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American Federation of Mineralogical Societies AFMS Approved Reference List of Classifications and Common Names for Fossils Updated 2002 AFMS Publications Committee B. Jay Bowman, Chair AFMS FOSSL LST
American Federation of Mineralogical Societies AFMS Approved Reference List of Classifications and Common Names for Fossils Updated 2002 AFMS Publications Committee B. Jay Bowman, Chair AFMS FOSSL LST This list is intended as a guide to help the exhibitor select those taxonomic classification terms and common names that are acceptable for labeling requirements in AFMS and Regional Fossil Competition under the AFMS Uniform Rules. The exhibitor must still use other sources to identify his specimens to genus and species. Because classifications differ from one source to another, it is not intended that this should be considered the only correct one; therefore lists of alternate and additional classifications from some of the more popular references may be used. f the exhibitor chooses to use a different classification, he must cite his reference(s) for the use of the judges. This information should include the author(s), year, title of publication and page number where the information is found. This written information should be given to the Judging Director at the time the display is set up or may be included in the Reference List. This list includes the phyla which will be used to determine variety in a general fossil display. Any alternate lists may provide alternate systems and include additional phyla represented by fossils. Common names are required on labels for the benefit of the viewer who is not familiar with fossil nomenclature. Therefore the word clam would be the best choice for most fossils from the class Pelecypoda. Oyster would also be easily recognized by most people (but all clams are not oysters). The use of common names is somewhat arbitrary, as many fossils-especially the Paleozoic and Mesozoic ones--do not have a truly common name; many are merely anglicized versions of the taxon. t is impossible to be consistent in their use. The common name in the right hand column applies to the taxon to its left; the word or words under which it is indented could also be appropriate. A Busycon may properly be called a welk, yet it is also a snail, a sea snail or a gastropod. While it is also a mollusk it would be preferable to use a name that is a little more specific. Should the exhibitor choose to use a name that is not on the list, the judges will use their discretion as to whether the choice is a proper one. When a fossil has no truly common name it may be necessary to use an anglicized version of the subclass, order, family, etc., alone or in combination. Additional information is permissible on labels and one might want to make some distinction between his brachiopods by referring to them as inarticulate brachiopod and articulate brachiopod; or he might prefer to call them strophomenid brachiopod, spiriferid brachiopod, rhynchonellid brachiopod, etc. This kind of information would be helpful to fossil collectors, but not to the general public. Sometimes adjectives used with the common name can be very informative. Examples might be freshwater snail, juvenile dinosaur, marine reptile, flying reptile, immature trilobites carnivorous dinosaur and perching bird. -A- When a single part of a fossil is used, the common name shall include