2007/2008. ASIAN ALTERNATIVES FOR A SUSTAINABLE WORLD: Transborder Engagements in Knowledge Formation. The Work of the 2007/2008 API Fellows

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Davao proceedings cover page_ pdf 1/18/ :44:41 AM ASIAN ALTERNATIVES FOR A SUSTAINABLE WORLD: Transborder Engagements in Knowledge Formation 2007/2008 The Nippon Foundation Fellowships for
Davao proceedings cover page_ pdf 1/18/ :44:41 AM ASIAN ALTERNATIVES FOR A SUSTAINABLE WORLD: Transborder Engagements in Knowledge Formation 2007/2008 The Nippon Foundation Fellowships for Asian Public Intellectuals ii The Nippon Foundation First published in November 2009 All right reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from The Nippon Foundation Fellowships for the Asian Public Intellectuals. A PDF version of this book is available online at Printed by: ABENO PRINTING CO., LTD. 180, 182, 184, 186 Soi Chok Chai Jong Jumreon, Rama III Bang Phong Phang, Yannawa, Bangkok Tel: Fax: iii CONTENTS ABOUT THE BOOK ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS THE CONTRIBUTORS I. WELCOME SPEECH Takeju Ogata, President of The Nippon Foundation vi viii ix xiii II. KEYNOTE ADDRESS Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X, Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region xv III. OPENING SPEECH Melani Budianta, Workshop Director IV. OVERVIEW Melani Budianta, Workshop Director V. REPORT OF API PUBLIC FORUM Melani Budianta, Workshop Director xviii xxi xxxiv VI. PAPERS Panel 1: ASIAN ALTERNATIVES IN GOVERNANCE AND DOING BUSINESS Globalization and Governance: The Civil Service Reform in Selected ASEAN Countries 1 Prijono Tjiptoherijanto Globalization and Banking Crisis: From Tokyo to Manila 10 Michael Lim Mah Hui Why Don t SMEs Innovate? (SME Development and Technological Upgrading in Developing Countries: Lessons from Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines) 17 Raymund B. Habaradas Panel 2: CIRCUITS OF EXCHANGES IN REGIONAL COOPERATION A Political Economy of Shrimp: Global Agro-Commodity Production and Trade in Eastern Asia 33 Dias Pradadimara Media s New Challenges in Constructing the East Asian Community 42 Kavi Chongkittavorn iv Investing in Workers Skill Development: Cross-Country Analysis, Experiences, and Policy Implications 50 Joel Hernandez Strategies and Approaches to Overcome Violence against Women: The ASEAN Experience 60 Cheng Kooi Loh Panel 3: COMPARATIVE LESSON IN WIDENING ACCESS AND EMPOWERMENT A Comprehensive Study on the Philippines Legal Approaches to Combat Human Trafficking: Suggestions for Indonesia 68 Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah A Study on the Migrants Access to HIV/AIDS Treatment in Kanagawa and Nagano 78 Kannikar Kijtiwatchakul Implications of Existing Knowledge and Practices of Legal Aid in Japan, Thailand, and Malaysia to the Advocacy for Improving Access to Justice in the Philippines 87 Jose Luis Martin Gascon Panel 4: ENHANCING DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATION Public Opinion Polling and Politics in Southeast Asia 99 Juli Bestian Nainggolan Conversations with Indonesian Democracy Activists 111 Jose Eliseo M. Rocamora A Study of the Forms and Approaches to the Decentralization of Power and the Mechanisms for Popular Participation in Local Administration in the Philippines and Indonesia 120 Olarn Ongla Human Rights in Inclusive Development: Experience from Ethnic Highlanders in Thailand 131 Akio Kawamura Panel 5: CHANGING ASIAN CULTURAL LANDSCAPE Changing Landscapes, Changing Lives: The Changing Cinemas of Asia 140 Edward Paciano Delos Santos Cabagnot Challenges of Dance Artists in Contemporary Thailand: Tradition and Creations 152 Takako Iwasawa Nusantara in the Twenty-First Century and Beyond: Pantun as a Form of Cultural Identity 161 Ding Choo Ming v Searching in the Shade of a Flower: Changes in Learning Processes of Javanese Court Dance Yogyakarta Style 170 Naoko Uneme Panel 6: THE MEANING OF ASIAN IDENTITIES AND EXPERIENCE The Malaysian Dilemma: Race, Religion and the Quest for National Unity 180 Dicky Sofjan Indonesian and Thai Ghost Films 190 Goki (Inuhiko) Yomota Rethinking of the Chao Le Identity in the Context of the History of the Malay Peninsula 196 Sirirat Katanchaleekul Project Hanapbuhay Portraits of Working Artists 206 Jay Flores Ticar Panel 7: THE FUTURE OF ASIAN ENVIRONMENT Community-based Forest Governance in Indonesia: Action-Research for Interactive Learning and Partnership Building 214 Motoko Shimagami Towards Sustainable Coastal Resource Management: Comparative Study of Integrated Mangroves and Coastal Aquaculture in Thailand and the Philippines 222 Andi Amri Watershed Management and Public Participation Process: Comparative Case Studies from Japan, Indonesia and Thailand 230 Chaipant Prabhasavat VII. APPENDICES Appendix I: Workshop Schedule 240 Appendix II: Workshop Participants 243 Appendix III: Abstracts of Papers 249 VIII. CONTACT DETAILS 259 vi ABOUT THE BOOK Transborder Engagements in Knowledge Formation, is a collection of papers by the 2007/2008 Asian Public Intellectuals (API) Fellows. The twenty-seven