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Department Energy and Water Supply 7year science For the Australian Curriculum Great state. Great opportunity. State of Queensland, The Queensland Government supports and encourages the dissemination
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Department Energy and Water Supply 7year science For the Australian Curriculum Great state. Great opportunity. State of Queensland, The Queensland Government supports and encourages the dissemination and exchange of its information. The copyright in this publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia (CC BY) licence. Under this licence you are free, without having to seek our permission, to use this publication in accordance with the licence terms. You must keep intact the copyright notice and attribute the State of Queensland as the source of the publication. For more information on this licence, visit The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The Queensland Government shall not be liable for technical or other errors or omissions contained herein. The reader/user accepts all risks and responsibility for losses, damages, costs and other consequences resulting directly or indirectly from using this information. First published January 2012 Reprint November 2013 CS2868 Contents Introduction... 1 Australian Curriculum links for this unit...2 Science Understanding...2 Science as a Human Endeavour...2 Science Inquiry Skills...2 Achievement Standard Year Links to other learning areas... 3 Assessment... 3 Cross-curriculum priority: Sustainability... 3 Cross-curriculum priority: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures..4 Linking locally...4 Unit overview: Part 1 Water journeys... 5 Teaching and learning sequence... 7 Engage (one session)... 7 Explore (three or four sessions)...8 Explain (two or three sessions) Elaborate (two or three sessions) Evaluate (two sessions) Unit overview: Part 2 Pure water...15 Teaching and learning sequence Engage (one session) Explore A (four sessions) Explain A (one session) Explore B (one session) Explain B (two sessions) Elaborate (two sessions)...20 Evaluate (two sessions) Resource 1: Analysing a media article Resource 2: Where did the water go? Resource 3: What is a flow chart?...28 Resource 4: Is water a renewable resource?...29 Resource 5: The solar still activity...30 Resource 6: Earth systems diagram Resource 7: Water careers and science Resource 7: Teacher answers: Water careers and science Water iii Water cycles Introduction Many Queensland towns and cities were hit by devastating floods in December 2010 and January Soon after, north Queensland was hit by a giant cyclone. There was water everywhere! In the midst of the massive operation to rescue people and move them to higher ground, people in affected areas were asked to conserve water. To understand the complexity of the water processes and issues involved in responding to a natural disaster, students need to understand how water cycles through their catchments and how drinking water is treated to safe standards in reticulated areas. In this unit, students will explore the natural water cycle in their catchment, how safe drinking water is treated and supplied to towns in your area and the underlying science behind these processes. They will also learn about water professionals such as water treatment technicians, plumbers and operations and maintenance technicians who help solve water supply problems on a regular day and during natural disasters. This unit focuses on the movement of surface water and the treatment of drinking water supplies from surface sources. If your area is dependent on groundwater sources, it is still important for students to understand these processes but these ideas will not be specifically addressed in this unit. If your local town has a drinking water supply that comes solely from bores or rainwater tanks, you could expand discussions to include the catchment of a town near you that treats its surface water for drinking. Some elements of this unit could be taught in partnership with your local high school. Choose an event or natural disaster context that is appropriate for your community. For instance, an event could be a breakdown at the water treatment plant and a natural disaster could be an extended drought. This unit provides an example of a flood disaster scenario. Adapt the activities to address your chosen disaster scenario. The Water: curriculum resource lesson activities referred to in this unit can be found online at www.derm.qld.gov.au . Select Education resources in the Resource Centre box on the right side of the web page. This unit is designed to address Australian Curriculum: Science descriptors for Year 7 for both Chemical Sciences and Earth and Space Sciences sub-strands and should take approximately 12 weeks to complete. 1 Water year 7 science Australian Curriculum links for this unit General capabilities Critical and creative thinking Ethical behaviour Science Year 7»Science Understanding Earth and space sciences Water is an important resource that cycles through the environment. Some of Earth s resources are renewable, but others are non-renewable. Chemical sciences Mixtures, including solutions, contain a combination of pure substances that can be separated using a range of techniques.»science as a Human Endeavour Use and influence of science Science and technology contribute to finding solutions to a range of contemporary issues; these solutions may impact on other areas of society and involve ethical considerations. Science understanding influences the development of practices in areas of human activity such as industry, agriculture and marine and terrestrial resource management. People use understanding and skills from across the disciplines of science in their occupations.»science Inquiry Skills Questioning and predicting Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge. Planning and conducting Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of investigation types, including field work and experiments, ensuring safety and ethical guidelines are followed. In fair tests, measure and control variables, and select equipment to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task. Processing and analysing data and information Construct and use a range of representations (including graphs, keys and models, and digital technologies as appropriate) to represent and analyse patterns or relationships. Summarise data from students own investigations and secondary sources and use scientific understanding to identify relationships and draw conclusions. Evaluating Reflect on the method used to investigate a question or solve