that part. Examples: trilobite pygidium, shark tooth, elm leaf or elm tree leaf, sponge spicule, etc. When trace fossils are displayed, the common name shall include that term. Examples: sponge borings, arthropod trail, bird tracks, worm burrow or mammal coprolite. The term incertae sedis is sometimes used when the specimen is of uncertain taxonomic position above the genus. As an example, some paleontologists include Receptaculites in the Porifera but do not place it within a class. t is therefore proper to use either incertae sedis or uncertain in lieu of the class name to indicate the uncertainty. Another term used in similar circumstances is Problematica. Classification below is designated by the following abbreviations: -B- KNG: Kingdom DV: Division Note: Division is a term generally used for the broadest plant and unicellular classification; phylum for animal. PHY: Phylum SBPHY: Subphyllum Note: used to divide some phyla for better grouping. SUBDV: Subdivision SUPERCL: Superclass Note: grouping of several related classes, used occasionally. CLASS: Class SUBCL: Subclass Note: used to divide some classes, not necessary all. NFRACL: nfraclass SUPERORD: Superorder Note: important in some vertebrate classes. ORD: Order Note: may be used to differentiate between specimens of same class. SUBORD: Suborder SUPFAM: Superfamily NFRAORD: nfraorder FAM: Family -1- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME KNG: Animalia animal (nvertebrate:) invertebrate animals (Note: nvertebrate is not a classification term, but is used in exhibits as a group label when the exhibit contains only invertebrates. The phyla below are invertebrates up to the phylum Chordata, which begins the vertebrate classifications.) PHY: Archaeocyatha archaeocyathan CLASS: Regulares CLASS: rregulares PHY: Porifera sponge CLASS: Demospongea demosponge CLASS: Hexactinellida hexactinellid sponge CLASS: Calcarea calcareous sponge CLASS: Sclerospongia sclerosponge; chaetetid CLASS: Stromatoporata stromatoporoid PHY: Cnidaria cnidarian (formerly called coelenterates) CLASS: Protomedusae jellyfish CLASS: Hydrozoa hydrozoan CLASS: Scyphozoa scyphozoan (conularids are qestionable cyphozoans) CLASS: Anthozoa anthozoan SUBCL: Ceriantipatharia coral SUBCL: Octocorallia octocoral, soft coral (sea pen, sea fan, sea whip) SUBCL: Zoantharia coral, sea anemone ORD: Actinaria sea anemone ORD: Cothoniida coral ORD: Tabulata tahulate coral ORD: Heliolitida heliolitid coral ORD: Rugosa rugose coral ORD: Hetercorallia heterocoral ORD: Scleractinia hexacoral -2- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME PHY: Bryozoa bryozoan; moss animal CLASS: Stenolaemata bryozoan CLASS: Gymnolaemata bryozoan PHY: Brachiopoda brachiopod CLASS: narticulata inarticulate brachiopo ORD: Lingulida lingulid brachiopod ORD: Acrotretida inarticulate brachiopod ORD: Obolellida inarticulate brachiopod ORD: Paterinida inarticulate brachiopod CLASS: Articulata articulate brachiopod ORD: Orthida (above general term or any ORD: Strophomenida anglicized version of the ORD: Pentamerida order name -Ex.:spiriferid ORD: Rhynchonellida branchiopod; may be used. ORD: Spirifrdida ORD: Terebratulida CLASS: Uncertain articulates ORD: Kutorginida articulates PHY: Mollusca mollusk CLASS: Polyplacophora chiton CLASS: Monoplacophora monoplacophoran (or one of the order names anglicized) CLASS: Gastropoda gastropod ORD: Archaeogastropoda gastrodpod; snail ORD: Mesogastropoda