papers that comprise the book cover key areas such as heritage, identity, change and conflict; engaging modernity; religion, gender, and art; changing lifestyles and health; the state, development and globalization; empowering the poor and the vulnerable; and social justice, human rights, and civil society. API publications can be downloaded at The API Fellowships Program As Asia enters the 21 st century, it faces political, economic, and social challenges that transcend national boundaries. To meet these challenges, the region needs a pool of intellectuals willing to be active in the public sphere who can articulate common concerns and propose creative solutions. Recognizing that opportunities for intellectual exchange are currently limited by institutional, linguistic, and cultural parameters, The Nippon Foundation (TNF) launched the Asian Public Intellectuals (API) Fellowships Program in July The Program s primary aim is to promote mutual learning among Asian public intellectuals and contribute to the growth of wider public spaces in which effective responses to regional needs can be generated. The API Fellowships Program is open to academics, researchers, media professionals, artists, creative writers, nongovernmental organization (NGO) activists, social workers, public servants and others with moral authority who are committed to working for the betterment of society by applying their professional knowledge, wisdom and experience. The Program is designed to stimulate the creation of a pool of such intellectuals in the region. The API Fellowships Program set three main themes as follows: Changing identities and their social, historical, and cultural contexts; Reflections on the human condition and the quest for social justice; and The current structure of globalization and possible alternatives. Within these themes, the Fellows are required to: Propose and carry out research and/or professional activities in a participating country or countries other than their native country or country of residence; Conduct research and/or professional activities in compliance with a schedule accepted by the Selection Committee; Attend the API Workshop to exchange results of their research and/or professional activities with other fellows; Disseminate their findings and results to a wider audience; and Pursue a deeper knowledge of each other, and hence of the region. Post Fellowship Program/Activities In its tenth year since its inception, the API Fellowships Program nowadays stresses the continuing commitment of API Fellows who have completed their initial fellowship activities. Through furthering collaboration between Fellows, the Program hopes to build and promote the API Community, which is comprised of over 250 API Fellows. The following initiatives are now being carried out through the Post Fellowship Programs: vii 1) Regional Committee and Regional Project The API Community has selected ten Fellows as representatives to the Regional Committee (RC) to promote activities which are critical for the region, cross-disciplinary in nature, trans-border in scope, and multi-level in approach, recognizing the inter-linkages of locality, nation, and region. The RC aims to foster a greater regional consciousness by promoting relationships among cultures, societies, traditions and so forth by initiating or endorsing collaborative activities, and by confronting public issues with discernment, integrity and commitment. The RC initially focused on the launch of the Regional Project. The Regional Project, entitled Community-Based Initiatives toward Human-Ecological Balance, was launched in November 2008 as a joint effort that mobilized the entire API Community. The project will last three years, involving five sites in the region: Biwako (Japan), Batanes (Philippines), Khiriwong (Thailand), Tasik Chini (Malaysia) and Kalicode (Indonesia). In conducting the Regional Project, the API Community is guided by the values of social relevance, public-policy advocacy, network building, creativity, transparency and accountability. 2) API-Salzburg Global Seminar Collaboration The Salzburg Global Seminar was founded in 1947 by three graduate students at Harvard University as a means to bringing together young Europeans and Americans from countries recently at war to engage in intellectual dialogue. In the 60 years since its establishment, the Salzburg Global Seminar has evolved and expanded both the breadth of countries from which its participants come as well as the issues that serve as the focus of its programs. To date, more than 25,000 individuals from more than 150 countries have attended Seminar sessions. In an effort to flow with the tide of globalization, the Salzburg Global Seminar decided to reach out beyond Europe and the US, to Asia, the Middle East and Africa. In so doing, the Seminar found the API Fellowships Program to be a good quality pool of intellectuals in Asia and began planning a new partnership. As a result, a new scheme whereby selected API Fellows (up to ten Fellows per year) attend the Seminar was created. This collaborative scheme