Alemannic German

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 4
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Documents

Published:

Views: 13 | Pages: 4

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Description
History
Transcript
  Alemannic German Alemannic  (German:  Alemannisch  ) is a group ofdialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. The name derives from the ancientGermanic alliance of tribes known as the Alamanni (“allmen”). 1 Distribution Alemannic dialects are spoken by approximately ten mil-lion people in eight countries: ã  Switzerland: allGerman-speakingpartsofthecoun-try ã  Germany: center and south of Baden-Württemberg, Swabia district of Bavaria ã  Austria: Vorarlberg, Reutte District of Tyrol ã  Liechtenstein: entire country ã  France: Alsace ã  Italy: Gressoney, Issime and Rimella, in some other villages almost extinct ã  Venezuela: Colonia Tovar (Colonia Tovar dialect) ã  United States: Allen County, Indiana by the Amish there and also in their daughter settlements in Indi-ana and other U.S. states. 2 Status Alemannic comprises a dialect continuum, from theHighest Alemannic spoken in the mountainous south toSwabianintherelativelyflatnorth, withmoreofthechar-acteristicsofstandardGermanthefarthernorthonegoes.Some linguists and organisations that differentiate be-tween languages and dialects primarily on the groundsof mutual intelligibility, such as SIL International and UNESCO, describe Alemannic as one of several inde-pendent languages. ISO 639-3 distinguishes four lan-guages:  gsw  (Swiss German),  swg  (Swabian German), wae  (Walser German) and  gct   (Alemán Coloniero, spo-ken since 1843 in Venezuela).At this level, the distinction between a language anda dialect frequently is considered a cultural and polit-ical question, in part because linguists have failed toagree on a clear standard. Standard German is usedin writing, and orally in formal contexts, throughoutthe Alemannic-speaking regions (with the exception ofAlsace, where French or the Alsatian dialect of Aleman- nic are used), and Alemannic varieties are generally con-sidered German dialects (more precisely, a dialect groupwithin Upper German) rather than separate languages. 3 Variants The following variants comprise Alemannic: ã  Swabian (mostly in Swabia, in Germany). Unlike most other Alemannic dialects, it does not retain theMiddle High German monophthongs  û, î   but shiftsthem to [ou], [ei] (as opposed to Standard German[aʊ], [aɪ]). For this reason, “Swabian” is sometimesused in opposition to “Alemannic”. ã  Low Alemannic dialects. Retain German initial /k/as [kʰ] (or [kx]) rather than fricativising to [x] as inHigh Alemannic. Subvariants: ã  Lake Constance Alemannic (in SouthernWürttemberg, Southeastern Baden, North- western Vorarlberg) ã  Upper-Rhine Alemannic in SouthwesternBaden and its variant Alsatian (in Alsace, France) ã  Alemán Coloniero (in Venezuela) ã  Basel German (in Basel, Switzerland) ã  High Alemannic (mostly in Switzerland, parts of Vorarlberg, and in the southern parts of the BlackForest in Germany). Complete the High Germanconsonantshiftbyfricativisinginitial/k/to[x]. Sub-variants: ã  Bernese German ã  Zürich German ã  Vorarlbergisch ã  Liechtensteinisch ã  Highest Alemannic (in the Canton of Wallis, in the Walser settlements (e.g., in the canton of Grisons), in the Bernese Oberland and in the German-speaking part of Fribourg) does not have the hiatus diphthongisation of other dialects of German. For1  2  8 EXTERNAL LINKS  example: [ˈʃnei̯jə] ('to snow') instead of [ˈʃniː.ə(n)],[ˈb̥ou̯wə] ('to build') instead of [ˈb̥uː.ə(n)]. Subvari-ants: ã  Walliser German ã  Walser GermanNotethattheAlemannicdialectsofSwitzerlandareoftencalled Swiss German or  Schwyzerdütsch . 