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    CE50IRRIGATION ENGINEERING 1.INTRODUCTION Irrigation – Need and mode of irrigation – Merits and demerits of irrigation – Crop andcrop seasons – consumptive use of water – Duty – Factors affecting duty – Irrigationefficiencies – Planning and Development of irrigation projects. 2.IRRIGATION METHODS Canal irrigation – Lift irrigation – an! irrigation – Flooding met ods – Merits anddemerits – #prin!ler irrigation – Drip irrigation. 3.DIVERSION AND IMPOUNDING STRUCTURES $eirs – elementary profile of a weir – weirs on pervious foundations % ypes of impounding structures % an!s& #luices and $eirs – 'ravity dams – (art dams – )rc dams – #pillways – Factors affecting location and type of dams – Forces on a dam – *ydraulic design of dams. 4.CANAL IRRIGATION )lignment of canals – Classification of canals – Canal drops – *ydraulic design of drops – Cross drainage wor!s – *ydraulic design of cross drainage wor!s – Canal *ead wor!s – Canal regulators – +iver raining wor!s. 5.IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT  Need for optimisation of water use – Minimising irrigation water losses – ,n farmdevelopment wor!s – Percolation ponds – Participatory irrigation management – $ater users associations – C anging paradigms in water management – Performanceevaluation. TEXT BOOKS -.)sawa& '.L.& Irrigation (ngineering/& New )ge International Pu0lis ers1.# arma +.2.& and # arma .2.& Irrigation (ngineering/& #. C and and company& New Del i3.'upta& 4.L& 5 )mir 'upta& Irrigation (ngineering/& #atya Pra es an& New Del i REFERENCES -.Dilip 2umar Majumdar& Irrigation $ater Management 6Principles 5 Practices7/&Prentice *all of India 6P7& Ltd.1.4asa!& N.N& Irrigation (ngineering/& ata Mc'raw%*ill Pu0lis ing Co.3.'arg& #.2.& Irrigation (ngineering/ UNIT-I  INTRODUCTION TO IRRIGATION ENGINEERING I! #$!%& ' N(() #&) *%)( %+ !! #$!%& ' M(!$, #&) )(*(!$, %+ !! #$!%& ' C%#&) % ,(#,%&, ' %&,/*$!( /,( %+ #$( ' D/$ ' F#$%, #++($!& )/$ ' I! #$!%& (++!!(&!(, ' P#&&!& #&) D((%*(&$ %+ !! #$!%& %($,. TWO MARKS UESTIONS AND ANSWERS   1. D(+!&( !! #$!%&.  Irrigation may 0e defined as t e natural or artificial and controlled supply of water for t e economic growt of crops. 2. W6#$ !, !! #$!%& (& !&((!& 7  It is t e 0ranc of applied science& w ic deals a0out t e ways and means adopted 0yt e irrigation engineer to 0ring irrigation water from its source of supply to anagricultural land. 3 .  W6#$ !, $6( &((,,!$ %+ !! #$!%&7  Irrigation 0ecomes necessary w en&   e rainfall is insufficient for t e maturity of crops&   e rainfall is unevenly distri0uted over t e 0ase period&  )dditional water is re8uired to raise some commercial and cas crops and  ) controlled distri0ution system is re8uired. 4. W6#$ #( $6( 8(&(+!$, %+ !! #$!%&7 6N,9 : D(C 1;;<7  Increase in yield and value of crops  Protection from famine 0y giving employment&  Cultivation of cas and commercial crops&  )ddition to t e wealt of t e country  'eneration of ydroelectric power.  5. W6#$ #( $6( )!,#)#&$# (, %+ !! #$!%&7  'ives rise to disease li!e malaria  (=cessive seepage causes water%logging and   e climate 0ecomes cooler and ma!es t e locality damp resulting ill% ealt of t e pu0lic. 9. W6#$ !, $6( /%,( %+ !! #$!%&7  It adds water to t e soil to supply moisture to t e plant.  It saves t e crops from drying during droug ts.  It cools soil and t e atmosp ere.  It dilutes salts in t e soil.  It reduces soil piping. :. D(+!&( % #$!%.  It is t e ratio of t e area irrigated in +a0i season to t e area irrigated in ! arif season. ;. W6#$ !, *(#&$ 8 %(# #%#&(7   e crops of some season may overlap some period of t e ne=t crop season. $ ensuc overlapping ta!es place t e crops of 0ot t e season re8uire water simultaneously. <. D(+!&( #!) #&) ,(*!#!) ( !%&,.   e area w ere irrigation is a must for agriculture is !nown as arid region.  e area in w ic inferior crops can 0e grown wit out irrigation is called semi% aridregion. 10. D(+!&( !$!& %(++!!(&$.  It is t e water content at w ic plants can no longer e=tract sufficient water from t esoil for its growt . It is also called as permanent wilting point.  11. W6#$ !, *(#&$ 8 %&,/*$!( /,( %+ #$(7  6N,9 : D(C 1;;<7 (vapo transpiration or consumptive use of water 0y a crop is t e dept of t e water consumed 0y evaporation and transpiration during t e crop growt including t e water consumed 0y t e accompanying weed growt . 12. W6#$ #( $6( +#$%, #++($!& %&,/*$!( /,( %+ #$(7  (vaporation.  Mean mont ly temperature.  'rowing season of crop and cropping pattern.  Mont ly precipitation in t e area.  #oil and topograp y.  $ind velocity in t e locality. 13. D(+!&( )/$. Duty represents t e irrigating capacity of a unit of water. It is t e relation 0etween t earea of a crop irrigated and t e 8uantity of irrigation water re8uired during t e entire period of t e growt of t at crop. 14. D(+!&( )($#.  It is t e total dept of water re8uired 0y a crop during t e entire period t e crop is int e field.  15. D(+!&( 8#,( (!%). 6N,9 : D(C 1;;<7   4ase period for a crop refers to t e w ole period of cultivation from t e time w enirrigation water is first issued for preparation of t e ground for planting t e crop& to itslast watering 0efore arvesting. 19. D(+!&( % (!%).  Crop period is t e time& in days& t at a crop ta!es from t e instant of its sowing tot at of its arvesting.
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