snail or living form name such ORD: Neogastropoda as periwinkle, cowrie, helmet shell, turritella, etc. SUBCL: Opistobranchia nudibranch and its kin freshwater snail; land snail SUBCL: Pulmonata CLASS: Cephalopoda cephalopod SUBCL: Nautiloidea nautiliod cephalopod SUBCL: Actinoceratoidea cephalopod SUBCL: Ammonoidea ammonoid cephalopod (ammonite, ceratite, goniatite, refer to suture marking types) SUBCL: Coleoidea belemnoid; squid, etc. SUBCL: Bactritoidea bactritoid cephalopod CLASS: Cricoconarida cricoconarid; tentaculitid CLASS: Rostroconchia rostroconch (conocariums are included in this class) CLASS: Scaphopoda scaphopod; tusk shell; dentalioid CLASS: Bivalvia (or Pelecypoda) bivalve; pelecypod SUBCL: Palaeotaxodonta bivalve; pelecypod; clam SUBCL: sofilibranchia bivalve; pelecypod; clam SUBCL: Heteroconchia clam; cockle (or modern shell book name) SUBCL: Pteriomorphia bivalve; oyster; scallop, etc. SUBCL: Anomalodesmata bivalve; pelecypod, etc. PHY: Hyolitha hyolith; hyolithid -3- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME PHY: Annelida worm CLASS: Polychaeta polychaete worm; marine worm; scolecodont, etc. CLASS: Oligochaeta worm; earthworm CLASS: Hirudinea leech PHY: Arthropoda arthropod SUPERCLS: Trilobiomorpha trilobite; trilobitomorph CLASS: Trilobita trilobite ORD: Agnostida trilobite (or the appropriate ORD: Eodisciida anglicized version of the ORD: Redlichiida particular order name) ORD: Ptychopariida ORD: Phacopiida ORD: Odontopleuriida SUPERCL: Crustacea rustacean CLASS: Ostracoda ostracod CLASS: Malacostraca malacostracan SUBCL: Phyllocarida phyllocarid crustacean SUBCL: Eumalacostraca crustacean ORD: Decapoda decapod CLASS: Branchiopoda branchiopod; phyllopod CLASS: Cirripedia barnacle SUPERCL: Chelicerata arthropod CLASS: Merostomata merostome ORD: Eurypterida eurypterid ORD: Xiphosurida horseshoe crab CLASS: Arachnida arachnid; spider; tick; mite SUPERCL: Myriapoda myriapod CLASS: Archipolypoda millipede CLASS: Arthropleurida millipede CLASS: Diplopod diplopod CLASS: Chilopoda centipede CLASS: Symphyla myriapod SUPERCL: Hexapoda hexapod CLASS: nsecta insect SUBCL: Apterygota insect; wingless insect ORD: Archaeognatha bristletail ORD: Zygentoma silverfish (and relatives) SUBCL: Pterygota insect (or modern common name such as dragonfly, fly, etc. -4- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME PHY: Echinodermata echinoderm SBPHY: Crinozoa crinoid CLASS: Crinoidea crinoid SUBCL: nadunata inadunate crinoid SUBCL: Camerata camerate crinoid SUBCL: Flexibilia flexible crinoid SUBCL: Articulata articulate crioid CLASS: Paracrinoidea paracrinoid SBPHY: Blastozoa blastozoan CLASS: Blastoidea blastoid CLASS: Rhombifera rhombiferan; cystoid CLASS: Diploporita diploporan; cystoid CLASS: Eocrinoidea eocrinoid CLASS: Parablastoidea parablastoid CLASS: Coronoidea coronoid echinoderm SUBPHY: Asterozoa asterozoan CLASS: Asteroidea asteroid; starfish (includes somasteroids) CLASS: Ophiuroidea ophiuroid; brittle star SBPHY: Homalozoa echinoderm; homalozoan CLASS: Stylophora stylophoran; carpoid CLASS: Homoiostelea carpoid CLASS: Homostelea homostelean; carpoid CLASS: Ctenocystoidea ctenocystoid; cystoid SBPHY: Echinozoa echinozoan CLASS: Echinoidea sea urchin; sand dollar CLASS: Holothuroidea sea cucumber CLASS: Edrioasteroidea edrioasteroid CLASS: Helicoplacoidea helicoplacoidean CLASS: Cyclocystoidea cyclocystoid CLASS: Edrioblatoidea edrioblastoid PHY: Hemichordata