200801cantatas | Bach Cantata | Johann Sebastian Bach

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Reprints from the International Trumpet Guild Journal ® to promote communications among trumpet players around the world and to improve the artistic level of performance, teaching, and literature associated with the trumpet BACH CANTATA TRUMPET PARTS: A COMPENDIUM
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  Reprints from the  to promote communications among trumpet players around the world and to improve the artistic level of performance, teaching,and literature associated with the trumpet  International Trumpet Guild  ®   Journal The International Trumpet Guild ® (ITG) is the copyright owner of all data contained in this file.  ITGgives the individual end-user the right to: ã Download and retain an electronic copy of this file on a single workstation that you ownã Transmit an unaltered copy of this file to any single individual end-user, so long as no fee, whetherdirect or indirect is chargedã Print a single copy of pages of this fileã Quote fair use passages of this file in not-for-profit research papers as long as the ITGJ, date, and pagenumber are cited as the source.  The InternationalTrumpet Guild ® prohibits the following without prior written permission: ã Duplication or distribution of this file, the data contained herein, or printed copies made from thisfile for profit or for a charge, whether direct or indirectã Transmission of this file or the data contained herein to more than one individual end-userã Distribution of this file or the data contained herein in any form to more than one end user (as inthe form of a chain letter)ã Printing or distribution of more than a single copy of the pages of this fileã Alteration of this file or the data contained hereinã Placement of this file on any web site, server, or any other database or device that allows for theaccessing or copying of this file or the data contained herein by any third party, including such a device intended to be used wholly within an institution. http://www.trumpetguild.orgPlease retain this cover sheet with printed document. B ACH  C ANTATA T RUMPET  P ARTS :A C OMPENDIUM B Y  E LISA  K OEHLER  January 2008 ã Page 17  cantatas (62) are sacred while only eight are secular cantatas(designated as “Dramma per Musica.”). On average, trumpetsparticipate primarily in the outer movements of cantatas (espe-cially opening choruses and closing chorales), and occasionally accompany solo arias and other choral movements.The relationship between Bach’scantatas and his larger sacred choral works is a very close one. It is no exag-geration to point out that the  Christ-mas Oratorio  (BWV 248) is basically a group of six cantatas. The  Easter Ora-torio  (BWV 249) is an extended cantata, and the  AscensionOratorio  (BWV 11) is a cantata of more standard length. It isalso interesting to note that many sections of the  B Minor Mass  first appeared in earlier cantatas. The movements that concerntrumpeters are listed below (see Fig. 1).It is beyond the scope of this article to engage in detailedanalyses of individual works, but because scholarly interest inBach’s cantatas has increased markedly in the past ten years, a  wealth of good information is available. 7 Several excellentrecordings of the complete (or nearly complete) cantata repertoire have beenproduced by conductorsTon Koopmanand John Eliot Gardiner with periodinstruments and by Helmuth Rilling employing modern instruments. Infor-mation on most available cantata recordings along with an enormousdeposit of cantata information is available at the formidableBach Cantatas web site (http://www.bach-cantatas.com) main-tained by Aryeh Oron. 8 The definitive resource in print is   hile most trumpeters are familiar with the floridobbligato trumpet solos in the cantata, “  Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen,”   (BWV 51) by Johann Seb-astian Bach (1685 – 1750), many of the composer’s other cantatas also fea-ture important passages for solo trum-pet. Unlike his purely instrumental works such as the  Second Brandenburg Concerto  (BWV 1047), orchestralsuites (BWV 1068 & 1069), andlarge-scale choral works such as the B Minor Mass   (BWV 232) and the Christmas Oratorio  (BWV 248), Bach’s cantatas require moreinterpretive preparation from trumpeters. 1 The cantatas areclosely tied to their srcinal period and are scored for a variety of instruments, some of which, like the  tromba da tirarsi  , aresomewhat obscure. 2 Issues of srcinal instrumentation, mod-ern substitutes, and liturgical context continually haunt the21st century trumpeter performing Bach cantatas.The entire Bach repertoire for trumpet was published in1971 by Musica Rara in three volumes edited by Ludwig Güt-tler and new editions are forthcoming from Carus Verlag edit-ed by Edward Tarr and Uwe Wolf. 3  With these resources inhand, trumpeters have access to the entire cantata repertoire. Approaching the Bach repertoire is a forbidding task. Thescholarly literature is vast and complex, and simple guides arehard to find. 4 The familiar warning from Dante’s  Inferno  loomslarge: “Abandon every hope, all you who enter here.” 5  Yet theauthor, like Virgil, hopes to light the path to selected resourcesthat trumpeters may consult to sort through the confusion. While making no pretensions to mastery of the Bach literature,this article aims to consolidate information regarding Bach’slesser known masterpieces that involve challenging and stimu-lating music for the trumpet. Cantata Basics Historical sources reveal that J.S. Bach composed an annualcycle of church cantatas for five complete liturgical years(approximately 59 cantatas per year); however, only three of these cycles survive more or less intact. Over twenty percent of the sacred cantatas have beenlost along with an even largerpercentage of the secular can-tatas. 