop Box) Headline Pipe (Drop Box to Drop Box) Header Pipe Dosed Leach Line Trenches (DLT) Section 12.0 Intermittent Sandfilter Definition Scope and Applicability Specifications General Lined Intermittent Sandfilters (LISF) Above Grade Intermittent Sandfilters (AISF) Liners Filter Box Layout and Excavation of UISF s and LISF s Installation of UISF s and LISF s Components Lined Filters Material Placement Underdrain and Vents Bottom Gravel Air Coil Sand Observation Ports Top Gravel and Laterals Filter Fabric Cover Soil ISF: Layout of AISF Preparation of the AISF Material Placement Underdrain, Drainage Trench and Drainpipe Adjust Level Sump Air Coil Sand Observation Ports Top Gravel and Laterals Filter Fabric Cover Soil Inspection Protocol Section 13.0 Aerobic Treatment Unit Definition Scope and Applicability Purpose and Function Design Criteria Installation and Location Materials and Specifications Section 14.0 Peat Biofilters Definition Section 15.0 Recirculating Media Filters Definition Scope and Applicability Purpose and Function Design Criteria Installation and Location Section 16.0 Septic Tank Effluent Drip Distribution Definition Section 17.0 System Start-Up and Checkout Procedure Start-Ups (installers) 17.2 Start-Up Documentation (installers) Checkout Documentation (service provider or third party) Measuring and adjusting Operating Head of Low Pressure Pipe Systems Flow Rate Required Design Dose Volume Dose Volume Programmable Timers Event Counters and Elapsed Time Meters Control Panels with Analog Timers Control Panels with Digital Timers As-Built Documentation Section 18.0 Mounds & Modified Mounds Use of Section A Inspection Protocol for Advanced Systems Mound Designations Basal Area Preparation Clearing Chisel Plowing Layout of Mound/Modified Mound Mound Layout Procedure on a Site with a Slope less than Four Percent Construction of Mound/Modified Mound Pressure Pipe Network Orifice and Orifice Shields Flushing Procedure Required Design Dose Volumes Operating Head (Squirt Height) Requirements Cover Specification Access Wells/Valve Boxes Observation Ports Observation Port Locations Mound(s) A, B, E, F, & G Mound H (Wisconsin Mound) Split / Segmented Mound Certification of Completion Documentation Drawing 19 As-Built Checklists References Dose Sheets 1 Section 1.0 Introduction 1.1 General Information The Household Sewage Treatment System (HSTS) is a vital part of a total wastewater infrastructure that supports the quality of life in communities. This infrastructure protects human health and the environment and maintains property values. The preservation of public health and the environment requires that every home in the county be provided with a system for treating wastewater produced by its occupants. Many residences are connected to public sanitary sewers. The balance of the residences are served by individual HSTS. Building this infrastructure needs to be the work of professionally minded people that are committed to quality work. The investment being made by the property owners in these systems requires that installers and vendors of equipment be committed to successful installations and trouble-free, long-term operation with routine service. A HSTS is only as good as its installation. This is true where very good soil conditions allow the use of totally passive treatment systems. It is also true where advanced treatment systems must compensate for marginal soil and site conditions. Assuring that installations result in competitively priced, trouble-free systems that are maintainable at reasonable costs is one of the greatest challenges that the onsite wastewater treatment industry faces. The industry cannot afford to leave the satisfaction of customers to chance. It is important to realize that this document will continue to be supplemented and revised on an annual basis or until it is replaced by a standard manual of installation practice for the onsite industry. Any alternative means or methods offered to achieve the objectives of this manual are subject to review by the Health District. 1.2 Purpose of Manual This manual has evolved out of the need to fill the gap that has existed between state of the art design practices and equipment, and the state of readiness of the practitioners in the field. This manual is designed to continue to bridge this gap to promote solidly grounded standards of good installation practices, to meet the need of uniform standards, and provide the mechanisms to assure and document quality work. The Health District has developed this manual to: Promote sound construction practices for conventional and advanced HSTS in general. Provide construction guidance for conventional and advanced HSTS designed specifically for local soils. 11 Build consensus and cooperation among those persons involved in: design, sale, installation, and inspection of onsite systems. Development and sale of property with onsite systems. Operation and maintenance of onsite systems. This manual is not intended to substitute for, or replace: Training and experience that qualifies a person in the procedures of HSTS installation. Training that certifies a person to install specific systems, or products. Professional qualifications and sound professional judgment of HSTS practitioners. The manual is formatted to promote the use of checklists and documentation by persons responsible for: Design, sale, installation and inspection of HSTS. Development and sale of property with HSTS. Operation and maintenance of HSTS. 1.3 Layout of Manual The layout of the manual is to give a simple reference and checklist type format, giving direct and short guidance on the requirements and suggestions regarding HSTS s within the County. This manual has consolidated information that was previously contained in a variety of other sources of information. It also provides combined guidance and requirements for HSTS that are classified as conventional technology and advanced technology. This document is broken down into sections. A listing and sequence of these sections is found in the table of contents. The sections are as follows: 1.0 Introduction 2.0 HSTS Installation Planning 3.0 Tanks 4.0 Aggregates and Cover 5.0 Piping 6.0 Finished Appearance 7.0 Drainage Enhancements 8.0 Electrical Systems 9.0 Disinfection and Monitoring Devices 10.0 Mounds/Modified Mounds/Other At-Grade Structures 11.0 Leaching Trenches 12.0 Intermittent Sandfilters 13.0 Aerobic Treatment Unit 14.0 Peat Biofilters 15.0 Recirculating Media Filters 16.0 Septic Tank Effluent Drip Distribution 17.0 System Checkout Procedures 12 18.0 Mounds and Modified Mounds 19.0 As-built Drawings 20.0 Checklists 21.0 References 22.0 Dose Sheets 23.0 Addendums Section 2.0, HSTS Installation Planning thru Section 17.0, System Checkout Procedures, contain the requirements and specifications for HSTS. Within each section, most items are presented in a manner that provides a simple, easy to follow format. The format allows one to use applicable sections of this document for planning and installation considerations. It must be understood that not all sections of this document are applicable for every given system. For example, piping has been assigned its own section, but the section does not include pipe specific to leach lines. 