hemichordate invertebrate CLASS: Pterobranchia hemichordate CLASS: Graptolithina graptolite ORD: Dendroidea branching graptolite ORD: Crustoidea encrusting graptolite ORD: Tuboidea graptolite ORD: Graptoloidea graptoloid; planktic graptolite PHY: Conodonta conodont CLASS: Paraconodontina conodont CLASS: Conodontophorida conodont -5- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME PHY: Chordata chordates SUBPHY: Cephalochordata SUBPHY: Urochordata sea squirts or tunicates SUBPHY: Vertebrata vertebrates CLASS: Agnatha jawless fish SUBCL: Pteraspidomorphi (Diplorina) agnathans ORD: Heterostraci (Pteraspida) *ostracoderms ORD: Thelodontida (Coelolepida) *unarmored ostracoderms SUBCL: Cephalaspidomorpha (Monorhina) ORD: Cephalaspida (Osteostraci) *armored ostracpoderms ORD: Galeaspida cephalaspidomorphs ORD: Anaspida * ostracoderms ORD: Petromyzontida lampreys SUBCL: uncertain ORD: Myxinida hagfishes CLASS: Placodermi *jawed fishes ORD: Ptyctodontida *placoderms ORD: Pseudopetalichthyida *placoderms ORD: Rhenanida *skatelike placoderms ORD: Acanthothortaci *primitive placoderms ORD: Petalichthyida *armored placoderms ORD: Phyllolepida *heavily plated placoderms ORD: Arthrodira *placoderms ORD: Antiarchi *placoderms CLASS: Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes SUBCL: Elasmobranchii sharks ORD: Cladoselachida *ancestral sharks ORD: Eugeneodontida (Edestida) *sharks ORD: Ctenacanthida *sharks SUPFAM: Ctenacanthoidea *sharks SUPFAM: Hybodontoidea *sharks ORD: Xenacanthida *fresh water sharks ORD: Galeomorpha sharks SUPFAM: Heterodontoidea mollusc-feeding sharks SUPFAM: Orectoloboidea nurse sharks SUPFAM: Lamnoidea sharks SUPFAM: Carcharhinoidea tiger sharks, bull sharks, etc SUPFAM: Hexanchoidea six-gilled sharks ORD: Squalomorpha dogfishes ORD: Batoidea skates and rays *Extinct -6- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME SUBCL: Holocephali sharklike fishes ORD: Chimaerida chimaeras or ratfishes SUBCL: uncertain ORD: niopterygida *chondrichthyans ORD: Petalodontida *chondrichthyans CLASS: Acanthodii *spiny fishes ORD: Climatiformes *primitive acanthodians ORD: schnacanthiformes *acanthodians ORD: Acanthodiformes *latest acanthodians CLASS: Osteichthyes bony fishes SUBCL: Actinopterygii ray-finned fishes NFRACL: Chondrostei primitive ray-finned fishes ORD: Palaeonisciformes *ancestral ray-finned fishes SUBORD: Palaeoniscoidei *chondrosteans ORD: Redfieldiiformes *freshwater chondrosteans ORD: Perleidiformes *chondrosteans ORD: Saurichthyiformes *chondrosteans ORD: Polypteriformes chondrosteans ORD: Acipenseriformes sturgeons and paddlefishes NFRACL: Neopterygii ray-finned fishes ORD: Lepisosteiformes garfishes ORD: Semionotiformes *early holosteans ORD: Pycnodontiformes *holosteans ORD: Macrosemiiformes *holosteans ORD: Amiiformes bowfin and relatives ORD: Pachycormiformes *holosteans ORD: Aspidorhynchiformes *holosteans DlV: Teleosteri ray-finned fishes ORD: Pholidophoriformes *holosteans/teleosts ORD: Leptolepiiformes *teleosts ORD: chthyodectiformes *teleosts SUBDV: Osteoglossomorpha teleosts ORD: Osteoglossiformes tropical, freshwater fishes SUBDV: Elopomorpha teleosts ORD: Elopiformes tarpons ORD: Anguilliformes eels ORD: Notacanthiformes deep-seafishes *Extinct -7- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME SUBDV: Clupeomorpha teleosts ORD: Ellimmichthyiformes *clupeomorphs ORD: Clupeiformes herrings SUBDV: Euteleostei teleosts ORD: Salmoniformes