6 Of the 70 surviving can-tatas that include trumpetparts, 21 feature major soloobbligato trumpet parts in aria movements. There are cantatasthat include a festive orchestra with three trumpets (sometimestwo or four) and timpani, as well as those scored for a singletrumpet with reduced forces (see Fig. 2).The majority of these B ACH  C ANTATA T RUMPET  P ARTS :A C OMPENDIUM B Y  E LISA  K OEHLER  © 2008 International Trumpet Guild  January 2008 / ITG Journal   17 This article was reviewed and approved for publication by the ITG Editorial Committee. Bach cantata movements that feature music later incorpo-rated into the  B Minor Mass  BWV 29 Mvt. 2 Source of   Dona Nobis Pacem BWV 46 Mvt. 1 Source of “Qui Tollis” from  Gloria  BWV 120 Mvt. 2 Source of “Et expectoresurrectionem” from  Credo BWV 171 Mvt. 1 Source of opening solo from  Credo BWV 191 Mvt. 1 Source of “Gloria” and “Et in terra pax” from  Gloria  BWV 191 Mvt. 3 Source of “Cum Sancto Spiritu”from  Gloria  BWV 215 Mvt. 1 Source of   Osanna in excelsis  F IGURE  1 “…an enormous deposit of cantatainformation is available at the for-midable Bach Cantatas web site(http://www.bach-cantatas.com)…”“Historical sources reveal that J.S. Bach composed an annualcycle of church cantatas for fivecomplete liturgical years…”  Cantatas by J. S. Bach that include trumpet parts BWV Title Number Key Difficulty* Solo Aria of of Trumpets Trumpets 5 Wo soll ich fliehen hin 1 C, B   High Yes10 Meine Seel erhebt den Herren 1 C Low No11 Lobet Gott in seinen Reichen [Ascension Oratorio] 3 D Medium No12 Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen 1 C Medium No15 Denn du wirst meine Seele nicht in der Hölle lassen 3 C Medium No19 Es erhub sich ein Streit 3 C Medium No20 O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort 1 C High Yes21 Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis 3 C Medium No24 Ein ungefärbt Gemüte 1 C High No29 Wir danken dir, Gott, wir danken dir 3 D Medium No30 Freue dich, erlöste Schar 3 D Medium No31 Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret 3 C High No34 O ewiges Feuer, o Ursprung der Liebe 3 D Medium No41 Jesu, nun sei gepreiset 3 C Medium No43 Gott fähret auf mit Jauchzen 3 C High Yes46 Schauet doch und sehet 1 C, B   High Yes48 Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich erlösen 1 C Low No50 Nun ist das Heil und die Kraft 3 D Medium No51 Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen 1 C High Yes59 Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten 2 C Medium No60 O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort 1 D Low Yes63 Christen, ätzet diesen Tag 4 C Medium No66 Erfreut euch, ihr Herzen 1 D High No67 Halt im Gedächtnis Jesum Christ 1 A, C Medium No69 Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele 3 D Medium No70 Wachet! betet! betet! wachet! 1 C High No71 Gott ist mein König 3 C Medium No74 Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten 3 C Medium No75 Die Elenden sollen essen 1 G, C High Yes76 Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes 1 C High Yes77 Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, lieben 1 C High Yes80 Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott 3 D High No90 Es reißet euch ein schrecklich Ende 1 B   High Yes103 Ihr werdet weinen und heulen 1 D, C High Yes105 Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht 1 C High Yes109 Ich glaube, lieber Herr, hilf meinem Unglauben 1 C High No110 Unser Mund sei voll Lachens 1 D High Yes119 Preise, Jerusalem, den Herrn 4 C High No120 Gott, man lobet dich in der Stille 3 D Medium No124 Meinen Jesum laß ich nicht 1 C Low No126 Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort 1 D High No127 Herr Jesu Christ, wahr’ Mensch und Gott 1 C High Yes128 Auf Christi Himmelfahrt allein 1 D High Yes129 Gelobet sei der Herr, mein Gott 3 D Medium No130 Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir 3 C High No137 Lobe den Herren, den mächtigen König der Ehren 3 C Medium No145 Ich lebe, mein Herze, zu deinem Ergötzen 1 D Medium Yes147 Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben 1 C High Yes148 Bringet dem Herrn Ehre seines Namens 1 D Medium No149 Man singet mit Freuden vom Sieg 3 D, C Medium No162 Ach, ich sehe, itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe 1 C Medium Yes F IGURE  2  © 2008 International Trumpet Guild 18  ITG Journal / January 2008   The most famous trumpeter associated with the music of J.S. Bach, Gottfried Reiche (1667 – 1734), was also renownedfor his versatility. Not only is he pictured with a coiled  Jäger-trompete  13 in the famous portrait by Haussmann, but he alsoplayed the violin, the Waldhorn, and alto trombone in addi-tion to the trumpet and the slide trumpet. 