provides opportunities for API Fellows to expand their intellectual capacity by exposing themselves to world intellectual leaders and to convey to a wider audience the messages and voices of Asia. The Nippon Foundation The Nippon Foundation (TNF) is an independent, non-profit, grant making organization that was founded in It supports projects both in Japan and overseas. It funds activities in three areas: domestic social welfare and volunteer support; maritime research and development; and overseas cooperative assistance. It works with other non-profit organizations, governments, non-governmental organizations and international organizations. viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The API Coordinating Institution secretariat team at the Institute of Asian Studies (IAS), Chulalongkorn University, oversaw the publication of this book and wishes to express its sincere appreciation to the following people: The API Fellows, for their invaluable contribution in writing the papers that comprise the book; Melani Budianta, the 7 th API Regional Workshop Director, who guided the Fellows in their preparation of the papers/presentation materials and substantially edited the papers; Tatsuya Tanami and Michiko Taki of The Nippon Foundation for their advice; The API Program Directors, Program Coordinators and Program Assistants for their valuable input and cooperation; Jose Tirol, Maria Dolores Alicias-Garen, Mary An Gonzales, and Rebecca Sooksom, who handled the technical editing with great patience and dedication; and Acclaro Co., Ltd., for the layout work and assistance in proof-reading. ix THE CONTRIBUTORS (in alphabetical order according to names as they are spelt) A snapshot of the contributors in their own words is provided here (information as of March 2009). AKIO KAWAMURA teaches at the Department of Social Organization Development, School of Human Welfare Studies, Kwansei Gakuin University in Nishinomiya (somewhere between Osaka and Kobe). He is also active in several environmental and human rights NGOs, where he is a member of the Board of Directors. His areas of study include deliberative democracy, human rights and social inclusion both at the national and the global levels. ANDI AMRI is a researcher and a member of the teaching staff of the Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Hasanuddin University. He leads the Coastal Community Networks in Indonesia. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from the Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies (ASAFAS), Kyoto University, in His main research interests are Southeast Asian area studies and coastal resource governance. He has carried out research activities in several countries in Southeast Asia. His research findings have been published in reputable journals, and presented in national and international forums. CHAIPANT PRABHASAVAT works as director of the Institute for Community Rights, subcommittee member of Thailand s National Humans Rights Commission, consultant to the Assembly of the Poor in Thailand, and coordinator of the Community-Based Water Management and the 14 sub-projects with sponsorship from the Thailand Research Fund (TRF), among others. Aside from specializing on the project related to the Watershed Management and Public Participation Process, he is also involved in organic fertilizer production, the biogas plant and in Bio-Treat s Waste Water Treatment plant. CHENG KOOI LOH is the executive director of the Women s Centre for Change Penang. In the last 25 years, she has been working with both regional and local organizations on women s issues, with special interest in violence against women. DIAS PRADADIMARA is a member of the teaching and research staff of the Department of History of Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia. Although most of his research has focused and continues to focus on various local areas in Indonesia, his interest also lies in understanding the historical and social transformations in those places, and in creative tensions within their larger, global contexts. DICKY SOFJAN is the API Regional Project Manager for a multi-country endeavor to essentially learn, take note of and share Community-Based Initiatives toward Human-Ecological Balance. Sofjan s professional background has led him to take up positions as an officer, manager and director of various international organizations, including the United Nations. Equipped with a Ph.D. in political science, he also does short-term consultancies on issues pertaining to political development, governance, democracy, civic education, and electoral reform. Sofjan s main academic research interests cover Islam, Muslim politics, civil society, and social movements. DING CHOO MING is a Principal Research Fellow at the ATMA (Insitut Alam & Tamadun Melayu) or the Institute of the Malay World and Civilization, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. His articles on information retrieval on Malay world studies and Malay literature in Riau have been extensively published in journals in