4 Written Alemannic The oldest known texts in Alemannic are brief ElderFuthark inscriptions dating to the sixth century (Bülachfibula, Pforzen buckle, Nordendorf fibula). In the Old High German period, the first coherent texts are recordedin the St. Gall Abbey, among them the eighth centuryPaternoster,Fater unser, thu bist in himileuuihi namu dinanqhueme rihhi di i nuuerde uuillo diin,so in himile, sosa in erduprooth unseer emezzihic kip uns hiutuoblaz uns sculdi unseroso uuir oblazem uns skuldikementi ni unsih firleit in khorunkauzzer losi unsih fona ubileDue to the importance of the Carolingian abbeys of St. Gall and Reichenau Island, a considerable part of the Old High German corpus has Alemannic traits. Aleman-nic Middle High German is less prominent, in spite ofthe Codex Manesse compiled by Johannes Hadlaub ofZürich. The rise of the Old Swiss Confederacy from the fourteenth century leads to the creation of Aleman-nicSwisschronicles. HuldrychZwingli'sbibletranslation of the 1520s (the 1531 Froschauer Bible) was in an Ale-mannic variant of Early Modern High German. From theseventeenth century, written Alemannic was displaced byStandardGerman, whichemergedfromsixteenthcenturyEarly Modern High German, in particular in the wake ofMartin Luther's bible translation of the 1520s. The 1665revision of the Froschauer Bible removed the Aleman-nic elements, approaching the language used by Luther.For this reason, no binding orthographical standard forwriting modern Alemannic emerged, and orthographiesin use usually compromise between a precise phonologi-cal notation, and proximity to the familiar Standard Ger-man orthography (in particular for loanwords).JohannPeterHebelpublishedhis AllemannischeGedichte in 1803. Swiss authors often consciously employHelvetisms within Standard German, notably JeremiasGotthelf in his novels set in the Emmental, and more re- cently Tim Krohn in his  Quatemberkinder  . 5 Characteristics ã  The diminutive is used frequently in all Alemannicdialects. Northern and eastern dialects use the suf-fix  -le ; southern dialects use the suffix  -li   (StandardGermansuffix -lein or -chen ). Dependingondialect,thus, 'little house' could be  Heisle ,  Hüüsle ,  Hüüsli   or Hiisli   (Standard German  Häuslein  or  Häuschen ). ã  A significant difference between the high and lowvariants is the pronunciation of  ch  after the frontvowels ( i  ,  e ,  ä ,  ö   and  ü ) and consonants. In Stan-dard German and the lower variants, this is a palatal[ç] (the  Ich-Laut  ), whereas in the higher variants, auvular or velar [χ] or [x] (the  Ach-Laut  ) is used. ã  Theverb tobe isconjugateddifferentlyinthevariousdialects:(The common gs*-forms do historically derive fromwords akin to ge-sein, not found in modern standardGerman.) 6 See also ã  Alemannic separatism ã  German dialects ã  Muettersproch-Gsellschaft ã  Muggeseggele ã  Pennsylvania German language ã  Swiss German 7 References [1] Colonia Tovar at  Ethnologue  (18th ed., 2015)SwissGermanandAlsatianat Ethnologue (18thed.,2015)Swabian at  Ethnologue  (18th ed., 2015)Walser at  Ethnologue  (18th ed., 2015)[2] Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel,Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). “Alemannic”. Glottolog . Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for EvolutionaryAnthropology. 8 External links ã  Media related to Alemannic German at WikimediaCommons  3 ã  The dictionary definition of alemannic german atWiktionary ã  Alemanni poems and Alemanni encyclopedia -German-  4  9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES  9 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses 9.1 Text ã  Alemannic German  Source:   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alemannic_German?oldid=720202092  Contributors:   Elian, TeunSpaans,Michael Hardy, Kwertii, CatherineMunro, LMB, Nickshanks, Jor, Nagelfar, Gilgamesh~enwiki, Prosfilaes, Matthead, ArinArin, Pne, J.'mach' wust, Invalid username 74463~enwiki, D6, Juice~enwiki, Pasquale, A-giau, Dbachmann, El