14 Ironically, playing a difficult Bach cantata part may have contributed to Reiche’sdeath. He collapsed at the age of 67 from a stroke on the way home after an outdoor performance of BWV 215 on October5, 1734, and died the next day. 15  Although Reiche was laudedfor his command of the high clarino register, he was alsoknown for his dexterous mastery of the slide trumpet. The Special Case of the  Tromba da Tirarsi   While only six of Bach’s cantatas call for the slide trumpet by name (BWV 5, 20, 46, 67, 77, 162), some scholars believe thata large number of cantata movements (especially choralemovements) were intended for the instrument where it was notspecifically named. 16  Where it is named, Bach consistently usesthe Italian,  tromba da tirarsi  , with the exception of BWV 67and 162, which call for  Corno da tirarsi  . The German equiva-lent is  Zugtrompete  , and the English often referred to a some- what different form of the instrument as the “flatt [sic] trum-pet.” 17 The slide in question concerns an extended leadpipe,not a separate U-shaped slide like the trombone (see Fig. 3).The slide trumpet was capable of playing non-harmonictones in the lower octave of the trumpet’s range, especially between middle C and the C above. As musicologist ThomasMacCracken has pointed out, a large number of unspecifiedtrumpet parts may have been played by the slide trumpet. 18 Specifically, there are 26 movements (mostly chorale melodies)that fit this description. Even the famous chorale melody for“Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring” (BWV 147, Mvt. 6) may havebeen performed on a   tromba da tirarsi   at its premiere on July  Alfred Dürr’s magisterial tome,  The Cantatas of J. S. Bach .Long available only in German, Dürr’s important work waspublished in 2005 by Oxford University Press in English trans-lation. 9 Those desiring more information on the life of JohannSebastian Bach should turn to Christoph Wolff’s authoritativebiography. 10 Instrument Designations By and large, most of the trumpet parts in Bach’s cantatas arelabeled,  Tromba  , and were intended to be performed on thefamiliar valveless natural trumpet. Only rarely did he refer tothe instruments as  Clarino  or  Principale  . 12 Bach usually wrotefor trumpets pitched in C before assuming the position asThomaskantor in Leipzig in 1723. Thereafter, most of histrumpet parts are pitched in D. Bach writes for a trumpet inB-flat only in three solo obbligato arias (BWV 5, 46, and 90).Other instruments related to the trumpet also appear in thecantatas such as the slide trumpet ( tromba da tirarsi  , see Fig. 3below), and the horn ( corno ). Occasionally, the instrumentaldesignation allows the player a variety of options. In BWV 66,for example, the trumpet part is marked, “Tromba in D ( una tromba se piace  )” [a trumpet of your pleasure]. The opening chorus and closing chorale of BWV 46 are scored for “Trom-ba in C ( Corno da tirarsi  )” as are most of the movements of BWV 67 and 162. A few cantatas show that the trumpet andhorn were viewed to be interchangeable. BWV 105 is scoredfor “Tromba in C ( Corno )” as is the first movement of BWV 60 (forTromba in D). A further anomaly appears in BWV 109 where the part reads, “Tromba in C ( Corne du Chasse  ).” Andforget the horns; BWV 185 and BWV 12 designate that thepart for “Tromba in C” (which largely doubles choralemelodies) could also be played by an oboe. All of this evidencesuggests that Bach’s instrumental forces were flexible anddependent on available players and instruments. BWV Title Number Key Difficulty* Solo Aria of of Trumpets Trumpets 167 Ihr Menschen, rühmet Gottes Liebe 1 C Low No171 Gott, wie dein Name, so ist auch dein Ruhm 3 D High No172 Erschallet ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten 3 D or C High Yes175 Er rufet seinen Schafen mit Namen 2 D High Yes181 Leichtgesinnte Flattergeister 1 D High No185 Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe 1 C Low Yes190 Singet dem Herr ein neues Lied 11 3 D Medium No191 Gloria in excelsis Deo 3 D High No195 Dem Gerechten muß das Licht 3 D High No197 Gott ist unsre Zuversicht 3 D Medium No201 Der Streit zwischen Phoebus und Pan (Dramma per Musica) 3 D High No205 Der zufriedengestellte Aeolus (Dramma per Musica) 3 D High No206 Schleicht, spielende Wellen (Dramma per Musica) 3 D High No207 Vereinigte Zwieitracht der wechselnden Saiten (Dramma per Musica) 3 D Medium No207a Auf, schmetternde Töne (Dramma per Musica) 3 D Medium No214 Tönet , ihr Pauken! Erschallet, Trompeten (Dramma per Musica) 3 D Medium No215 Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen (Dramma per Musica) 3 D High No217 Entfliehet, verschwindet, entweichet, ihr Sorgen 3 D Medium No* The level of difficulty is determined by the following criteria: extended solo passages, technical demands, range andendurance considerations, and flexibility. High range, by itself, is common in Bach’s trumpet writing and is therefore not of primary concern when assessing an overall level of difficulty, in the author’s opinion.  January 2008 / ITG Journal   19  © 2008 International Trumpet Guild
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