salmon and trout SUPERORD: Ostariophysi most freshwater fishes ORD: Gonorhynchiformes milkfishes ORD: Characiformes tetras and piranhas ORD: Cypriniformes characins, minnows, carps, suckers, loachs ORD: Siluriformes catfishes SUPERORD: Stenopterygii deep-sea teleosts ORD: Stomiiformes hatcheffishes SUPERORD: Scopelomorpha deep-sea fishes ORD: Aulopiformes deep-sea teleosts ORD: Myctophiformes deep-sea fishes SUPERORD: Paracanthopterygii advanced teleosts ORD: Percopsiformes pirate perch ORD: Batrachoidiformes toadfishes ORD: Gobiesociformes clingfishes ORD: Lophiiformes anglerfishes ORD: Gadiformes cod and haddock ORD: Ophidiiformes brotulas, cusk-eels, pearlfishes SUPERORD: Acanthopterygii spiny teleosts ORD: Atheriniformes flying fishes ORD: Cyprinodontiformes killifishes ORD: Beryciformes squirrel fishes ORD: Zeiformes tropical teleosts ORD: Lampriformes moon fishes ORD: Gasterosteiformes sticklebacks, sea horses ORD: Scorpaeniformes sculpins,sea robins ORD: Perciformes spiny teleosts ORD: Pleuronectiformes flatfishes ORD: Tetraodontiformes plectognath fishes *Extinct -8- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME SUBCL: Sarcopterygii bony fishes ORD: Crossopterygii air-breathing fish SUBORD: Rhipidistia *tetrapods SUBORD: Onychodontiformes *crossopterygians SUBORD: Coelacanthiformes crossopterygians ORD: Dipnoni lungfishes CLASS: Amphibia amphibians SUBCL: Labyrinthodontia *labyrinthodonts ORD: chthyostegalia *labyrinthodonts ORD: Loxommatida *labyrinthodonts ORD: Temnospondyli *labyrinthodonts SUPFAM: Colosteoidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Trimerorhachoidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Edopoidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Eryopoidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Rhinesuchoidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Capitosauroidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Rhytidosteoidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Trematosauroidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Brachyopoidea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Metoposauroifdea *temnospondyls SUPFAM: Plagiosauroidea *temnospondyls ORD: Anthracosauria *labyrinthodonts SUBORD: Embolomeri *anthracosaurs SUBORD: Gephyrostegida *anthracosaurs SUBORD: Seymouriamorpha *anthracosaurs SUBCL: Lepospondyli *amphibians ORD: Aistopoda *lepospondyls ORD: Nectridea *lepospondyls ORD: Microsauria *lepospondyls ORD: Lysoropha *lepospondyls ORD: Adelogyrinida *lepospondyls SUBCL: Lissamphibia amphibians ORD: Gymnophiona (Apoda) amphibians or caecilians ORD: Caudata (Urodela) newts and salamanders ORD: Proanura *protofrogs ORD: Anura rogs & toads *Extinct -9- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME CLASS: Reptilia reptiles SUBCL: Anapsida reptiles ORD: Captorhinida *reptiles SUBORD: Captorhinomorpha *captorhinidans SUBORD: Procolophonia *captorhinidans SUBORD: Pareiasauria *captorhinidans SUBORD: Millerosauria *captorhinomorphs ORD: Mesosauria *reptiles ORD: Chelonia turtles & tortoises SUBORD: Proganochelyida *turtles SUBORD: Pleurodira turtles SUBORD: Cryptodira turtles SUBCL: Diapsida reptiles ORD: Araeoscelida *diapsids ORD: Choristodera *diapsids NFRACL: Lepidosauromorpha lizards & snakes ORD: Eosuchia (Younginiformes) lepidosauromorphs SUPERORD: Lepidosauria lizards, snakes & sphenodontans ORD: Spheodontida tuatara ORD: Squamata lizards & snakes SUBORD: Lacertilia lizards SUBORD: Serpentes snakes NFRACL: Archosauromorpha diapsids ORD: Rhynchosauria *archosauromorphs ORD: Thalattosauria *archosauromorphs ORD: Trilophosauria *archosauromorphs ORD: Protorosauria *archosauromorphs SUPERORD: Archosauria reptiles ORD: Thecodontia *archosaurians SUBORD: Proterosuchia *thecodonts SUBORD: Rauisuchia *thecodonts SUBORD: Ornithosuchia *thecodonts SUBORD: Aetosauria *thecodonts SUBORD: Phytosauria (Parasuchia) *thecodonts ORD: Crocodylia crocodilians SUBORD: Protosuchia *crocodilians SUBORD: Mesosuchia *crocodilians SUBORD: Eusuchia crocodiles, gavials, alligators *Extinct -10- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME ORD: Pterosauria *flying reptiles SUBORD: Rhamphorhynchoidea *pterosaurs SUBORD: Pterodactyloidea *pterosaurs SUPERORD: Dinosauria *dinosaurs ORD: Saurischia *dinosaurs SUBORD: Staurikosauria *dinosaurs SUBORD: Theropoda *dinosaurs SUBORD: Sauropodomorpha *dinosaurs ORD: Ornithischia *dinosaurs SUBORD: Ornithopoda *dinosaurs SUBORD: Pachycephalosauria *dinosaurs SUBORD: Stegosauria *dinosaurs SUBORD: Ankylosauria *dinosaurs SUBORD: Ceratopsia *dinosaurs NFRACL: Euryapsida *diapsids SUPERORD: Sauropterygia *nothosaurs & plesiosaurs ORD: Nothosauria *sauropterygians ORD: Plesiosauria *sauropterygians SUPFAM: Plesiosauroidea *plesiosaurs SUPFAM: Pliosauroidea *plesiosaurs SUPERORD: Placodontia *euryapsids SUPERORD: chthyosauria *reptiles SUBCL: Synapsida *reptiles ORD: Pelycosauria *synapsids SUBORD: Ophiacodontia *pelycosaurs SUBORD: Sphenacodontia *pelycosaurs SUBORD: Edaphosauria *pelycosaurs ORD: Therapsida *synapsids SUBORD: Eotitanosuchia *therapsids SUBORD: Dinocephalia *herbivors SUBORD: Dicynodontia *therapsids SUBORD: Theriodontia *therapsids CLASS: Aves birds SUBCL: Archaeornithes *birds ORD: Archaeopterygiformes *birds SUBCL: Ornithurae birds NFRACL: Hesperornithae *birds ORD: Hesperornithiformes *birds NFRACL: Carinatae birds *Extinct -11- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME DV: chthyornithes *birds ORD: chthyornithiformes *birds DV: Neornithes birds SUPERORD: Palaeognathae birds ORD: Tinamiformes tinamous ORD: Struthioniformes ostriches ORD: Rheiformes rheas ORD: Casuariiformes cassowaries & emus ORD: Aepyornithiformes *elephant birds ORD: Dinornithiformes *moas ORD: Apterygiformes kiwis SUPERORD: Neognathae birds ORD: Galliformes grouse, quail, turkeys, pheasants ORD: Anseriformes ducks, geese, swans ORD: Podicipediformes grebes ORD: Diatrymiformes *birds ORD: Gaviiformes loons ORD: Sphenisciformes penquins ORD: Pelecaniformes pelicans, frigate birds ORD: Procellariiformes albatrosses, petrels ORD: Gruiformes cranes, rails, limpkins ORD: Charadriiformes shore birds, gulls, auks ORD: Columbiformes pigeons, doves, dodo ORD: Psittaciformes lories, parrots, macaws ORD: Coliiformes colies ORD: Ciconiiformes herons, storks ORD: Cuculiformes cuckoos, roadrunners ORD: Falconiformes vultures, hawks, falcons, eagles ORD: Strigiformes owls ORD: Caprimulgiformes goatsuckers ORD: Apodiformes swifts, hummingbirds ORD: Coraciiformes kingfishers, rollers, hoopoes, hornbills ORD: Piciformes barbets, toucans, woodpeckers ORD: Passeriformes flycatchers, ovenbirds, lyrebirds, songbirds *Extinct -12- CLASSFCATON (OF FOSSL FORMS) COMMON NAME CLASS: Mammalia mammals SUBCL: Eotheria *mammals ORD: Docodontia docodonts ORD: Triconodontia *triconodonts SUBCL: Prototheri
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