2. State Prosecutors vs. Muro

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  CASE: STATE PROSECUTORS VS. MURO  A.M. No. RTJ-92-876236 SCRA 50519 September 1994 “The doctrine of judicial notice rests on the wisdom and discretion of the courts. The power to take judicial notice is to be exercised by the courts with caution; care must betaken that the requisite notoriety exists ; and reasonable doubt on the subject should be resolved in the negative”  FACTS: The state prose!tors ho are members o# the $%J &a'e( o# &rose!t)o' #)(e* aomp(a)'t a+a)'st respo'*e't J!*+e M!ro o' the +ro!'* o# )+'ora'e o# the (a , +raem)so'*!t a'* )o(at)o' o# the pro)s)o's )' the Co*e o# J!*))a( Co'*!t. The ase atbar )'o(es the prose!t)o' o# the 11 har+es a+a)'st me(*a Maros )' )o(at)o' o# theCe'tra( /a' ore)+' ha'+e Restr)t)o' )' the Ce'tra( /a' C)r!(ar 960. Therespo'*e't !*+e *)sm)sse* a(( 11 ases so(e( o' the bas)s o# the report p!b()she* #romthe 2 'e spapers, h)h the !*+e be()ees to be rep!tab(e a'* o# 'at)o'a( )r!(at)o',that the &res. o# the &h)()pp)'es ()#te* a(( #ore)+' eha'+e restr)t)o's. The respo'*e'ts*e)s)o' as #o!'*e* o' h)s be()e# that the reporte* a''o!'eme't o# the e!t)e$epartme't )' the 'e spaper )' e##et repea(e* the C/ 960 a'* thereb *)este* theo!rt o# )ts !r)s*)t)o' to #!rther hear the pe'*)'+ ase th!s mot! prop)o *)sm)sse* thease. e #!rther o'te'*s that the a''o!'eme't o# the &res)*e't as p!b()she* )' the'e spaper has ma*e s!h #at a p!b() 'o (e*+e that )s s!##))e't #or the !*+e to tae !*))a( 'ot)e h)h )s *)sret)o'ar o' h)s part.The omp(a)'a'ts o'te'* that the respo'*e't !*+e erre* )' ta)'+ !*))a('ot)e o' matters he p!rporte* to be a p!b() 'o (e*+e base* mere( o' the ao!'to# the 'e spaper p!b()at)o' that the &res. has ()#te* the #ore)+' eha'+e restr)t)o'. t as a(so a' at o# )'e!sab(e )+'ora't o# the (a 'ot to aor* *!e proess to theprose!tors ho ere a(rea* at the sta+e o# prese't)'+ e)*e'e thereb *epr))'+ the+oer'me't the r)+ht to be hear*. The !*+e a(so eer)se* +rae ab!se o# *)sret)o' bta)'+ !*))a( 'ot)e o' the p!b()she* stateme't o# the &res. ' the 'e spaper h)h )sa matter that has 'ot et bee' o##))a(( )' #ore a'* e##et o# the (a . ISSUE: hether or 'ot the respo'*e't !*+e omm)tte* +rae ab!se o# *)sret)o' )'ta)'+ !*))a( 'ot)e o' the stateme't o# the pres)*e't ()#t)'+ the #ore)+' eha'+erestr)t)o' p!b()she* )' the 'e spaper as bas)s #or *)sm)ss)'+ the ase HELD: The S!preme Co!rt he(* the respo'*e't !*+e +!)(t #or +ross )+'ora'e o# the(a . t a''ot omprehe'* h)s assert)o' that there )s 'o 'ee* to a)t #or the p!b()at)o'o# the )r!(ar 'o. 1353 h)h )s the bas)s o# the &res)*e'ts a''o!'eme't )' the'e spaper, be()e)'+ that the p!b() a''o!'eme't )s abso(!te a'* )tho!t :!a()#)at)o'a'* )s )mme*)ate( e##et)e a'* s!h matter beomes a p!b() 'o (e*+e h)h he a'tae a !*))a( 'ot)e !po' )' h)s *)sret)o'. t )s a ma'*ator re:!)reme't that a 'e (a sho!(* be p!b()she* #or 15 *as )' a 'e spaper o# +e'era( )r!