C, Kwamikagami, Rsmelt, Circeus,Martg76, Transalpin~enwiki, Sl, Luka Jačov, Ayeroxor, Saga City, Rdrs~enwiki, Angr, Jersyko, Waldir, Dbenzhuser, CPES, Koavf,Cassowary, FlaBot, Malhonen, Melancholie, YurikBot, Jlittlet, RussBot, Purodha, Terfili, E2mb0t~enwiki, Dddstone, Carabinieri, JackUpland, Azrael81, Sassisch, KnightRider~enwiki, A bit iffy, Scolaire, Jsnx, SmackBot, Wakuran, MelancholieBot, Bluebot, Rex Ger-manus, Stevil84, K4zem, Conorchurch, Alphathon, Kbroome, Rklawton, Osteck, Marco polo, Disavian, Svartkell, JorisvS, Joseph Solis inAustralia, Eric, Cydebot, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Dusty relic, Thijs!bot, Dimotika, JAnDbot, Äpple, Girdi, Avicennasis, UP3~enwiki,CRACKER66, Bissinger, Keith D, 83d40m, Pastordavid, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, Malinaccier, Rei-bot, Mösjö, Roland zh, SieBot, Spin-crus, Gerakibot, Dawn Bard, Trigaranus, Helikophis, Smilo Don, Cyfal, Fiet Nam, Der Golem, Hans Adler, BodhisattvaBot, Ledch,Addbot, Blanche of King’s Lynn, Kman543210, Erutuon, Lightbot,  ين , Zorrobot, Ben Ben, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, KamikazeBot,AnomieBOT, Rubinbot, Phistuck, ArthurBot, MauritsBot, Xqbot, TinucherianBot II, J04n, Haldraper, Matthias Klostermayr, Abisch,Angeluser, MCBot, RaveDog, HRoestBot, Fixer88, Lotje, Dinamik-bot, Visite fortuitement prolongée, Jezpas, EmausBot, Deusdemona,ZéroBot, Redav, Champion, ClueBot NG, Kasirbot, Rezabot, Gelehrter11, Electriccatfish2, Aregger, Achim55, Insidiae, Liam987, ~riley,Splrful, Abrahamic Faiths, Polentarion, Gjhgjghjhgjhgj, Folran, --R-C-R-J--, Tuncker, Aasasd, MB298 and Anonymous: 87 9.2 Images ã  File:Alemannic-Dialects-Map-English.png  Source:   https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Alemannic-Dialects-Map-English.png  License:   CC BY-SA 3.0  Contributors:  ã  Alemannic-Dialects-Map-English.svg  Original artist:   Alemannic-Dialects-Map-English.svg: *Alemannic-Dialects-Map-German.svg: *Alemannic_language_location_map_in_1950-de.svg: *derivative work: Pyrokrat (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php? title=User_talk:Pyrokrat,<span>,&,</span>,action=edit,<span>,&,</span>,redlink=1' class='new' title='User talk:Pyrokrat (page does notexist)'>talk</a>) ã  File:Flag_of_Austria.svg  Source:   https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Flag_of_Austria.svg  License:   Public domain Contributors:   Own work, http://www.bmlv.gv.at/abzeichen/dekorationen.shtml  Original artist:   User:SKopp ã  File:Flag_of_Germany.svg  Source:   https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg  License:   PD  Contributors:   ? Original artist:   ? ã  File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg  Source:   https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Flag_of_Switzerland.svg  License:   Publicdomain  Contributors:   PDF Colors Construction sheet  Original artist:   User:Marc MongenetCredits: ã  File:Loudspeaker.svg  Source:   https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Loudspeaker.svg  License:   Public domain  Contrib-utors:   New version of Image:Loudspeaker.png, by AzaToth and compressed by Hautala  Original artist:   Nethac DIU, waves corrected byZoid ã  File:Question_book-new.svg  Source:   https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg  License:   Cc-by-sa-3.0 Contributors:  Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion  Original artist:  Tkgd2007 ã  File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg  Source:   https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/80/Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg  License:   CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors:   File:Wikipedia-logo.svg as of 2010-05-14T23:16:42  Original artist:   version 1 by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); Wiki- media. 9.3 Content license ã  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x