Bangi, Bandung, Bangkok, Copenhagen, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Leiden, Manila, Pekanbaru, Seoul, Singapore and Surrey (UK). He is directly involved in building the Malay world portal, accessible at in ATMA, under Professor Shamsul Amri Baharuddin. Since 1999, he has been the chief editor of SARI, the journal of ATMA. x EDWARD DELOS SANTOS CABAGNOT is the festival programmer (organizer?) of the Cinemalaya Philippine Independent Film Festival. He has been working in Filipino cinema for more than two and a half decades, and is currently the Director of the Cultural Center of the Philippines Media (Film & Broadcast) Arts Division. At the CCP he organizes alternative cinema festivals, film workshops and fora. He manages the longestrunning indie film and video competition in the region the Gawad CCP Para Sa Alternatibong Pelikula at Video (The CCP Independent Film & Video Competition), now going on its 20 th year. Last year, he was awarded an Asian Public Intellectuals Fellowship Grant by The Nippon Foundation for his research entitled Changing Landscapes, Changing Lives: the Changing Cinemas of Asia. A two-time awardee for playwriting, he has been writing columns and articles for Philippine and international publications since the mid-70 s. His book on philosophy and film entitled Heidegger s Being and Time & Manuel Silos Biyaya Ng Lupa is currently in the press. GOKI (INUHIKO) YOMOTA has been a film student all through his life. He was an actor and studied comparative culture and semiology. He now teaches film history (mainly focusing on Asian, including Japanese, Korean and Chinese cinema) at Meiji Gakuin University, Tokyo. He is well known for his translations of Italian poetry to Japanese. He has published many books in Japanese, among them: Japanese Actresses, Asian Popular Cinema, Bruce Lee, Japanese Cinema in the Asian Context, Invitation to Film History, and 100 Years of the Japanese Cinema. JAY TICAR is an independent visual artist. He is a trained painter who also works with other media which best suit the messages and effects involved for particular projects. He believes in relevant and uncompromising content in art and also for visuals to be exciting and challenging. JOEL HERNANDEZ is assistant professional lecturer at De La Salle University-Manila. He was a visiting researcher at Keio University in Japan and in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, in line with his Asian Public Intellectual (API) Fellowship. He served as a senior economist in the Senate of the Philippines and has acted as consultant for the ASEAN Secretariat and several foreign development organizations. He has written research papers on human resource development, the regional production network, capital flows in East Asia, and corporate governance in state-owned enterprises in the Philippines. He finished his M.A. in Economics and obtained his B.S. Economics degree (magna cum laude) from the University of the Philippines School of Economics. JOEL ROCAMORA, the national Chairman of Akbayan! (Citizens Action Party), works as researcher at the Institute for Popular Democracy (IPD). He obtained his Ph.D. degree in Government and Asian Studies from Cornell University in the United States in He has published books and numerous articles on Indonesian and Philippine politics; and has taught in universities in the United States and the Philippines. He was Associate Director of the Transnational Institute in Amsterdam in the 1980s. JOSE LUIS MARTIN GASCON, ESQ. is the Director General of the Liberal Party (LP), one of the Philippines oldest political parties. A practicing lawyer, Gascon is also a dedicated democracy activist and social reform advocate. He was formerly Executive Director of LIBERTAS and the National Institute for Policy Studies. He was Education Undersecretary for Legal and Legislative affairs, a member of the 8 th Philippine House of Representatives, and a member of the 1986 Philippine Constitutional Commission. He earned his LLB and B.A. Philosophy degrees from the University of the Philippines-Diliman. He obtained his LLM in International Law from St. Edmund s College, University of Cambridge. JULI BESTIAN NAINGGOLAN is a researcher at Kompas Daily, Indonesia. He has been conducting public opinion surveys in Indonesia for the past 15 years. A faculty member of the Communication Department, Social and Political Science, he teaches research methodology and public opinion survey in the University of Indonesia. KANNIKAR KIJTIWATCHAKUL campaigns for access to essential medicines for Médecins Sans Frontieres Belgium (Thailand). She is also an active member of FTA Watch, Thailand, a coalition that monitors and campaigns for free trade negotiations that gave severe social implications. She writes a weekly column entitled Global Report for Way Magazine. As host of the radio newscast called Chao Tan Lok ( Morning World xi Review ) on FM 96.5 MHz, she issues reports and commentaries on world news. For her work on radio, she has gained the reputation of being able to make difficult issues like global affairs, part
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