a problem, including evaluating the quality of the data collected and identifying improvements to the method. Use scientific knowledge and findings from investigations to evaluate claims. Communicating Use scientific language and representations, and digital technologies as appropriate, to communicate ideas, findings and solutions to problems. Water 2 Achievement Standard Year 7 By the end of Year 7, students pose questions and apply scientific concepts to everyday problems and make general predictions based on their experiences. They plan procedures for investigations that take into account the need for fair testing and use equipment that improves fairness and accuracy. They communicate their observations and data clearly, summarise their data where appropriate and suggest improvements to their methods Students predict the effect of single changes on systems involving living things and suggest ways to classify organisms based on observable differences. They distinguish between pure substances and mixtures and plan appropriate methods to separate mixtures. They explain why some resources are not renewable and describe changes to water during the water cycle. They describe how unbalanced forces change the motion of objects and how changes in the position of objects in space cause other observable effects. They identify where science knowledge is used to propose solutions to problems and describe examples of where people use science in their work. They describe how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea. Links to other learning areas Maths number, data Literacy interpret and analyse a variety of graphical and textual material Assessment In Part 1 of the unit, students will investigate the natural water cycle in their local catchment and review their understanding of changes of state. They will draw a flow chart of the natural water cycle in their catchment or a catchment in their region that supplies drinking water describing the changes of state that occur during the water cycle. In Part 2 of the unit, students will build on their understanding about how human activities have changed the water cycle in their catchment and investigate experimentally how drinking water is treated to a safe standard. A student assessment task could be either: their experimental report on the design of a filter in the Elaborate phase, or a flow chart describing the process they would recommend for purifying and disinfecting water after a natural disaster with a given selection of materials. Cross-curriculum priority: Sustainability This unit provides a rich opportunity to discuss sustainable water management issues particularly those related to your local catchments. The issues that relate to the organising ideas of Sustainability could include: the importance of water to human and ecosystem wellbeing the connectivity of water sources in Queensland which sustain ecosystems the complexity of the systems that underpin both the natural and human water cycles the importance of managing and using water resources responsibly to ensure sufficient water supplies for the future the relevance of social justice issues to the management of water resources both in Australia and internationally. 3 Water Awareness of and understanding about sustainable water management issues encourages students to take action to address these issues. Enabling actions include: monitoring water quality in your local creek or water body to inform management decisions revegetating a cleared area in or near your school to improve the biodiversity of your area making a personal or school commitment to reduce water use monitoring home or school water use developing a promotional campaign to reduce school or community water use. Cross-curriculum priority: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities have a rich cultural connection to their waterways and seas. This sense of identity can be explored in this unit. Local community elders could be invited to share their stories particularly those relating to water. The Queensland Studies Authority also provides useful support materials. Go to www.qsa.qld. edu.au , select P-12 Approach, Indigenous perspectives, Support materials, Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander guest speakers. Linking locally Contact your local natural resource management specialist to gather locally relevant information about the water story in your area. They can also suggest relevant projects that the students could undertake to reduce human impact on their catchment. You could invite them to speak to your class about their work and ideas for action. These specialists could include: Council catchment or water resource management officers members of Landcare or catchment groups Department of Environment and Resource Management or Regional Natural Resource Management (NRM) body staff. For ideas about how to develop partnerships with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities go to the Department of Education and Training website at www.education.qld.gov. au , select Indigenous Education and Training and download the Embedding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Perspectives in Schools (EATSIPS) document. It includes information and additional links to assist with developing protocols for engaging Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Water 4 Unit overview The unit is divided into two parts, each with its own 5 Es cycle of learning. The first part of this unit Water journeys focuses on the natural water cycle and movement of water through your catchment or catchments including the catchment responsible for your local drinking water supply. A TWLH chart has four columns: what we Think we know, what we Want to learn, what we Learned and How we know. It is used to: elicit students prior understanding identify questions students would like answered record learning as it occurs through the unit. Part 1 Water journeys Engage Explore Explain Students analyse a media article about shortage of drinking water supplies during a flood and identify questions they can investigate. A TWLH chart and a word wall are used to track learning in this unit. Students complete simple activities which introduce focus questions such as: Where does the rain come from? How does water move through our area? What happens to water when it evaporates? What is a flow chart and why is it useful? How old is our water? What is a catchment? What is our catchment? Is water a renewable resource? Students share their ideas and, with your help, negotiate an understanding of the focus questions raised in the Explore phase. They also review their ideas from Year 6 about what happens to water as it changes state from ice to liquid to vapour. The class adds their new ideas to the L what have we learned and H how we learned it columns of the TWLH chart. 