1.4 HSTS Types Included As stated previously, this manual was written as an inclusive document to provide a single source of information for the planning and installation of HSTS. Conventional and advanced technologies now appear within the same document. These two technologies, although classified and handled differently, do share similar requirements. For example, all have the same requirements for the building sewer. A simple rule of thumb for the distinction between conventional and advanced technology is the following: If a HSTS is time dosed, that is, it has a timer controlling dosing or other mechanism based on time, then it is advanced technology (This does not apply to demand dose applications). An effort was made to incorporate more information and guidance on HSTS s that are considered proprietary. Most are considered to be advanced technology, too. As time passes, these types of systems are becoming more prevalent throughout the onsite wastewater industry as it continues to grow. The following is a listing of different technologies covered in this document. They are listed based upon their typical consideration as conventional or advanced technology. It must be understood that the following listing is for systems as typically applied. It may be that there are instances when the above may be classified differently due to specific requirements for a given site. 13 Conventional Gravity Leach Trenches Wisconsin Mounds Demand Dosed Leach Trenches Advanced Technology Modified Mounds Peat Filters Recirculating Media Filters Drip Distribution Timed Dosed Aerobic Systems Table 1-1 Conventional and Advanced Technology Classification (Clermont County) 1.5 HSTS Component Application(s) A variety of components are offered by the onsite industry for use in HSTS. For any of these components, the component must be approved by the component manufacturer for installation and operation in the situation which they will be used. Additionally, these components must be pre-approved by the Health District for use in the county, and be installed following Health District approved manufacturer specifications. 14 2 Section 2.0 HSTS Installation Planning 2.1 General Planning the construction of a HSTS is a critical part of the overall HSTS installation process. Proper planning works to the benefit of all the involved parties. It reduces the potential for errors that require changes that cost time and money. It also provides a means by which special considerations for a particular installation may be thought out before fieldwork. 2.2 Critical Elements of Job Planning and Execution The following items are critical for a successful installation: Positive mental attitude. Commitment to quality work. Safe job site and safe construction practices. OSHA guidelines for trenching and shoring followed. Communication among involved parties. Understanding the plan. Knowledge of job specifications. Layout survey and notes. Maintaining horizontal and vertical job control. Stability of components. Watertight tanks and components. Usage of specified components & aggregates. Good solvent welds on every glued connection. Protecting components from surface and groundwater inflows. Freeze protection of pipes. Mechanical protection of pipes. Components installed per product specifications. Components are accessible and serviceable. Electrical system wired to specifications. Electrical system protected from moisture. Controls set properly. As-built documentation. System check-out & start-up documentation. Homeowner maintenance contracts. Walk-thru inspection within 60 to 90 days after the system is put into service. Good vegetative cover. Attractive finished appearance. Regular service and maintenance. 15 2.3 Job Planning Job planning is the process by which the installer assesses the requirements for completion of a job for a designed HSTS. It includes all the activities considered before beginning site activities. These activities may include, but are not limited to, construction equipment scheduling, personnel scheduling (e.g. - electrician), material procurement/staging (e.g. - pump(s), aggregates, pipe, tanks, etc.), system construction layout, site activities necessary to achieve completion and documentation Site and Plan Review A site plan and review consists of studying the proposed HSTS layout with respect to the actual site conditions. Homeowner and/or person(s) responsible for overall site protection conferred with. Accuracy of site plan with respect to structures and features confirmed. Sources of water from the house, such as down spouts, foundation drain outlets, etc., reviewed and verification of discharge away from the HSTS confirmed. HSTS components, including control panel (if applicable), location(s) reviewed. Confirmation that all wastewater is connected to the building sewer Wet Weather Planning During the initial planning of a HSTS installation, thought must be given to the potential of wet weather and the impacts wet weather may have on the performance of the finished product and installation schedule. Certain aspects of HSTS installation, especially basal area preparation and leach line installation are extremely sensitive to wet weather installation. The sensitivity is based on the soil moisture content and the resulting response of the soil due to activities such as plowing, excavating, or equipment traffic. Construction activities, such as plowing and excavation, in wet weather can result in conditions that restrict the infiltration of wastewater into the soil. To say another way, the HSTS has little or no chance of working if installed when the soil is plastic. In fact, the soil conditions may be unacceptable and require a new location on the site, so that natural and uncompromised soil conditions can be relied upon for infiltration. In addition, leach trenches are susceptible to siltation from unmanaged run-off during extended rain events. It is therefore, very important that an installer considers the potential effects that a wet weather episode may have on a particular installation. The overall planning for the project should contain provisions and/or contingencies for such weather. Some activities 16 that can aid an installer with wet weather are covering a soil absorption area with plastic/tarps or ensuring an adequate quantity of sand for placement on the basal area after approval is given for plowing activities, prior to the rain event. The following must be done: Guidance given in Section 2.4 is used. Weather forecast checked for time period of planned weather sensitive activities. For mounded HSTS, aggregate available at the site for immediate placement upon Health District approval. The following are recommended: Provisions taken to reduce impacts of rain event on weather sensitive activities; for example, covering soil absorption areas. Wet soils allowed to dry before stockpiling. If wet soil is stockpiled, it will not dry in a stockpile. Stockpiles graded to shed water. Any soil stockpiles covered to maintain them at workable moisture contents. Systems are covered immed
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