(at)o' be#ore )tse##et))t. he' the &res)*e'ts stateme't as p!b()she* )' the 'e spaper, therespo'*e't a*m)tte* o# 'ot ha)'+ see' the o##))a( tet o# C/ )r!(ar 1353 th!s )t aspremat!re #or h)m to tae !*))a( 'ot)e o' th)s matter h)h )s mere( base* o' h)sperso'a( 'o (e*+e a'* )s 'ot base* o' the p!b() 'o (e*+e that the (a re:!)res #or the o!rt to tae !*))a( 'ot)e o#. or the o!rt to tae !*))a( 'ot)e, three mater)a( re:!)s)tes sho!(* be prese't;<1= the matter m!st be o'e o# ommo' a'* +e'era( 'o (e*+e> <2= )t m!st be e(( a'* a!thor)tat)e( sett(e* a'* 'ot *o!bt#!( or !'erta)'>  <3= )t m!st be 'o ' to be )th)' the ()m)ts o# the !r)s*)t)o' o# the o!rt. The #at that sho!(* be ass!me* as !*))a(( 'o ' m!st be o' s!h 'otor)etthat s!h #at a''ot be *)sp!te*. J!*))a( 'ot)e )s 'ot !*))a( 'o (e*+e here theperso'a( 'o (e*+e o# the !*+e *oes 'ot amo!'t to the !*))a( 'ot)e o# the o!rt. Theommo' 'o (e*+e o'temp(ate* b the (a here the o!rt a' tae !*))a( 'ot)em!st ome #rom the 'o (e*+e o# me' +e'era(( )' the o!rse o# or*)'ar eper)e'esthat are aepte* as tr!e a'* o'e that )'o(es !':!est)o'e* *emo'strat)o'. The o!rtr!(e* that the )'#ormat)o' he obta)'e* #rom the 'e spaper )s o'e o# hearsa e)*e'e.The !*+e erre* )' ta)'+ o+')?a't o# a (a that as 'ot et )' #ore a'* or*ere* the*)sm)ssa( o# the ase )tho!t +))'+ the prose!t)o' the r)+ht to be hear* a'* o# *!eproess. The o!rt or*ere* #or the *)sm)ssa( o# the !*+e #rom ser)e #or +ross)+'ora'e o# the (a a'* +rae ab!se o# *)sret)o' #or *)sm)ss)'+ the ase mot! propr)oa'* #or err)'+ )' eer)s)'+ h)s *)sret)o' to tae !*))a( 'ot)e o' matters that arehearsa a'* +ro!'*(ess )th a rem)'*er the po er to tae !*))a( 'ot)e )s to beeer)se* b the o!rts )th a!t)o' at a(( t)mes.  Rep!b() o# the &h)()pp)'es SUPREME COURT Ma')(aN /ANC  A.M. No. RTJ-92-876 Septe!e #9$ #99%STATE PROSECUTORS$ omp(a)'a'ts, s. JUD&E MANUEL T. MURO$ Re'(o)*+ T (*+ Co, t$  *)/ 0%$ M*)(+*$ respo'*e't.  PER CURIAM: ' assa)'+ the re:!)s)te 'orms #or :!a()#)at)o's a'* em)'e'e o# a ma+)strate, (e+a( a!thor)t)es p(ae a prem)!m o' ho he has omp()e* )th h)s o't)'!)'+ *!t to 'o the (a . A :!a()t th!s o's)*ere* esse't)a( to the !*))a( harater )s that o# @a ma' o# (ear')'+ ho spe'*s t)re(ess( the ear ho!rs a#ter m)*')+ht a:!a)'t)'+ h)mse(# )th the +reat bo* o# tra*)t)o's a'* the (ear')'+ o# the (a > )s pro#o!'*( (ear'e* )' a(( the (ear')'+ o# the (a > a'* 'o s ho to !se that (ear')'+.@ # %b)o!s(, )t )s the pr)mar *!t o# a !*+e, h)h he o es to the p!b() a'* to the (e+a( pro#ess)o', to 'o the er (a he )s s!ppose* to app( to a +)e' o'troers. e )s a((e* !po' to eh)b)t more tha' !st a !rsor a:!a)'ta'e )th the stat!tes a'* proe*!ra( r!(es. &art ()t)+a'ts )(( hae+reat #a)th )' the a*m)')strat)o' o# !st)e )# !*+es a''ot !st( be a!se* o# appare't *e#))e' )' the)r +rasp o# the (e+a( pr)')p(es. or, ser)e )' the !*))ar mea's a o't)'!o!s st!* a'* researh o' the (a #rom be+)'')'+ to e'*. 