5 Water Elaborate Evaluate Students apply their ideas about condensation and evaporation to explain how a solar still works. They consolidate their ideas about the water cycle in your local catchment by devising a class role-play about the journeys that a water molecule can take through the water cycle in your catchment. Students work in groups to create a flow diagram or conceptual diagram of the water cycle as it applies in your catchment. They need to focus on describing changes of state that occur during the water cycle and what factors influence these changes. A work sample of a similar assessment task for Year 7 Science can be found on the Australian Curriculum website at www.australiancurriculum.edu.au by inserting the words water cycle as the search term. The work sample provided reflects a generic water cycle. In this assessment task students explicitly demonstrate their understanding of the water cycle by applying their ideas to their local catchment. Students reflect on their learning so far and revisit the questions that they asked in the Engage phase about the media article and complete the TWLH chart. They revise their understanding of the words on the word wall chart. Your local waterway or beach can be a special place for many people. Students can consider how local Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people view these special places using Uncle Ernie s Framework. It draws on a more holistic way of knowing and is an interesting approach to developing students thinking skills particularly their systems thinking skills. Uncle Ernie s Framework is described in My Land, My Tracks which can be accessed from the Department of Education and Training website at education.qld.gov.au . Select Schools and educators, Indigenous education, Educational Services, Cultural Awareness, and then The Local Story. You could show students a video presentation by Louise Alexander, who effectively explains each area of the Framework for a student audience. Use the search engine term Uncle Ernie s Framework to find the Framework and the video. Water 6 Teaching and learning sequence Part 1 Water journeys The first part of this unit focuses on the natural water cycle and movement of water in your catchment or catchments, including the catchment responsible for a local drinking water supply.»engage (one session) Analysing a media article 1. To set a real-world context for this unit, students analyse a media article such as Water supplies critical in the valley that highlights some of the difficulties of supplying safe drinking water to residents during floods and other natural disasters. The article can be found at www. thechronicle.com.au/story/2011/01/14/ water-supplies-critical-in-valleytoowoomba . e-coli (or E. coli as a biologist would write it) is an abbreviation of the name of a type of bacterium which is found in the gut of humans and other warmblooded animals. It is usually very beneficial because it assists in the digestion of food. It is excreted in faeces and, if found in water samples, indicates that the water has been contaminated by human or animal faeces. The scientific name of the bacterium is Escherichia coli. To start, display the title of the article and ask students to predict what they think the media article is about. Ask students to identify any words or phrases that are unfamiliar to them and to predict which words in the article are scientific words. Examples of scientific words or phrases for the Water supplies critical in the valley could include: testing, e-coli, water treatment plant. 2. Discuss the words and phrases in the article, particularly the science-related phrases, and summarise the story. 3. Ask students a series of true or false questions about the information solely in the article. Examples of questions for the Water supplies critical in the valley article are included in Resource Using a think-pair-share strategy, students list questions about the water story in the media article. a. Identify the problems facing the community. Problems could include: The water treatment plant could be flooded and not operating. There could be additional sediment and contaminants in the water prior to treatment. There could be wash-outs with broken water pipes which cause leakages in the water distribution system. b. What solutions are required? Solutions could include: trucking drinking water (either bulk or bottled) into the community fixing the water treatment plant fixing the washed-out or broken supply pipes. 7 Water In a think-pair-share activity, students spend some time individually thinking about and recording their ideas. They then share their ideas with a partner and decide on the list for their pair. Two pairs of students form teams of four to develop a team list. c. Who would be needed to solve the problems? water truck drivers for emergency supplies people to monitor the flow of the flood waters (hydrographers) people to get the water treatment plant working again (water plant construction engineers and operation and maintenance technicians) plumbers to fix broken pipes people to monitor the water treatment process and the quality of the water passing through the water treatment plant (water treatment technicians). TWLH chart 5. Begin a TWLH chart by asking students what they think they know already about the water story in their local area. The focus questions listed in the Explore phase below could be used as prompts. Students can add questions in the What do we need to know column. You could suggest some additional questions such as How old is our water?. Word wall 6. Begin a word wall chart to record the new words for this unit. Divide the chart into two columns everyday words and scientific words.» Explore (three or four sessions) Students will complete activities to explore ideas about the water story in your area. Some examples of focus questions for the Explore activities include: Where does the rain come from? How does water move through our area? What is a flow chart and how do we design one? What happens to water when it evaporates? How old is our water? What is a catchment? What is our catchment? Some ideas for Explore phase activities include: TWLH chart Eliciting student prior knowledge about the topic is an important part of the unit. Identify alternative ideas and misconceptions that the students have about the topic which will enable you to design learning experiences that prompt the students to question their ideas and to build new conc
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