2 ' a (etter-omp(a)'t 1   *ate* A!+!st 19, 1992, respo'*e't J!*+e Ma'!e( T. M!ro o# the Re+)o'a( Tr)a( Co!rt <RTC= o# Ma')(a, /ra'h 54, as har+e* b State &rose!tors N)(o C. Mar)a'o, eor+e C. $ee a'* &ater'o B. Ta-a' )th )+'ora'e o# the (a , +rae m)so'*!t a'* )o(at)o's o# R!(es 2.01, 3.01 a'* 3.02 o# the Co*e o# J!*))a( Co'*!t, omm)tte* as #o((o s; 1. That o' A!+!st 13, 1992, respo'*e't !*+e )ss!e* a' %r*er *)sm)ss)'+ e(ee' <11= ases <*oete* as Cr)m. Cases Nos. 92-101959 to 92- 101969, )'(!s)e= #)(e* b the !'*ers)+'e* omp(a)'a't prose!tors <members o# the $%J &a'e( o# &rose!tors= a+a)'st the a!se* Mrs. me(*a Rom!a(*e? Maros, #or B)o(at)o' o# Ce'tra( /a' ore)+' ha'+e Restr)t)o's, as o'so()*ate* )' C/ C)r!(ar No. 960,)' re(at)o' to the pe'a( pro)s)o's o# Se. 34 o# R.A. 265, as ame'*e*, . . .>2. That respo'*e't J!*+e )ss!e* h)s %r*er so(e( o' the bas)s o# 'e spaper reports <A!+!st 11, 1992 )ss!es o# the &h)()pp)'e $a)( ':!)rer a'* the $a)( (obe= o'er')'+ the a''o!'eme't o' A!+!st 10, 1992 b the &res)*e't o# the &h)()pp)'es o# the ()#t)'+ b the +oer'me't o# a(( #ore)+' eha'+e restr)t)o's a'* the arr)a( at s!h *e)s)o' b the Mo'etar /oar* as per stateme't o# Ce'tra( /a' oer'or Jose C!)s)a>3. That (a)m)'+ that the reporte* a''o!'eme't o# the e!t)e $epartme't o' the()#t)'+ o# #ore)+' eha'+e restr)t)o's b t o 'e spapers h)h are rep!tab(e a'* o# 'at)o'a( )r!(at)o' ha* the e##et o# repea()'+ Ce'tra( /a' C)r!(ar No. 960, as a((e+e*( s!pporte* b S!preme Co!rt *e)s)o's . . ., the Co!rt o'te'*e* that )t as*epr)e* o# !r)s*)t)o', a'*, there#ore, mot!, prop<r=)o ha* to *)sm)ss a(( the e(ee' ases a#oreme't)o'e* @#or 'ot to *o so ope's th)s Co!rt to har+es o# tr)'+ ases oer h)h )t has 'o more !r)s*)t)o'>@  4. That )' *)sm)ss)'+ a#ore)te* ases o' A!+!st 13, 1992 o' the bas)s o# a Ce'tra( /a' C)r!(ar or Mo'etar /oar* Reso(!t)o' h)h as o# *ate hereo#, has 'ot ee' bee' o##))a(( )ss!e*, a'* bas)'+ h)s %r*er*e)s)o' o' a mere 'e spaper ao!'t o# the a*a'e a''o!'eme't ma*e b the &res)*e't o# the sa)* #at o# ()#t)'+ or ()bera()?)'+ #ore)+' eha'+e o'tro(s, respo'*e't !*+e ate* premat!re( a'* )' )'*ee't haste, as he ha* 'o a o# *eterm)')'+ the #!(( )'te't o# the 'e C/ C)r!(ar or Mo'etar /oar* reso(!t)o', a'* hether the same pro)*e* #or eept)o',as )' the ase o# perso's ho ha* pe'*)'+ r)m)'a( ases be#ore the o!rts #or )o(at)o's o# Ce'tra( /a' C)r!(ars a'*or re+!(at)o's pre)o!s( )ss!e* o' the matter>5. That respo'*e't J!*+eDs arro+a't a'* aa()er post!re )' ta)'+ !*))a( 'ot)e p!rporte*( as a matter o# p!b() 'o (e*+e a mere 'e spaper ao!'t that the &res)*e't ha* a''o!'e* the ()#t)'+ o# #ore)+' eha'+e restr)t)o's as bas)s #or h)s assa)(e* or*er o# *)sm)ssa( )s h)+h( )rre+!(ar, erro'eo!s a'* m)sp(ae*. or the respo'*e't !*+e to tae !*))a( 'ot)e thereo# ee' be#ore )t )s o##))a(( re(ease* b the Ce'tra( /a' a'* )ts #!(( tet p!b()she* as re:!)re* b (a to be e##et)e sho s h)s pre)p)tate at)o' )' !tter *)sre+ar* o# the #!'*ame'ta( preept o# *!e proess h)h the &eop(e )s a(so e't)t(e* to a'* eposes h)s +ross )+'ora'e o# the (a , thereb tar')sh)'+ p!b() o'#)*e'e )' the )'te+r)t o# the !*))ar. o a' the o'orab(e J!*+e tae !*))a( 'ot)e o# someth)'+ h)h has 'ot et ome )'to #ore a'* the o'te'ts, shape a'* te'or o# h)h hae 'ot et bee' p!b()she* a'* aserta)'e* to be the bas)s o# !*))a( at)o' The o'orab(e J!*+e ha* m)serab( #a)(e* to @e'*eaor *)()+e't( to aserta)' the #ats@ )' the ase at bar o'trar to R!(e3.02 o# the Co*e o# J!*))a( Co'*!t o'st)t!t)'+ rae M)so'*!t>6. That respo'*e't J!*+e *)* 'ot ee' ha<e= the pr!*e'e o# re:!)r)'+ #)rst the omme't o# the prose!t)o' o' the e##et o# a#oresa)* Ce'tra( /a' C)r!(arMo'etar /oar* reso(!t)o' o' the pe'*)'+ ases be#ore *)sm)ss)'+ the same, thereb *e')'+ the oer'me't o# )ts r)+ht to *!e proess>7. That the ()+ht')'+ spee* )th h)h respo'*e't J!*+e ate* to *)sm)ss the ases ma be +(ea'e* #rom the #at that s!h pre)p)tate at)o' as !'*ertae' *esp)te a(rea* she*!(e* o't)'!at)o' o# tr)a( *ates set )' the or*er o# the o!rt <the prose!t)o' ha)'+ starte* prese't)'+ )ts e)*e'e . . .= *ate* A!+!st 11, 1992 to )t;  A!+!st 31, September 3, 10, 21, E 23 a'* %tober 1, 1992, a(( at 9;30 oD(o )' the mor')'+, )' bra?e' *)sre+ar* o# a(( 'ot)o's o# #a)r p(a, thereb *epr))'+ the oer'me't o# )ts r)+ht to be hear*, a'* (ear( epos)'+ h)s b)as a'* part)a()t> a'*8. That, )' #at, the mot)e o# respo'*e't J!*+e )' *)sm)ss)'+ the ase )tho!t ee' a)t)'+ #or a mot)o' to :!ash #)(e* b the o!'se( #or a!se* has ee' p(ae* h)s *)sm)ssa( %r*er s!spet.&!rs!a't to a reso(!t)o' o# th)s Co!rt *ate* September 8, 1992, respo'*e't !*+e #)(e* h)s omme't, %   o'te'*)'+, inter alia , that there as 'o 'ee* to a a)t p!b()at)o' o# the Ce'tra( /a' <C/= )r!(ar repea()'+ the e)st)'+ (a o' #ore)+' eha'+e o'tro(s #or the s)mp(e reaso' that the p!b() a''o!'eme't ma*e b the &res)*e't )' seera( 'e spapers o# +e'era( )r!(at)o' ()#t)'+ #ore)+' eha'+e o'tro(s as tota(, abso(!te, )tho!t :!a()#)at)o', a'* as )mme*)ate( e##et)e> that ha)'+ ate* o'( o' the bas)s o# s!h a''o!'eme't, he a''ot be b(ame* #or re()'+ o' the erro'eo!s stateme't o# the &res)*e't that the 'e #ore)+' eha'+e r!(es re'*ere* moot a'* aa*em) the ases #)(e* a+a)'st Mrs. Maros, a'* h)h as orrete* o'( o' A!+!st 17, 1992 b!t p!b()she* )' the 'e spapers o' A!+!st 18, 1992, a'* o'( a#ter respo'*e't !*+e ha* )ss!e* h)s or*er o# *)sm)ssa( *ate*  A!+!st 13, 1992> that the &res)*e't as )((-a*)se* b h)s a*)sers a'*, )'stea* o# res!)'+ the Ch)e# e!t)e #rom embarrassme't b ass!m)'+ respo's)b)()t #or errors )' the (atterDs a''o!'eme't, the hose to toss the b(ame #or the o'se:!e'e o# the)r #a)(!res to respo'*e't !*+e ho mere( ate* o' the bas)s o# the a''o!'eme'ts o# the &res)*e't h)h ha* beome o# p!b() 'o (e*+e> that the @sa)'+(a!se@ !'*er C/ C)r!(ar No. 1353 spe)#)a(( re#ers o'( to pe'*)'+ at)o's or )'est)+at)o's )'o()'+
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